A report on Algeria

Roman ruins at Djémila
Ancient Roman ruins of Timgad on the street leading to the local Arch of Trajan
Masinissa (c. 238–148 BC), first king of Numidia
The lands which comprise modern day Algeria were part of the Byzantine Empire (The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (vassals in pink))
Mansourah mosque, Tlemcen
Dihya memorial in Khenchela, Algeria
Fatimid Caliphate, a Shia Ismaili dynasty that ruled much of North Africa, c. 960–1100
Lands ruled by the Ifrenid dynasty of Tlemcen (Current day Algeria) Partially based on the book of Ibn Khaldun: The History of the Berbers
Map showing territories that were controlled by the Zirid Dynasty
Territories controlled by the Maghrawa
The Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen during the rule of Abu Malek
The Zayyanid kingdom of Tlemcen in the fifteenth century and its neighbors
Hayreddin Barbarossa
Bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet, to support the ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Kabyle Kingdoms at their height
Christian slaves in Algiers, 1706
The estimated extent of the Regency of Algiers in 1792 after taking possession of the Rif and Oujda
Battle of Somah in 1836
Emir Abdelkader, Algerian leader insurgent against French colonial rule, 1865
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Didouche Mourad, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
Houari Boumediene
Massacres of over 50 people in 1997–1998. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) claimed responsibility for many of them.
The Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains and the Atlas Mountains compose the Algerian relief.
The Algerian Desert makes up more than 90% of the country's total area.
Algeria map of Köppen climate classification.
The fennec fox is the national animal of Algeria
Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President of Algeria since 2019
The People's National Assembly
President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and George W. Bush exchange handshakes at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Tōyako Town, Abuta District, Hokkaidō in 2008. With them are Dmitriy Medvedev, left, and Yasuo Fukuda, right.
A Djebel Chenoua-class corvette, designed and assembled in Algeria
GDP per capita development in Algeria
A proportional representation of Algeria exports, 2019
Pipelines across Algeria
Djanet
The main highway connecting the Moroccan to the Tunisian border was a part of the Cairo–Dakar Highway project
Some of Algeria's traditional clothes
Signs in the University of Tizi Ouzou in three languages: Arabic, Berber, and French
Hassan Pasha Mosque in Oran
UIS literacy rate Algeria population plus 15 1985–2015
Algerian musicians in Tlemcen, Ottoman Algeria; by Bachir Yellès
Mohammed Racim; founder of the Algerian school for painting
Ahlam Mosteghanemi, the most widely read female writer in the Arab world.
El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka
Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina, one of the most prominent figures in contemporary Arabic cinema.
A Bulgur-based salad
The Algeria national football team

Country in North Africa.

- Algeria

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Kingdom of Tlemcen

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The kingdom of Tlemcen at the beginning of the 14th century.
The kingdom of Tlemcen at the beginning of the 14th century.
Columns from the Mansura mosque
The kingdom of Tlemcen at the beginning of the 14th century.
The kingdom of Tlemcen at the beginning of the 14th century.
A man of Tlemcen
Great Mosque of Tlemcen. Built under Almoravid sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin, Sultan Yaghmurasen Ibn Zyan (1236-1283), founder of the Zayyanid dynasty added a section with a minaret and a dome in the 13th century.
A central alcove in the Mechouar Palace today. The current building is a 2010 reconstruction, but fragments of original zellij paving remain inside the alcove and elsewhere.

The Kingdom of Tlemcen or Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen (الزيانيون) was a Berber kingdom in what is now the northwest of Algeria.

Map of Morocco, with Algeria to the east

Algeria–Morocco border

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Map of Morocco, with Algeria to the east
Neighbors greet each other on both sides of the Algeria–Morocco border.
A fence along the Algeria-Morocco border

The Algeria–Morocco border is 1,427 km (887 mi) in length and runs from Mediterranean Sea in the north, to the tripoint with Western Sahara in the south.

Greatest extent of the Vandal Kingdom c. undefined 476

Vandal Kingdom

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Established by the Germanic Vandal people under Gaiseric.

Established by the Germanic Vandal people under Gaiseric.

Greatest extent of the Vandal Kingdom c. undefined 476
A 16th century perception of the Vandals, illustrated in the manuscript "Théâtre de tous les peuples et nations de la terre avec leurs habits et ornemens divers, tant anciens que modernes, diligemment depeints au naturel". Painted by Lucas d'Heere in the second half of the 16th century. Preserved in the Ghent University Library.
Greatest extent of the Vandal Kingdom c. undefined 476
View from the Gibraltar strait to North Africa where the Vandals crossed into Africa.
Routes taken by Vandal invaders during the Migration Period, 5th century AD
The location of Carthage, the Vandal capital.
Sack of Rome, by Karl Briullov.
Map of the operations of the Vandalic War.

They advanced eastward, conquering the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.

Approximate extent of Rustamid control in the 9th century

Rustamid dynasty

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Approximate extent of Rustamid control in the 9th century
Genealogy of the Rustamid dynasty

The Rustamid dynasty (الرستميون) (or Rustumids, Rostemids) was a ruling house of Ibāḍī imāms of Persian descent centered in Algeria.

Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan established Arabic as the official language of the Umayyad Caliphate in 686 CE

Arabization

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Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan established Arabic as the official language of the Umayyad Caliphate in 686 CE
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Sassanian weaponry, 7th century.
Garshuni sample
Map showing the late medieval migration of Arabs into Sudan
Baggara belt
Status of Arabic language map
Demonstration of Kabyles in Paris, April 2016
Arab Janjaweed tribes have been accused of killing hundreds of thousands of non-Arab Sudanese in a 2004/05 genocide in Darfur.
The multilingual flag of Syrian Democratic Forces expresses the polyethnic agenda of the faction in the Syrian Civil War as opposed to Arabization policies.

Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب, ) describes both the process of growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by the latter's gradual adoption of the Arabic language and incorporation of Arab culture, after the Muslim conquest of the Middle East and North Africa, as well as the Arab nationalist policies of some governments in modern Arab states toward non-Arabic speaking minorities, including Algeria, Iraq, Kuwait, Sudan.

Mali

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Landlocked country in West Africa.

Landlocked country in West Africa.

The extent of the Mali Empire's peak
The pages above are from Timbuktu Manuscripts written in Sudani script (a form of Arabic) from the Mali Empire showing established knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. Today there are close to a million of these manuscripts found in Timbuktu alone.
Griots of Sambala, king of Médina (Fula people, Mali), 1890
Cotton being processed in Niono into 400 lb bales for export to other parts of Africa and to France, c. 1950
WWI Commemorative Monument to the "Armée Noire"
Tuareg separatist rebels in Mali, January 2012
Members of the National Committee for the Salvation of the People, directory of the ruling junta in Mali
Satellite image of Mali
Mali map of Köppen climate classification
Landscape in Hombori
Ex-Malian Transition President Dioncounda Traoré
Former President of Mali Amadou Toumani Touré and Minister-president of the Netherlands Mark Rutte
A market scene in Djenné
A proportional representation of Mali exports, 2019
Kalabougou potters
Cotton processing at CMDT
GDP per capita development of Mali
A Bozo girl in Bamako
The Tuareg are historic, nomadic inhabitants of northern Mali.
An entrance to the Djinguereber mosque
High school students in Kati
Village in the Sahel region
Konoguel Mosque tower
Mali Dogon Dance
Malian children playing football in a Dogon village
Malian tea

Mali is a landlocked country in West Africa, located southwest of Algeria.

Hippo Regius ruins

Hippo Regius

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Hippo Regius ruins
Hippo Regius on the map of Roman Numidia, Atlas Antiquus, H. Kiepert, 1869

Hippo Regius (also known as Hippo or Hippone) is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba, Algeria.

Mauretania

Mauretania

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Latin name for a region in the ancient Maghreb.

Latin name for a region in the ancient Maghreb.

Mauretania
The tomb of Juba II and Cleopatra Selene II in Tipaza, Algeria
Coin of Faustus Sulla, with the reverse depicting the Mauretanian king Bocchus I (left) offering Jugurtha (right) to Faustus' father Lucius Sulla.

It stretched from central present-day Algeria westwards to the Atlantic, covering northern Morocco, and southward to the Atlas Mountains.

Constantine, Algeria

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General view, Constantine, 1899
Siege of Constantine in October 1837
Constantine, canyon & bridges
US Army map of Constantine during the Second World War
Constantine, Airport
Constantine, Tram under the snow
Bridge El-Kantara, earliest photo, 1856 by John Beasley Greene
Bridge of the Falls
Sidi M'Cid Bridge
Sidi Rached Bridge
El-Kantara Bridge
Constantine:Old city

Constantine (قسنطينة '), also spelled Qacentina or Kasantina''', is the capital of Constantine Province in northeastern Algeria.

Islam in Algeria

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Islam is the majority and state religion in Algeria.