Algiers

Algiers, AlgeriaAlgerAlgerineAlgeirsAl-Jazā'irAlgerianAl-Jaza'irAl-Ŷazā'irAlgeriArgel
Algiers (undefined; Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.wikipedia
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Algeria

AlgerianPeople's Democratic Republic of AlgeriaAlgérie
Algiers (undefined; Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast.

Icosium

Yksm
In antiquity, the Greeks knew the town as Ikósion, which was Latinized as Icosium under Roman rule.
Icosium was a small Punic and Berber city that became an important Roman colony and an early medieval bishopric (now a Latin titular see) in the casbah area of actual Algiers.

Oran

Oran, AlgeriaWahranOrán
Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen, Algiers had a large measure of independence under amirs of its own due to Oran being the chief seaport of the Ziyanids.
It is considered the second most important city of Algeria after the capital Algiers, due to its commercial, industrial, and cultural importance.

Catalan language

CatalanCatalan-languageca
The city's name is derived via French and Catalan Alger from the Arabic name al-Jazāʾir, "The Islands".
People from the Spanish Alacant province settled around Oran, whereas Algiers received immigration from Northern Catalonia and Menorca.

Kingdom of Tlemcen

TlemcenSultan of TlemcenEmir of Tlemcen
The city was wrested from the Hammadids by the Almohads in 1159, and in the 13th century came under the dominion of the Ziyanid sultans of Tlemcen.
Its territory stretched from Tlemcen to the Chelif bend and Algiers, and reached at its zenith the Moulouya River to the west, Sijilmasa to the south and the Soummam river to the east.

Oruç Reis

ArujOruçBarbarossa
In 1516, the amir of Algiers, Selim b. Teumi, invited the corsair brothers Aruj and Hayreddin Barbarossa to expel the Spaniards.
undefined 1474–1518) was an Albanian Ottoman bey (governor) of Algiers and beylerbey (chief governor) of the West Mediterranean, and the elder brother of Hayreddin Barbarossa.

Zayyanid dynasty

AbdalwadidZayyanidZayyanids
The city was wrested from the Hammadids by the Almohads in 1159, and in the 13th century came under the dominion of the Ziyanid sultans of Tlemcen.
The territory stretched from Tlemcen to the Chelif bend and Algiers.

Buluggin ibn Ziri

Bologhine ibn ZiriBuluggin
The present city was founded in 944 by Bologhine ibn Ziri, the founder of the Berber Zirid–Sanhaja dynasty.
Buluggin was already given responsibility under the governorship of his father Ziri ibn Manad, during which time he founded the cities of Algiers, Miliana and Médéa.

Barbary pirates

Barbary corsairsBarbary piratecorsairs
In 1510, following their occupation of Oran and other towns on the coast of Africa, the Spaniards fortified the islet of Peñon and imposed a levy intended to suppress corsair activity.
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman and Berber pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.

Peñón of Algiers

The Peñón of Algiers, an islet in front of Algiers harbour had been occupied by the Spaniards as early as 1302.
Peñón of Algiers (Peñón de Argel) was a small islet off the coast of Algiers, fortified by the Kingdom of Spain during the 16th century.

Mediterranean Sea

MediterraneanMediterranean coastWestern Mediterranean
Algiers is situated on the west side of a bay of the Mediterranean Sea.

Algiers expedition (1541)

Algiers expeditionAlgiersExpedition against Algiers
In October 1541 in the Algiers expedition, the King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sought to capture the city, but a storm destroyed a great number of his ships, and his army of some 30,000, chiefly made up of Spaniards, was defeated by the Algerians under their Pasha, Hassan.
The 1541 Algiers expedition occurred when Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire attempted to lead an amphibious attack against the Ottoman Empire's stronghold of Algiers, in modern Algeria.

Capture of Peñón of Algiers (1529)

Capture of AlgiersCapture of Algiers (1529)Capture of Peñón of Algiers
Barbarossa lost Algiers in 1524 but regained it with the Capture of Algiers (1529), and then formally invited the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent to accept sovereignty over the territory and to annex Algiers to the Ottoman Empire.
The Capture of Peñón of Algiers was accomplished when the beylerbey of Algiers Hayreddin Barbarossa took a fortress (called Peñón of Algiers) in a small islet facing the Algerian city of Algiers from the Habsburg Spaniards.

Kabyle people

KabyleKabylesBerber Kabyle
A major road running north to south divided the city in two: The upper city (al-Gabal, or 'the mountain') which consisted of about fifty small quarters of Andalusian, Jewish, Moorish and Kabyle communities, and the lower city (al-Wata, or 'the plains') which was the administrative, military and commercial centre of the city, mostly inhabited by Turkish dignitaries and other upper-class families.
The Kabyle people (Kabyle: Iqbayliyen, ) are a Berber ethnic group indigenous to Kabylia in the north of Algeria, spread across the Atlas Mountains, one hundred miles east of Algiers.

Zirid dynasty

ZiridsZiridZirid emir
The present city was founded in 944 by Bologhine ibn Ziri, the founder of the Berber Zirid–Sanhaja dynasty.
Ziri was installed as the governor of central Maghreb and founded the gubernatorial residence of Ashir south-east of Algiers, with Fatimid support.

Operation Torch

invasion of North AfricaAllied invasion of North AfricaAllied landings in North Africa
During World War II, Algiers was the first city to be seized from the Germans by the Allies during Operation Torch.
The American General Dwight D. Eisenhower, commanding the operation, planned a three-pronged attack on Casablanca (Western), Oran (Center) and Algiers (Eastern), then a rapid move on Tunis.

French Algeria

AlgeriaFrench rule in AlgeriaFrench rule
Algiers became the capital of French Algeria.
In 1681, Louis XIV asked Admiral Abraham Duquesne to fight the Berber pirates and also ordered a large-scale attack on Algiers between 1682 and 1683 on the pretext of assisting Christian captives.

Geography of Algeria

AlgeriaMitidjaAlgeria's Mediterranean coast
It now has about five million inhabitants, or 10 percent of Algeria's population—and its suburbs now cover most of the surrounding Mitidja plain.
Its Arabic name, Al Jazair (the islands), derives from the name of the capital Algiers (Al Jazair in Arabic), after the small islands formerly found in its harbor.

Algerian War

Algerian War of IndependenceAlgeriaAlgerian revolution
Algiers also played a pivotal role in the Algerian War (1954–1962), particularly during the Battle of Algiers when the 10th Parachute Division of the French Army, starting on January 7, 1957, and on the orders of the French Minister of Justice François Mitterrand (who authorized any means "to eliminate the insurrectionists"), led attacks against the Algerian fighters for independence.
After major demonstrations in Algiers and several other cities in favor of independence (1960) and a United Nations resolution recognizing the right to independence, Charles de Gaulle, the first President of the Fifth Republic, decided to open a series of negotiations with the FLN.

Berbers

BerberAmazighBerber people
The present city was founded in 944 by Bologhine ibn Ziri, the founder of the Berber Zirid–Sanhaja dynasty.
Just to the west of Aghlabid lands, Abd ar Rahman ibn Rustam ruled most of the central Maghreb from Tahert, south-west of Algiers.

First Barbary War

Barbary WarsFirstTripolitan War
The United States fought two wars (the First and Second Barbary Wars) over Algiers' attacks on shipping.
On July 19, 1794, Congress appropriated $800,000 for the release of American prisoners and for a peace treaty with Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.

Capture of Algiers (1516)

Capture of Algiers15161516 capture of Algiers
Aruj came to Algiers, ordered the assassination of Selim, and seized the town and ousted the Spanish in the Capture of Algiers (1516).
The Capture of Algiers in 1516 was accomplished by the Ottoman brothers Oruç and Hayreddin Barbarossa against Sālim al-Tūmī, the ruler of the city of Algiers.

Casbah of Algiers

CasbahKasbah of Algiersthe Casbah
The Casbah (قصبة, qaṣba, meaning citadel (fortress)) is specifically the citadel of Algiers in Algeria and the traditional quarter clustered around it.

Bab El Oued

Bab el-OuedBab-el-Oueda traditionally working-class European quarter
Roman cemeteries existed near Bab-el-Oued and Bab Azoun.
Bab El Oued is a neighbourhood in Algiers, the capital of Algeria, along the coast north of the city centre.

Phoenicia

PhoeniciansPhoenicianPhoenicio
A small Phoenician colony on Algiers's former islands was established and taken over by the Carthaginians sometime before the 3rd century.