A report on Algeria

Roman ruins at Djémila
Ancient Roman ruins of Timgad on the street leading to the local Arch of Trajan
Masinissa (c. 238–148 BC), first king of Numidia
The lands which comprise modern day Algeria were part of the Byzantine Empire (The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (vassals in pink))
Mansourah mosque, Tlemcen
Dihya memorial in Khenchela, Algeria
Fatimid Caliphate, a Shia Ismaili dynasty that ruled much of North Africa, c. 960–1100
Lands ruled by the Ifrenid dynasty of Tlemcen (Current day Algeria) Partially based on the book of Ibn Khaldun: The History of the Berbers
Map showing territories that were controlled by the Zirid Dynasty
Territories controlled by the Maghrawa
The Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen during the rule of Abu Malek
The Zayyanid kingdom of Tlemcen in the fifteenth century and its neighbors
Hayreddin Barbarossa
Bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet, to support the ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Kabyle Kingdoms at their height
Christian slaves in Algiers, 1706
The estimated extent of the Regency of Algiers in 1792 after taking possession of the Rif and Oujda
Battle of Somah in 1836
Emir Abdelkader, Algerian leader insurgent against French colonial rule, 1865
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Didouche Mourad, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
Houari Boumediene
Massacres of over 50 people in 1997–1998. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) claimed responsibility for many of them.
The Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains and the Atlas Mountains compose the Algerian relief.
The Algerian Desert makes up more than 90% of the country's total area.
Algeria map of Köppen climate classification.
The fennec fox is the national animal of Algeria
Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President of Algeria since 2019
The People's National Assembly
President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and George W. Bush exchange handshakes at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Tōyako Town, Abuta District, Hokkaidō in 2008. With them are Dmitriy Medvedev, left, and Yasuo Fukuda, right.
A Djebel Chenoua-class corvette, designed and assembled in Algeria
GDP per capita development in Algeria
A proportional representation of Algeria exports, 2019
Pipelines across Algeria
Djanet
The main highway connecting the Moroccan to the Tunisian border was a part of the Cairo–Dakar Highway project
Some of Algeria's traditional clothes
Signs in the University of Tizi Ouzou in three languages: Arabic, Berber, and French
Hassan Pasha Mosque in Oran
UIS literacy rate Algeria population plus 15 1985–2015
Algerian musicians in Tlemcen, Ottoman Algeria; by Bachir Yellès
Mohammed Racim; founder of the Algerian school for painting
Ahlam Mosteghanemi, the most widely read female writer in the Arab world.
El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka
Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina, one of the most prominent figures in contemporary Arabic cinema.
A Bulgur-based salad
The Algeria national football team

Country in North Africa.

- Algeria

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Coin of King Massinissa

Masinissa

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Ancient Numidian king best known for leading a federation of Massylii Berber tribes during the Second Punic War (218–201 BC), ultimately uniting them into a kingdom that became a major regional power in North Africa.

Ancient Numidian king best known for leading a federation of Massylii Berber tribes during the Second Punic War (218–201 BC), ultimately uniting them into a kingdom that became a major regional power in North Africa.

Coin of King Massinissa
Massinissa of Numidia
Scipio at the deathbed of Masinissa
Central wall depicting Sophonisba requesting help from Massinissa
Scipio Africanus freeing Massiva

At the start of the Second Punic War, Masinissa fought for Carthage against Syphax, the king of the Masaesyli of western Numidia (present day Algeria), who had allied himself with the Romans.

French Algeria

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Chronological map of French Algeria's evolution
Purchase of Christian slaves by French monks in Algiers in 1662
The French colonial empire in 1920
The attack of Admiral Duperré during the take-over of Algiers in 1830
Fighting at the gates of Algiers in 1830
Ornate Ottoman cannon, length: 385cm, cal:178mm, weight: 2910, stone projectile, founded 8 October 1581 in Algiers, seized by France at Algiers in 1830. Musée de l'Armée, Paris
Sylvain Charles Valée
The capture of Constantine by French troops, 13 October 1837 by Horace Vernet
A print showing Fadhma N'Soumer during combat
Abd el-Kader
The Battle of Smala, 16 May 1843. Prise de la smalah d Abd-El-Kader à Taguin. 16 mai 1843, by Horace Vernet
French troops disembarking on the island of Mogador, in Essaouira bay in 1844
The siege of Laghouat (1852) during the Pacification of Algeria.
Moorish women making Arab carpets, Algiers, 1899
Arab school of embroidery, Algiers, 1899
Algerians playing chess, Algiers, 1899
Moorish coffee house, Algiers, 1899
Group of Arabs, Algiers, 1899
Arrival of Marshal Randon in Algiers in 1857
Merchant ensign 1848–1910
Capture of the Zaatcha (1849)
1877 map of the three French departments of Alger, Oran and Constantine
The famine of Algeria in 1869
Place de la republique, Algiers, 1899
Administrative organisation between 1905 and 1955. Three départements Oran, Alger and Constantine in the north (in pink colour), and four territories Aïn-Sefra, Ghardaïa, Oasis and Touggourt in the south (in yellow). The external boundaries of the land are those between 1934 and 1962.
The Maghreb in the second half of the 19th century
Arzew inhabitants meet U.S. Army Rangers in November 1942 during Allied Operation Torch
Supporters of General Jacques Massu set barricades in Algiers in January 1960

French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, الجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, was the period of French colonisation of Algeria.

Landings during the operation

Operation Torch

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Allied invasion of French North Africa during the Second World War.

Allied invasion of French North Africa during the Second World War.

Landings during the operation
Allied convoys heading from the British Isles to North Africa
A map showing landings during Operation Torch.
A shipment of 116 Supermarine Spitfires sent by sea was assembled in just 11 days at RAF North Front, Gibraltar. Many of these Spitfires served with the United States Army Air Forces, including the aircraft in the foreground, EP 365 (308th FS, 31st Fighter Group).
American ships preparing to land off Safi during Operation Blackstone
A flyer in French and Arabic that was distributed by Allied forces in the streets of Casablanca, calling on citizens to cooperate with the Allied forces.
USS Lakehurst (formerly Seatrain New Jersey), after discharging medium tanks at Safi, Morocco.
American troops on board a Landing Craft Assault heading into Oran, November 1942
American soldiers land near Algiers. The soldier at the dune line is carrying a flag because it was hoped the French would be less likely to fire on Americans.
A plaque commemorating Operation Torch at the American War Memorial in Gibraltar.
Italian prisoners of war in Tunisia
Winston Churchill salutes allied troops in the Roman amphitheatre at Carthage, during a visit to troops near Tunis, June 1943
A half track and anti-tank gun are loaded onto a landing craft during Operation Torch.
British sailors and British and American soldiers on the beach near Algiers.
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A Royal Air Force Spitfire that suffered landing gear failure upon landing near Bone, Algeria.
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The Allies planned an Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa/Maghreb—Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, territory nominally in the hands of the Vichy French government.

Emirate of Tlemcen

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Ceramics from the Taifa of Ronda

The Ifranid Emirate of Tlemcen or Ifranid Kingdom of Tlemcen, was a Kharijite state, founded by Berbers of the Banu Ifran in the eighth century, with its capital at Tlemcen in modern Algeria.

Bust of Ibn Khaldun in the entrance of the Kasbah of Bejaia, Algeria

Ibn Khaldun

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Bust of Ibn Khaldun in the entrance of the Kasbah of Bejaia, Algeria
Statue of Ibn Khaldoun in Tunis, Tunisia
Ibn Khaldun – Life-size bronze bust sculpture of Ibn Khaldun that is part of the collection at the Arab American National Museum (Catalog Number 2010.02). Commissioned by The Tunisian Community Center and Created by Patrick Morelli of Albany, NY in 2009. It was inspired by the statue of Ibn Khaldun erected at the Avenue Habib Bourguiba in Tunis.
Birth home of Ibn Khaldun at Tunis
The mosque in which Ibn Khaldun studied
Ibn Khaldun on the 10 Tunisian dinar bill
Ibn Khaldun Statue and Square, Mohandessin, Cairo
A Laffer Curve with a maximum revenue point at around a 70%, as estimated by Trabandt and Uhlig (2009). Laffer cites Ibn Khaldun's observation that "at the beginning of the dynasty, taxation yields a large revenue from small assessments. At the end of the dynasty, taxation yields a small revenue from large assessments." as a predecessor.

After his return to the West, Ibn Khaldūn sought refuge with one of the Berber tribes in the west of Algeria, in the town of Qalat Ibn Salama.

Jan Janszoon by Pier Francesco Mola

Jan Janszoon

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Jan Janszoon van Haarlem, commonly known as Reis Mourad the Younger (c.

Jan Janszoon van Haarlem, commonly known as Reis Mourad the Younger (c.

Jan Janszoon by Pier Francesco Mola
Sail plan for a Polacca, first built by the Barbary pirates around the 16th century, many scholars believe the Polacca was extensively used by Jan Janszoon. The ship could sail with a large crew of 75 and was armed with 24 cannons.
Salé in the 1600s
The walls of Marrakesh and El Badi Palace, by Adriaen Matham, 1640.
Ólafur Egilsson was captured by Murat Reis the Younger
Fort Saint Angelo in Valletta, Malta

1570 – c. 1641), was an Ottoman Dutch pirate in Algeria and Morocco who converted to Islam after being captured by a Moorish state in 1618.

Jijel

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Jijel (جيجل), the classical Igilgili, is the capital of Jijel Province in north-eastern Algeria.

President of Algeria

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The president of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria is the head of state and chief executive of Algeria, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Algerian People's National Armed Forces.

Islamic Salvation Front

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The Islamic Salvation Front (الجبهة الإسلامية للإنقاذ; Front Islamique du Salut, FIS) was an Islamist political party in Algeria.

Saadi Sultanate

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State which ruled present-day Morocco and parts of West Africa in the 16th and 17th centuries.

State which ruled present-day Morocco and parts of West Africa in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Extent of the Saadian empire at the beginning of the 17th century
The Zawiya and mausoleum of Al-Jazuli today, founded in Marrakesh after Ahmad al-Araj moved Al-Jazuli's body here around 1524
The Bab Doukkala Mosque, built between 1557 and 1571 with the sponsorship of Lalla Mas'uda, during the reign of Moulay Abdallah al-Ghalib
A Portuguese depiction of the 1578 Battle of Alcácer Quibir, published in 1629
The remains of the El Badi Palace today in Marrakesh
During his short reign in Marrakesh, Abu Faris built the mosque and mausoleum in the religious complex of Sidi Bel Abbès.
The ornate western pavilion in the courtyard of the Qarawiyyin Mosque in Fez was commissioned by Abdallah al-Ghalib II in 1609, after gaining control of the city.
The Saadian Tombs in Marrakesh, mausoleum chamber of Ahmad al-Mansur
Ben Youssef Madrasa in Marrakesh, built (in its current form) by Sultan Abdallah al-Ghalib, completed in 1564-65 CE
A copy of the Dala'il al-Khayrat by al-Jazuli, dated to 1599. The page on the right contains a schematic representation of the tombs of Muhammad, Abu Bakr, and 'Umar in Medina.

This set up a confrontation between the Saadians and the Ottomans, whose empire now extended to Algeria.