Roman ruins at Djémila
Ancient Roman ruins of Timgad on the street leading to the local Arch of Trajan
Masinissa (c. 238–148 BC), first king of Numidia
The lands which comprise modern day Algeria were part of the Byzantine Empire (The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (vassals in pink))
Mansourah mosque, Tlemcen
Dihya memorial in Khenchela, Algeria
Fatimid Caliphate, a Shia Ismaili dynasty that ruled much of North Africa, c. 960–1100
Lands ruled by the Ifrenid dynasty of Tlemcen (Current day Algeria) Partially based on the book of Ibn Khaldun: The History of the Berbers
Map showing territories that were controlled by the Zirid Dynasty
Territories controlled by the Maghrawa
The Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen during the rule of Abu Malek
The Zayyanid kingdom of Tlemcen in the fifteenth century and its neighbors
Hayreddin Barbarossa
Bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet, to support the ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Kabyle Kingdoms at their height
Christian slaves in Algiers, 1706
The estimated extent of the Regency of Algiers in 1792 after taking possession of the Rif and Oujda
Battle of Somah in 1836
Emir Abdelkader, Algerian leader insurgent against French colonial rule, 1865
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Didouche Mourad, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
Houari Boumediene
Massacres of over 50 people in 1997–1998. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) claimed responsibility for many of them.
The Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains and the Atlas Mountains compose the Algerian relief.
The Algerian Desert makes up more than 90% of the country's total area.
Algeria map of Köppen climate classification.
The fennec fox is the national animal of Algeria
Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President of Algeria since 2019
The People's National Assembly
President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and George W. Bush exchange handshakes at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Tōyako Town, Abuta District, Hokkaidō in 2008. With them are Dmitriy Medvedev, left, and Yasuo Fukuda, right.
A Djebel Chenoua-class corvette, designed and assembled in Algeria
GDP per capita development in Algeria
A proportional representation of Algeria exports, 2019
Pipelines across Algeria
The main highway connecting the Moroccan to the Tunisian border was a part of the Cairo–Dakar Highway project
Some of Algeria's traditional clothes
Signs in the University of Tizi Ouzou in three languages: Arabic, Berber, and French
Hassan Pasha Mosque in Oran
UIS literacy rate Algeria population plus 15 1985–2015
Algerian musicians in Tlemcen, Ottoman Algeria; by Bachir Yellès
Mohammed Racim; founder of the Algerian school for painting
Ahlam Mosteghanemi, the most widely read female writer in the Arab world.
El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka
Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina, one of the most prominent figures in contemporary Arabic cinema.
A Bulgur-based salad
The Algeria national football team

Country in North Africa.

- Algeria

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Country in West Africa.

Country in West Africa.

Ceremonial Igbo pot from 9th-century Igbo-Ukwu
Yoruba copper mask of Obalufon from the city of Ife c. 1300
Royal Benin ivory mask, one of Nigeria's most recognized artifacts. Benin Empire, 16th century.
Frederick Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard who as Governor-General of Nigeria led the amalgamation of the Northern Nigeria Protectorate and Southern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914.
Emir of Kano with cavalry, 1911
1953 postage stamp with portrait of Queen ElizabethII
Nnamdi Azikiwe, first president of Nigeria from 1963 to 1966
The Republic of Biafra in June 1967, when it declared its independence from the rest of Nigeria
Shehu Shagari was the first democratically elected President of Nigeria from 1979 to 1983.
Olusegun Obasanjo was civilian President of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007.
Muhammadu Buhari is currently serving as President of Nigeria, since 2015.
Nigerian National Assembly, Abuja
Nigerian Army self-propelled anti-aircraft gun
Nigerian Air Force Mil Mi-35P
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Abuja
Former Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan (centre) with United States President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama in August 2014
Map of Nigeria with administrative divisions
Climate map of Nigeria
Palm plantation in Delta State
Rainforest range of Obudu Mountains
Clouds kissing the mountains of Obudu
A proportional representation of Nigeria exports, 2019
Farm ploughing in Kwara State
Oil facility at Bonny Island, Rivers State
PTDF – Petroleum Technology Development Fund
Countries by natural gas proven reserves (2014). Nigeria has the largest reserves in Africa.
Innoson vehicles
Steel factory in Ajaokuta
Meridien Akwa Ibom golf course park
Lekki Beach in Lagos
Substation in Abuja
Railway system in Nigeria, 2022
Second Niger bridge at Onitsha, artistic impression
SpaceX launch of CRS-11 with Nigeria EduSat-1 on board in 2017
Population density (persons per square kilometer) in Nigeria
Map of Nigeria's linguistic groups
The Abuja National Mosque
National Church of Nigeria, Abuja
Nigerian states that implement some form of sharia law (in green)
A hospital in Abuja
The University of Lagos
A Nigerian police officer at the Eyo festival in Lagos
End SARS is a decentralised social movement and series of mass protests against police brutality in Nigeria.
Nigerian women in tech
Lisa Folawiyo, Fashion Designer From Nigeria
An Eyo Iga Olowe Salaye masquerade jumping
Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart, Africa's most popular and best selling literary piece ever, has been translated into more than forty languages.
Wizkid is a popular musician in Nigeria, Africa and worldwide.
Nigeria at the 2018 FIFA World Cup
Nigerian football supporters at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
Imota Rice Mill, close to Lagos
Oil and gas fields in the Niger delta
The world's biggest distilling column at the Dangote refinery in comparison
Pharmacy in Epe
Ituen Basi, Lagos based Nigerian fashion designer

In 2004, the IUCN–World Conservation Union identified 81 IAS in South Africa, 49 in Mauritius, 37 in Algeria and Madagascar, 35 in Kenya, 28 in Egypt, 26 in Ghana and Zimbabwe, and 22 in Ethiopia.

Official portrait, 1963

Ahmed Ben Bella

Algerian politician, soldier and socialist revolutionary who served as the first president of Algeria from 1963 to 1965.

Algerian politician, soldier and socialist revolutionary who served as the first president of Algeria from 1963 to 1965.

Official portrait, 1963
Ben Bella (right) after his arrest by the French army.
Ben Bella with Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, Cuba, 1962
Egypt´s president Nasser with Tunisia's Bourguiba and Ben Bella, 1963

Ahmed Ben Bella was born in Maghnia, in the former department of Oran, western Algeria, to Moroccan parents, on 25 December 1916, during the height of the French colonial period.

Houari Boumédiène

The house where Boumediene was born in douar beni aadi
Boumediène during the Algerian War of Independence
thumb|The 1975 Algiers Agreement was signed by (left to right) the Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Boumédiène, and the Iraqi vice-president Saddam Hussein
thumb|upright|Boumédiène in 1972

Houari Boumédiène (هواري بومدين ; ALA-LC: Hawwārī Būmadyan; born Mohammed Ben Brahim Boukherouba; 23 August 1932 – 27 December 1978) was an Algerian Nationalist, politician and army colonel who served as Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of Algeria from 19 June 1965 until 12 December 1976 and thereafter as the second President of Algeria until his death in 1978.


Capital and largest city of Tunisia.

Capital and largest city of Tunisia.

Tunis as viewed from space
Roofs of the medina
Ruins of the Baths of Antoninus in Carthage.
Courtyard of Zaytuna Mosque, founded in the late 7th century by the Umayyad dynasty
Historic map of Tunis by Piri Reis. The Walters Art Museum.
Entry of Charles V into Tunis in 1535
Mustapha Khaznadar, Prime Minister of Tunis from 1837 to 1873. and one of the most influential persons in modern Tunisian history.
View of Tunis c. 1890–1900. Zaytuna Mosque is slightly right of center.
Urban evolution between 1890 and 1914
Bab Suika-Suker Square in Tunis, ca. 1899
Extension of the city in the 1950s with the district of El Menzah
Kasbah Square comprising the finance ministry and the prime ministry of Tunisia
City Hall
Souad Abderrahim, mayor of Tunis since 2018.
Elderly man in Tunis
Muslims in Tunis attend the mosque in 1899.
A souk shopkeeper
Avenue Mohamed V in the financial district
Tunisia Mall
Statue of Ibn Khaldoun in Independence Square
View of the building of "Tour de la nation" in avenue Mohamed-V
Tunis at Night
Avenue Habib-Bourguiba
Court of Dar Ben Abdallah
Court of Dar Soulaimania, once the boarding lodge of University of Ez-Zitouna.
Souk En Nhas with items of copper
Walls and gates of the city in 1888
Cathedral of St. Vincent de Paul
St. Louis Cathedral on the Byrsa hill at Carthage
Zaytuna Mosque
Bab el Bhar
Bardo National Museum
Tunis Municipal Theatre
Tunis Old Tribunal
Faculty of the Human and Social Sciences
Higher School of Communication of Tunis
National Library of Tunisia
Tunis bus
Tunis Light Metro
Tunis south surb train
Tunis-Carthage International Airport
Radès Bridge
Tunis road
Oussama Mellouli, gold medallist at the Beijing Summer Olympics and at the London Summer Olympics
Ibn Khaldoun-Kassus
Stade Olympique de Radès
Stade El Menzah
Palais des sports d'El Menzah
Salle Omnisport de Radès

Tunis is the headquarters of the Greek Orthodox Holy Archdiocese of Carthage with jurisdiction over Algeria, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia.

Bedouin wedding procession in the Jerusalem section of the Pike at the 1904 World's Fair.


The Bedouin, Beduin, or Bedu (بَدْو, singular بَدَوِي ) are nomadic Arab tribes who have historically inhabited the desert regions in the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa, the Levant, and Mesopotamia.

The Bedouin, Beduin, or Bedu (بَدْو, singular بَدَوِي ) are nomadic Arab tribes who have historically inhabited the desert regions in the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa, the Levant, and Mesopotamia.

Bedouin wedding procession in the Jerusalem section of the Pike at the 1904 World's Fair.
Bedouins in Sinai, 1967
A Bedouin girl in Nuweiba, Egypt (2015)
A Bedouin warrior, pictured between 1898 and 1914
Murder of Ma'sum Beg, the envoy of the Safavid Shah Tahmasp, by Bedouins in the Hejaz, 16th century
Arab Christian Bedouin woman from the settled town of Kerak, Jordan, who probably was the wife of a sheikh. Braids were predominantly worn by Arab Christian Bedouin women of the tribes of Jordan.
Palestine Exploration Fund list of Bedouin tribes living West of the River Jordan in 1875.
Bedouin mothers carrying their children on their shoulders. Color photo taken in the late 19th century by the French photographer Félix Bonfils.
Bedouin man in Riyadh, 1964.
A Bedouin family in Wahiba Sands, Oman.
Syrian bedouin, 1893
Bedouin encampment in the Negev Desert
Bedouin soldiers in Israel Defense Forces.
Three bedouin sheikhs, c. 1867-1876
Rahat School
A Negev Bedouin man.
A young Bedouin lighting a camp fire in Wadi Rum, Jordan
A fire breather at a Bedouin encampment near Marrakesh, Morocco.
A group of Bedouins with their tent in Libya, 1950s
Bedouins making bread in Egypt.
Map of the Bedouin tribes in 1908
Bedouin shepherd in Syrian Desert
Bedouins on horseback, 1950s
Galilee 1911
Bedouin women smoking, Galilee, 1935
Grinding corn & bread making 1935
Weaving on ground loom 1930
Ploughing (Negev) 1920
Coffee 1920
Musicians 1935
Palestinian bedouin 1930
Bedouin woman, Beit She'an 1920
Bedouin, Beit She'an, 1920

Eastern Hilal dialects, central Tunisia and eastern Algeria;

Bust of Ibn Khaldun in the entrance of the Kasbah of Bejaia, Algeria

Ibn Khaldun

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Muslim Arab<ref name="WP:BOMBARD">

Bust of Ibn Khaldun in the entrance of the Kasbah of Bejaia, Algeria
Statue of Ibn Khaldoun in Tunis, Tunisia
Ibn Khaldun – Life-size bronze bust sculpture of Ibn Khaldun that is part of the collection at the Arab American National Museum (Catalog Number 2010.02). Commissioned by The Tunisian Community Center and Created by Patrick Morelli of Albany, NY in 2009. It was inspired by the statue of Ibn Khaldun erected at the Avenue Habib Bourguiba in Tunis.
Birth home of Ibn Khaldun at Tunis
The mosque in which Ibn Khaldun studied
Ibn Khaldun on the 10 Tunisian dinar bill
Ibn Khaldun Statue and Square, Mohandessin, Cairo
A Laffer Curve with a maximum revenue point at around a 70%, as estimated by Trabandt and Uhlig (2009). Laffer cites Ibn Khaldun's observation that "at the beginning of the dynasty, taxation yields a large revenue from small assessments. At the end of the dynasty, taxation yields a small revenue from large assessments." as a predecessor.

After his return to the West, Ibn Khaldūn sought refuge with one of the Berber tribes in the west of Algeria, in the town of Qalat Ibn Salama.

French colonial empire

The French colonial empire (Empire colonial français) comprised the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.

The French colonial empire (Empire colonial français) comprised the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.

French colonial empire 17th century-20th century
Map of the first (green) and second (blue) French colonial empires
The French colonial empire in the Americas comprised New France (including Canada and Louisiana), French West Indies (including Saint-Domingue, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Dominica, St. Lucia, Grenada, Tobago and other islands) and French Guiana.
French North America was known as 'Nouvelle France' or New France.
1767 Louis XV Colonies Françoises (West Indies) 12 Diniers copper Sous (w/1793 "RF" counterstamp)
Arrival of Marshal Randon in Algiers in 1857 by Ernest Francis Vacherot
French and other European settlements in Colonial India
The British invasion of Martinique in 1809
Animated map showing the growth and decline of the first and second French colonial empires
Queen Pōmare IV in 1860. Tahiti was made a French protectorate in 1842, and annexed as a colony of France in 1880.
The last photograph of Napoleon III (1872)
French trading post on Gorée, an island offshore of Senegal
The French expedition in Syria led by General Beaufort d'Hautpoul, landing in Beyrouth on 16 August 1860
The French conquest of Algeria
The Presidential Palace of Vietnam, in Hanoi, was built between 1900 and 1906 to house the French Governor-General of Indochina.
Central and east Africa, 1898, during the Fashoda Incident
The captured rebels of Raiatea, 1897
Comparison of Africa in the years 1880 and 1913
French colonial troops, led by Colonel Alfred-Amédée Dodds, a Senegalese mulatto, conquered and annexed Dahomey in 1894.
The gradual loss of all Vichy territory to Free France and the Allies by 1943. [[:File:Vichy france map.png|Legend.]]
Captured French soldiers from Dien Bien Phu, escorted by Vietnamese troops, walk to a prisoner-of-war camp
Capture of Saigon by Charles Rigault de Genouilly on 18 February 1859, painted by Antoine Morel-Fatio
Napoleon III receiving the Siamese embassy at the palace of Fontainebleau in 1864
Map of the first (green) and second (blue) French colonial empires

This expedition operated jointly with two other expeditions, the Foureau-Lamy and Gentil Missions, which advanced from Algeria and Middle Congo respectively.


Map of Numidia at its greatest extent
The Numidian mauseoleum of El-Khroub photographed in 2000
Map of Numidia at around 220 BC
Northern Africa under Roman rule
The Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania
Mausoleum of Thugga

Numidia (Berber: Inumiden; 202–40 BC) was the ancient kingdom of the Numidians located in northwest Africa, initially originating from modern-day Algeria, but later expanding across what is today known as Tunisia, Libya, and some parts of Morocco.

Constantine, Algeria

General view, Constantine, 1899
Siege of Constantine in October 1837
Constantine, canyon & bridges
US Army map of Constantine during the Second World War
Constantine, Airport
Constantine, Tram under the snow
Bridge El-Kantara, earliest photo, 1856 by John Beasley Greene
Bridge of the Falls
Sidi M'Cid Bridge
Sidi Rached Bridge
El-Kantara Bridge
Constantine:Old city

Constantine (قسنطينة '), also spelled Qacentina or Kasantina''', is the capital of Constantine Province in northeastern Algeria.

Hammadid territory circa 1050 (in green), and extended territories (dotted line) controlled in certain periods

Hammadid dynasty

Hammadid territory circa 1050 (in green), and extended territories (dotted line) controlled in certain periods
Hammadid Minaret

The Hammadid dynasty (الحمّاديون) was a branch of the Sanhaja Berber dynasty that ruled an area roughly corresponding to north-eastern modern Algeria between 1008 and 1152.