Algirdas

Fragment from medal by Juozas Kalinauskas
Algirdas (left) on the Millennium of Russia monument in Veliky Novgorod
Dmitry Donskoy writes letters asking for help against Algirdas during the Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1368–1372)
Litas commemorative coin with image of Algirdas

Ruler of medieval Lithuania.

- Algirdas
Fragment from medal by Juozas Kalinauskas

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Grand Duchy of Lithuania

European state that existed from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Habsburg Empire of Austria.

European state that existed from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Habsburg Empire of Austria.

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the height of its power in the 15th century (on a modern day map)
Lithuania in the Mappa mundi of Pietro Vesconte, 1321. The inscription reads: Letvini pagani - pagan Lithuanians.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the height of its power in the 15th century (on a modern day map)
Balts in the 12th century
Columns of Gediminas
Gediminas' Tower in Vilnius
Lithuanian state in 13-15th centuries
Lubart's Castle in Ukraine, built by the son of Gediminas' Liubartas in the mid-14th century, is famous for the Congress of Lutsk which took place in 1429
Grand Duchy of Lithuania under the rule of Vytautas the Great
Poland and Lithuania in 1386–1434
Trakai Island Castle, residence of the Grand Duke Vytautas
The Battle of Grunwald, 1410, with Ulrich von Jungingen and Vytautas at center
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth c. 1635
Lithuania and its administrative divisions in the 17th century
Church of St. Johns in Vilnius. Example of Vilnius Baroque style
St. Anne's Church and the church of the Bernardine Monastery in Vilnius
Constitution of 3 May, one of the first official state documents issued in both Polish and Lithuanian, Lithuanian edition
Lithuanian primer for kids, published in Vilnius, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1783 edition
Area where Lithuanian was spoken in the 16th century
Lithuania proper (in green) and Samogitia (in red) within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in a map from 1712
Panegyric to Sigismund III Vasa, visiting Vilnius, first hexameter in Lithuanian, 1589
The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1588) in Ruthenian printed in Vilnius
The first printed book in Lithuanian Catechism of Martynas Mažvydas by Martynas Mažvydas
Lithuanian ancient hill fort in Rudamina
Lithuanian ancient hill fort mounds in Kernavė, now listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Kaunas Castle
thumb|Lida Castle
Ruins of Navahrudak Castle. Current state (2004)
Ruins of Kreva Castle
Mir Castle - a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Belarus.
Medininkai Castle
Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania in Vilnius
Vilnius University and the Church of St. John
St. George Church (1487) in Kaunas
Church of Vytautas the Great in Kaunas
Pažaislis Monastery church, decorated with expensive marble
Royal insignias of the rulers of Lithuania in the Vilnius Cathedral, 1931
Coins of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Coins of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Coins of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Recreation of the Lithuanian soldiers
thumb|right|Showcase of the Crimean Karaites traditional lifestyle in Trakai, Lithuania
Žemaitukas, a historic horse breed from Lithuania, known from the 6–7th centuries, used as a warhorse by the Lithuanians
"Christianization of Lithuania in 1387", oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1889, Royal Castle in Warsaw
Priest, lexicographer Konstantinas Sirvydas, the cherisher of the Lithuanian language in the 17th century
Lithuanian national coats of arms: Columns of Gediminas, Double Cross of the Jagiellonians (Jogaila) and Samogitian bear
Coat of arms of the Grand Chancellors of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Coat of arms of the Grand Marshals of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuanian Metrica
Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations which distinguishes Poles, Lithuanians, Ruthenians, and others, adopted on 20 October 1791
Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle in Ukraine.

Its rapid territorial expansion started late in the reign of Gediminas, and continued under the diarchy and co-leadership of his sons Algirdas and Kęstutis.

Bryansk

City and the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast, Russia, situated on the River Desna, 379 km southwest of Moscow.

City and the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast, Russia, situated on the River Desna, 379 km southwest of Moscow.

Gorno-Nikolskaya Church
A monument to Alexander Peresvet and Boyan
May Day at former Christmas Mountain (now Yuri Gagarin Boulevard) in 1920
Bryansk-I, May 2010
Monument of Kurgan of Immortality
BTZ-5276-04 trolleybus
Trolza-5265 low-floor trolleybus

Grand Duke Algirdas of Lithuania acquired Bryansk through inheritance in 1356 and gave it to his son, Dmitry the Elder.

Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas as depicted in the Sapieha Genealogy in Kodeń, 1709

Gediminas

Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316 until his death.

Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316 until his death.

Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas as depicted in the Sapieha Genealogy in Kodeń, 1709
Position of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in Eastern Europe until 1434.
A peace agreement between Gediminas and the Order
Gediminas Castle in Lida
Gediminas Tower named after the founder of Vilnius, although it was built considerably later.
Gediminas on a 2021 stamp of Lithuania
Gediminas monument in Cathedral Square, Vilnius
Gediminids - predecessors of the Jagiellonian dynasty 1521

He was succeeded by one of his sons, Jaunutis, who was unable to control the unrest in the country, as a result of which he was deposed in 1345 by his brother Algirdas.

Early coin of the Grand Duke of Lithuania Jogaila with a lion, minted at the Vilnius Mint between 1386 and 1387

Władysław II Jagiełło

Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole ruler of Poland.

Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole ruler of Poland.

Early coin of the Grand Duke of Lithuania Jogaila with a lion, minted at the Vilnius Mint between 1386 and 1387
Seal of Jogaila with his title (in Latin) as King in Lithuania, used in 1377–1386, before becoming the King of Poland in 1386
Poland and Lithuania 1386–1434
Lithuanian Denar of Jogaila (minted in 1388–1392) with Vytis (Pahonia)
Royal seal of Władysław II Jagiełło
Battle of Grunwald, 1410. Painting by Jan Matejko
The Teutonic Order's castle at Marienburg
Polish and Lithuanian conflict with Teutonic Prussia, 1377–1434.
Jagiełło's sarcophagus, Wawel Cathedral
Władysław II Jagiełło by Jan Matejko
Władysław Jagiełło as depicted in Ksawery Pillati's Portraits of Polish Princes and Kings, 1888
A 17th-century depiction of Władysław II Jagiełło and Jadwiga of Poland by the cross by Tommaso Dolabella
King Jagiello Monument, Central Park, New York
Grunwald Monument, Kraków

He was a descendant of the Gediminid dynasty and was the son of Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his second wife, Uliana of Tver.

Kęstutis

Ruler of medieval Lithuania.

Ruler of medieval Lithuania.

Kęstutis seal from 1379
Litas commemorative coin dedicated to Kęstutis
The hillfort of Senieji Trakai Castle where the wedding of Grand Duke Kęstutis and Birutė was held
Trakai Peninsula Castle built by Kęstutis
Malbork castle, where Kęstutis was detained in 1361
Vytautas and Kęstutis imprisoned by Jogaila. Painting by Wojciech Gerson
Kęstutis on the Millennium of Russia monument in Veliky Novgorod.

He was the Duke of Trakai and governed the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1342–1382, together with his brother Algirdas (until 1377), and with his nephew Jogaila (until 1381).

Grand Duchy of Moscow

Rus' principality of the Late Middle Ages centered on Moscow, and the predecessor state of the Tsardom of Russia in the early modern period.

Rus' principality of the Late Middle Ages centered on Moscow, and the predecessor state of the Tsardom of Russia in the early modern period.

Territorial expansion between 1300 and 1547
The seal of Simeon the Proud (1340s), reads: "The seal of the Grand Duke Simeon of all Rus
Territorial expansion between 1300 and 1547
The seal of Ivan III the Great (1490s), reads: "Ioan (John), by God's grace, the Sovereign of all Rus' and the Grand Duke"
Blaeu's map of Russia (1645); Moscovia is Moscow and the vicinities
The Moscow Kremlin under Prince Ivan Kalita (early XIV century) by Apollinary Vasnetsov
Dmitry Donskoi in the Battle of Kulikovo
Andrei Rublev's famous icon of the Trinity
Territorial growth from 1300 to 1462
Great Stand on the Ugra River, 1480
The Dormition Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin
Traveling by sleigh

Grand Duke Algirdas of Lithuania allied himself by marriage with Tver and undertook three expeditions against Moscow (1368, 1370, 1372) but was unable to take it.

Jaunutis, depicted in 1675

Jaunutis

Jaunutis, depicted in 1675

Jaunutis (Jawnuta, Яўнут; literally young man; baptized: Ioann, "Jawnuta", "John" or "Ivan"; ca. 1300 – after 1366) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from his father Gediminas' death in 1341 until he was deposed by his elder brothers Algirdas and Kęstutis in 1345.

Trubetskoy Mansion, Petrovskij Pereulok, Moscow, designed by Joseph Bové

Trubetskoy family

Russian gentry family of Ruthenian stock and Lithuanian origin, like many other princely houses of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, later prominent in Russian history, science, and arts.

Russian gentry family of Ruthenian stock and Lithuanian origin, like many other princely houses of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, later prominent in Russian history, science, and arts.

Trubetskoy Mansion, Petrovskij Pereulok, Moscow, designed by Joseph Bové
Portrait of Vladimiro Notarbartolo Di Villarosa by Prince Pierre Troubetzkoy (1906)

They are descended from Algirdas's son Demetrius I Starshy (1327 – 12 August 1399 (the Battle of the Vorskla River)).

Vitebsk

City in Belarus.

City in Belarus.

View of Vitebsk in the early 19th century by Józef Peszka.
Vitebsk in 1943, during the period of Nazi German occupation
Downtown of Vitebsk
St. Barbara Church in Vitebsk
Vitebsk Town Hall (1775)
Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Vitebsk
Slavianski Bazaar in Vitebsk, 2009

In 1320 the city was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as dowry of the Princess Maria, the first wife of Grand Duke of Lithuania Algirdas.

The fresco in the Vilnius Cathedral, dating to the Christianization of Lithuania

Christianization of Lithuania

The Christianization of Lithuania (Lietuvos krikštas) occurred in 1387, initiated by King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Władysław II Jagiełło and his cousin Vytautas the Great.

The Christianization of Lithuania (Lietuvos krikštas) occurred in 1387, initiated by King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Władysław II Jagiełło and his cousin Vytautas the Great.

The fresco in the Vilnius Cathedral, dating to the Christianization of Lithuania
Romuva sanctuary in Prussia
The Pope Innocent IV bull regarding Lithuania's placement under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, Mindaugas' baptism and coronation
Medieval fresco from the Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune Church in Strasbourg, portraying 15 European nations' path towards Christianity. Lithuania presented as the last figure.
"The Baptism of Lithuania" by Jan Matejko

"For Gediminas and Algirdas, retention of paganism provided a useful diplomatic tool and weapon... that allowed them to use promises of conversion as a means of preserving their power and independence".