Algic languages

AlgicAlgic language familyAlgic familyAlgic languageRitwanAlgic stockAlgonkin–RitwanAlgonquian language family
The Algic (also Algonquian–Wiyot–Yurok or Algonquian–Ritwan) languages are an indigenous language family of North America.wikipedia
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Algonquian languages

AlgonquianAlgonquian languageAlgonquin
Most Algic languages belong to the Algonquian subfamily, dispersed over a broad area from the Rocky Mountains to Atlantic Canada.
also Algonkian) are a subfamily of American indigenous languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family.

Yurok language

Yurokyur
The other Algic languages are the Yurok and Wiyot of northwestern California, which, despite their geographic proximity, are not closely related. All these languages descend from Proto-Algic, a second-order proto-language estimated to have been spoken about 7,000 years ago and reconstructed using the reconstructed Proto-Algonquian language and the Wiyot and Yurok languages.
The Yurok language (also Chillula, Mita, Pekwan, Rikwa, Sugon, Weitspek, Weitspekan) is an Algic language.

Wiyot language

Wiyotwiy
The other Algic languages are the Yurok and Wiyot of northwestern California, which, despite their geographic proximity, are not closely related. All these languages descend from Proto-Algic, a second-order proto-language estimated to have been spoken about 7,000 years ago and reconstructed using the reconstructed Proto-Algonquian language and the Wiyot and Yurok languages.
Wiyot (also Wishosk) is an Algic language spoken by the Wiyot of Humboldt Bay, California.

Proto-Algic language

Proto-Algic
All these languages descend from Proto-Algic, a second-order proto-language estimated to have been spoken about 7,000 years ago and reconstructed using the reconstructed Proto-Algonquian language and the Wiyot and Yurok languages.
Proto-Algic (sometimes abbreviated PAc) is the proto-language from which the Algic languages (Wiyot language, Yurok language, and Proto-Algonquian) are descended.

Proto-Algonquian language

Proto-AlgonquianPA
All these languages descend from Proto-Algic, a second-order proto-language estimated to have been spoken about 7,000 years ago and reconstructed using the reconstructed Proto-Algonquian language and the Wiyot and Yurok languages.
The Algonquian family, which is a branch of the larger Algic language family, is usually divided into three subgroups: Eastern Algonquian, which is a genetic subgroup, and Central Algonquian and Plains Algonquian, both of which are areal groupings.

Edward Sapir

SapirSapir, EdwardSapir tradition
When Edward Sapir proposed that the well-established Algonquian family was genetically related to the Wiyot and Yurok languages of northern California, he applied the term Algic to this larger family. The genetic relation of Wiyot and Yurok to Algonquian was first proposed by Edward Sapir (1913, 1915, 1923), and argued against by Algonquianist Truman Michelson (1914, 1914, 1935).
He was the first to produce evidence for the classification of the Algic, Uto-Aztecan, and Na-Dene languages.

Indigenous peoples of California

indigenous people of CaliforniaCalifornia IndiansNative Californian
The other Algic languages are the Yurok and Wiyot of northwestern California, which, despite their geographic proximity, are not closely related.
Wiyot and Yurok are distantly related to Algonquian languages in a larger grouping called Algic.

Algonquian–Wakashan languages

AlmosanAlgonquian–WakashanAlgonkin–Wakashan
*Algonquian–Wakashan languages
More recently, Sergei Nikolaev has argued in two papers for a systematic relationship between the Nivkh language of Sakhalin and the Amur basin and the Algic languages on the one hand and a secondary relationship between these two together and the Wakashan languages.

Nivkh languages

NivkhNivkh languageGilyak
More recently, Sergei Nikolaev has argued in two papers for a systematic relationship between the Nivkh language of Sakhalin and the Amur river basin and the Algic languages, and a secondary relationship between these two together and the Wakashan languages.
More recently, Sergei Nikolaev argued in two papers for a systematic relationship between Nivkh and the Algic languages of North America and a more distant relationship between these two together and the Wakashan languages of coastal British Columbia.

Truman Michelson

Michelson, Truman
The genetic relation of Wiyot and Yurok to Algonquian was first proposed by Edward Sapir (1913, 1915, 1923), and argued against by Algonquianist Truman Michelson (1914, 1914, 1935).
Michelson was involved in a prominent debate with Edward Sapir because of his rejection of Sapir's proposal that the Algonquian languages were related to Wiyot and Yurok, two languages of California, through common membership in the Algic language family.

Wakashan languages

WakashanNorthern WakashanNorthern Wakashan language
More recently, Sergei Nikolaev has argued in two papers for a systematic relationship between the Nivkh language of Sakhalin and the Amur river basin and the Algic languages, and a secondary relationship between these two together and the Wakashan languages.
Sergei Nikolaev has argued in two papers for a systematic relationship between the Nivkh language of Sakhalin island and the Amur river basin and the Algic languages, and a secondary relationship between these two together and the Wakashan languages,.

Rocky Mountains

RockiesRocky MountainRocky Mountain Region
Most Algic languages belong to the Algonquian subfamily, dispersed over a broad area from the Rocky Mountains to Atlantic Canada.

Atlantic Canada

Atlantic ProvincesEast Coast of CanadaAtlantic Canadian
Most Algic languages belong to the Algonquian subfamily, dispersed over a broad area from the Rocky Mountains to Atlantic Canada.

Proto-language

protolanguageprotoparent language
All these languages descend from Proto-Algic, a second-order proto-language estimated to have been spoken about 7,000 years ago and reconstructed using the reconstructed Proto-Algonquian language and the Wiyot and Yurok languages.

Henry Schoolcraft

Henry Rowe SchoolcraftHenry R. SchoolcraftSchoolcraft
The term "Algic" was first coined by Henry Schoolcraft in his Algic Researches, published in 1839.

Allegheny Plateau

AlleghenyAllegany PlateauAllegheny Mountain section
Schoolcraft defined the term as "derived from the words Allegheny and Atlantic, in reference to the indigenous people anciently located in this geographical area."

Atlantic Ocean

AtlanticNorth AtlanticNorth Atlantic Ocean
Schoolcraft defined the term as "derived from the words Allegheny and Atlantic, in reference to the indigenous people anciently located in this geographical area."

California

CAState of CaliforniaCalifornia, USA
When Edward Sapir proposed that the well-established Algonquian family was genetically related to the Wiyot and Yurok languages of northern California, he applied the term Algic to this larger family.

Urheimat

homelandlinguistic homelandancestral home
The Algic urheimat is thought to have been located in the Northwestern United States somewhere between the suspected homeland of the Algonquian branch (to the west of Lake Superior according to Goddard ) and the earliest known location of the Wiyot and Yurok (along the middle Columbia River according to Whistler ).

Northwestern United States

NorthwestnorthwesternAmerican Northwest
The Algic urheimat is thought to have been located in the Northwestern United States somewhere between the suspected homeland of the Algonquian branch (to the west of Lake Superior according to Goddard ) and the earliest known location of the Wiyot and Yurok (along the middle Columbia River according to Whistler ).

Lake Superior

SuperiorGitche GumeeLakehead
The Algic urheimat is thought to have been located in the Northwestern United States somewhere between the suspected homeland of the Algonquian branch (to the west of Lake Superior according to Goddard ) and the earliest known location of the Wiyot and Yurok (along the middle Columbia River according to Whistler ).

Columbia River

ColumbiaColumbia basinLower Columbia
The Algic urheimat is thought to have been located in the Northwestern United States somewhere between the suspected homeland of the Algonquian branch (to the west of Lake Superior according to Goddard ) and the earliest known location of the Wiyot and Yurok (along the middle Columbia River according to Whistler ).

Sakhalin

Sakhalin IslandIsland of SakhalinKarafuto
More recently, Sergei Nikolaev has argued in two papers for a systematic relationship between the Nivkh language of Sakhalin and the Amur river basin and the Algic languages, and a secondary relationship between these two together and the Wakashan languages.

Amur River

AmurAmur BasinHeilongjiang River
More recently, Sergei Nikolaev has argued in two papers for a systematic relationship between the Nivkh language of Sakhalin and the Amur river basin and the Algic languages, and a secondary relationship between these two together and the Wakashan languages.