Fragment from medal by Juozas Kalinauskas
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the height of its power in the 15th century (on a modern day map)
Algirdas (left) on the Millennium of Russia monument in Veliky Novgorod
Lithuania in the Mappa mundi of Pietro Vesconte, 1321. The inscription reads: Letvini pagani - pagan Lithuanians.
Dmitry Donskoy writes letters asking for help against Algirdas during the Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1368–1372)
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the height of its power in the 15th century (on a modern day map)
Litas commemorative coin with image of Algirdas
Balts in the 12th century
Columns of Gediminas
Gediminas' Tower in Vilnius
Lithuanian state in 13-15th centuries
Lubart's Castle in Ukraine, built by the son of Gediminas' Liubartas in the mid-14th century, is famous for the Congress of Lutsk which took place in 1429
Grand Duchy of Lithuania under the rule of Vytautas the Great
Poland and Lithuania in 1386–1434
Trakai Island Castle, residence of the Grand Duke Vytautas
The Battle of Grunwald, 1410, with Ulrich von Jungingen and Vytautas at center
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth c. 1635
Lithuania and its administrative divisions in the 17th century
Church of St. Johns in Vilnius. Example of Vilnius Baroque style
St. Anne's Church and the church of the Bernardine Monastery in Vilnius
Constitution of 3 May, one of the first official state documents issued in both Polish and Lithuanian, Lithuanian edition
Lithuanian primer for kids, published in Vilnius, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1783 edition
Area where Lithuanian was spoken in the 16th century
Lithuania proper (in green) and Samogitia (in red) within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in a map from 1712
Panegyric to Sigismund III Vasa, visiting Vilnius, first hexameter in Lithuanian, 1589
The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1588) in Ruthenian printed in Vilnius
The first printed book in Lithuanian Catechism of Martynas Mažvydas by Martynas Mažvydas
Lithuanian ancient hill fort in Rudamina
Lithuanian ancient hill fort mounds in Kernavė, now listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Kaunas Castle
thumb|Lida Castle
Ruins of Navahrudak Castle. Current state (2004)
Ruins of Kreva Castle
Mir Castle - a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Belarus.
Medininkai Castle
Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania in Vilnius
Vilnius University and the Church of St. John
St. George Church (1487) in Kaunas
Church of Vytautas the Great in Kaunas
Pažaislis Monastery church, decorated with expensive marble
Royal insignias of the rulers of Lithuania in the Vilnius Cathedral, 1931
Coins of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Coins of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Coins of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Recreation of the Lithuanian soldiers
thumb|right|Showcase of the Crimean Karaites traditional lifestyle in Trakai, Lithuania
Žemaitukas, a historic horse breed from Lithuania, known from the 6–7th centuries, used as a warhorse by the Lithuanians
"Christianization of Lithuania in 1387", oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1889, Royal Castle in Warsaw
Priest, lexicographer Konstantinas Sirvydas, the cherisher of the Lithuanian language in the 17th century
Lithuanian national coats of arms: Columns of Gediminas, Double Cross of the Jagiellonians (Jogaila) and Samogitian bear
Coat of arms of the Grand Chancellors of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Coat of arms of the Grand Marshals of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuanian Metrica
Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations which distinguishes Poles, Lithuanians, Ruthenians, and others, adopted on 20 October 1791
Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle in Ukraine.

Algirdas (Альгерд, Alhierd, Ольгерд, Ольґерд, Olherd, Olgerd, Olgierd; c. 1296 – May 1377) was a ruler of medieval Lithuania.

- Algirdas

Its rapid territorial expansion started late in the reign of Gediminas, and continued under the diarchy and co-leadership of his sons Algirdas and Kęstutis.

- Grand Duchy of Lithuania

7 related topics



Capital and largest city of Lithuania, with a population of 592,389.

Capital and largest city of Lithuania, with a population of 592,389.

Iron Wolf
King Mindaugas Monument
Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania and Grand Duke Gediminas Monument with the howling iron wolf
Vilnius panorama in 1600 by Tomasz Makowski
La Grande Armée in Vilnius during its retreat (near the Vilnius Town Hall). In the beginning of his invasion of Russia, Napoleon established the Lithuanian Provisional Governing Commission, with the nobility seeing him as a liberator.
House of the Signatories in Vilnius
In 1905, the Great Seimas of Vilnius took place in the current Lithuanian National Philharmonic Society building
Celebration of incorporation of Vilnius Region to Poland in 1922. The event sparked vast Lithuanians anger with a popular interwar chant: "Mes be Vilniaus nenurimsim!" (We will not calm down without Vilnius!)
Lithuanian Army tanks in Vilnius after regaining control of the capital
Povilas Plechavičius, commander of the LTDF
The former KGB headquarters in Vilnius, now the Museum of Occupations and Freedom Fights
Annual commemoration of January Events in the Independence Square near the Seimas Palace with bonfires
Gediminas Avenue in autumn
Neris River at Mindaugas Bridge with Vilnius Upper Castle in the distance. A favorable geographic location made the Upper Castle on the Gediminas' Hill unconquerable for hundreds of years.
Foggy winter sunrise in Vilnius
Gothic wall frescoes of the Church of St. Francis and St. Bernard (16th century)
Tombstone of Lew Sapieha, ca. 1633, at Church of St. Michael
Lithuanian Girl with Palm Sunday Fronds by Kanuty Rusiecki
Vilnius Picture Gallery in the old town (former Chodkiewicz Palace)
Zawadzki bookstore on the present-day Pilies Street. The store banners are printed in five languages: Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, French, German.
Gate of the Basilian Monastery where poet Adam Mickiewicz was imprisoned for fighting the Russian rule
The Institute of Lithuanian Literature and Folklore (Vileišis Palace)
Billboard above the Botanical Garden (now Bernardinai Garden) main gates of the first cinema screening in Vilnius (1897)
Lithuanian Theater, Music and Cinema Museum, located in the 17th century Minor Radvilos Palace
Libretto of the first opera staged in Vilnius (1636), which overtook the first operas in Paris (1645) and London (1656)
Lithuanian Song and Dance Festival in Vingis Park
Andrius Mamontovas, leader of Foje and founder of the annual Gatvės muzikos diena (Street Music Day)
Page in Latin of theatre program dedicated to Algirdas (1687), once performed in Vilnius
Lithuanian National Drama Theatre
Coronal mass ejection, captured in 1867 with Vilnius's photoheliograph, which was only the second such device in the entire world
Kaziuko mugė is held annually in the city in honor of Saint Casimir
Krzysztof Mikołaj "Piorun" Radziwiłł (Voivode of Vilnius from 1584 to 1603). Due to his prominent victories versus Ivan the Terrible's troops during the Livonian War, he was nicknamed "the Thunderbolt" (Perkūnas).
Vilnius Town Hall, reconstructed in neoclassical style according to the design by Laurynas Gucevičius in 1799
Vilnius City Municipality Building in Konstitucijos Avenue, housing the city's municipal council and administration
Map of Vilnius elderships. Numbers on the map correspond with numbers in the list
Medininkai Castle, built in the first half of the 14th century. It is the largest enclosure type defensive castle in Lithuania and one of the primary landmarks of the Vilnius district.
Seimas Palace in Vilnius, where the parliamentarians of Lithuania convenes
St. Anne's Church and the Church of St. Francis and St. Bernard are an outstanding examples of Gothic architecture in Lithuania
Church of St. Peter and St. Paul is a Baroque architecture masterpiece. It was funded by Michał Kazimierz Pac, commemorating a victory over the Muscovites and their expulsion from Vilnius after six years of occupation.
The 17th-century Chapel of Saint Casimir, a patron saint of Lithuania and its youth, in the Cathedral of Vilnius
Model of the Vilnius Castle Complex in the first half of the 17th century. The Upper Castle, which early wooden variants dates to the 10th century, was partly destroyed during the Battle of Vilnius (1655) and was never rebuilt.
Vilnius Old Town apartments offers views to the most notable landmarks of the city and a medieval atmosphere
Part of Valakampiai neighborhood in Antakalnis eldership by the Neris River as seen from Verkiai Palace
Helios City complex in Naujamiestis with shopping mall and apartments
Šnipiškės in the 19th century with the Chapel of Jesus of Šnipiškės
Grand Duke Sigismund II Augustus (Vilnius' founder's Gediminas' direct offspring by the male-line ) with his wife, the Grand Duchess Barbara Radziwiłł, in Vilnius. The city prospered during his reign and the Golden Age.
Pagan Lithuanians worshipping a grass snake, oak and holy fire. From Olaus Magnus' Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus (History of the Northern People), book 3, 1555.
Manifesto of the Uprising of 1794 in Lithuanian, encouraging Lithuanians to defend Vilnius from falling under the Russian control. The number of inhabitants in the Grand Duchy's capital fell fivefold, compared to 1760s when more than 60 thousand citizens were living in Vilnius, when the uprising failed in 1794 and in 1795 the state was abolished after the Third Partition.
Vilnius within Lithuania proper (marked in green) in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in a map from 1712
Multicultural Vilnians in 1915. The city was famous for its tolerance of various ethnicities till World War I.
Europa Tower is the tallest building in the Baltic states and is one of the symbols of modern Vilnius and its economic growth
K29 business centre is the first office in the Baltic states which received excellent BREEAM rating
Vilnius University Astronomical Observatory, est. in 1753, is one of the oldest in Europe and was the first in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Scientific centres and universities faculties in the Sunrise Valley
Virginijus Šikšnys is a prominent biochemist of the Vilnius University
The Green Hall business centre complex in Žvėrynas, which houses IT companies and the Europe's first international Blockchain Centre
The Bank of Lithuania headquarters in Gediminas Avenue
The Grand Courtyard of Vilnius University and Church of St. Johns
National M. K. Čiurlionis School of Art is a prestigious art school, offering free education to talented Lithuanians
One of the 16th century Central Vilnius University Library reading rooms, decorated in 1803 with the portraits of the 12 most prominent figures in antiquity art and science
Church of St. Casimir, the first Baroque church in Vilnius, known for excellent acoustics and organ concerts with renowned international musicians
Orthodox Cathedral of the Theotokos, built in the 14th century by Grand Duke Algirdas for newcomers Ruthenians in the Ruthenian quarter of Vilnius
Choral Synagogue of Vilnius
The interior of the Chapel of the Gate of Dawn with the holy Our Lady of the Gate of Dawn painting
The first Divine Mercy painting by Eugeniusz Kazimirowski (1934) at the Divine Mercy Sanctuary, Vilnius
Verkiai Calvary, c. undefined 1840s. It was built as a sign of gratitude for the victory in the Second Northern War.
Three Crosses in Kalnai Park
Singing fountain in Bernardinai Garden
Tourists in the Old Town of Vilnius
The Republic of Užupis is a tourists frequently visited micronation in Vilnius, full of Bohemian culture and art
Grand Hotel Kempinski Vilnius
Siemens Arena
Vilnius International Airport main entrance
Carsharing company SPARK car and an EV charging station in Vilnius
Solaris Urbino 18 bus and Škoda 26Tr Solaris trolleybuses in Vilnius
Orange bikes, available for renting
House in which the Vilnius Medical Society was established in 1805
The title page of Kurier Litewski (1760, Vilnius)
La Grande Armée in Vilnius during its retreat (near the Vilnius Town Hall). In the beginning of his invasion of Russia, Napoleon established the Lithuanian Provisional Governing Commission, with the nobility seeing him as a liberator.

Archeological findings indicate that this city was the capital of the Kingdom of Lithuania and later that of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

The performances were played in Latin, however elements of the Lithuanian language were also included in intermediates and prologues, and some of the works were Lithuanian-themed (e.g. plays dedicated to Algirdas, Mindaugas, Vytautas and other rulers of Lithuania).

Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas as depicted in the Sapieha Genealogy in Kodeń, 1709


Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas as depicted in the Sapieha Genealogy in Kodeń, 1709
Position of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in Eastern Europe until 1434.
A peace agreement between Gediminas and the Order
Gediminas Castle in Lida
Gediminas Tower named after the founder of Vilnius, although it was built considerably later.
Gediminas on a 2021 stamp of Lithuania
Gediminas monument in Cathedral Square, Vilnius
Gediminids - predecessors of the Jagiellonian dynasty 1521

Gediminas (Gedeminne, Gedeminnus; c. 1275 – December 1341) was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316 until his death.

He was succeeded by one of his sons, Jaunutis, who was unable to control the unrest in the country, as a result of which he was deposed in 1345 by his brother Algirdas.


Ruler of medieval Lithuania.

Ruler of medieval Lithuania.

Kęstutis seal from 1379
Litas commemorative coin dedicated to Kęstutis
The hillfort of Senieji Trakai Castle where the wedding of Grand Duke Kęstutis and Birutė was held
Trakai Peninsula Castle built by Kęstutis
Malbork castle, where Kęstutis was detained in 1361
Vytautas and Kęstutis imprisoned by Jogaila. Painting by Wojciech Gerson
Kęstutis on the Millennium of Russia monument in Veliky Novgorod.

He was the Duke of Trakai and governed the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1342–1382, together with his brother Algirdas (until 1377), and with his nephew Jogaila (until 1381).

The fresco in the Vilnius Cathedral, dating to the Christianization of Lithuania

Christianization of Lithuania

The fresco in the Vilnius Cathedral, dating to the Christianization of Lithuania
Romuva sanctuary in Prussia
The Pope Innocent IV bull regarding Lithuania's placement under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, Mindaugas' baptism and coronation
Medieval fresco from the Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune Church in Strasbourg, portraying 15 European nations' path towards Christianity. Lithuania presented as the last figure.
"The Baptism of Lithuania" by Jan Matejko

The Christianization of Lithuania (Lietuvos krikštas) occurred in 1387, initiated by King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Władysław II Jagiełło and his cousin Vytautas the Great.

"For Gediminas and Algirdas, retention of paganism provided a useful diplomatic tool and weapon... that allowed them to use promises of conversion as a means of preserving their power and independence".

Early coin of the Grand Duke of Lithuania Jogaila with a lion, minted at the Vilnius Mint between 1386 and 1387

Władysław II Jagiełło

Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole ruler of Poland.

Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole ruler of Poland.

Early coin of the Grand Duke of Lithuania Jogaila with a lion, minted at the Vilnius Mint between 1386 and 1387
Seal of Jogaila with his title (in Latin) as King in Lithuania, used in 1377–1386, before becoming the King of Poland in 1386
Poland and Lithuania 1386–1434
Lithuanian Denar of Jogaila (minted in 1388–1392) with Vytis (Pahonia)
Royal seal of Władysław II Jagiełło
Battle of Grunwald, 1410. Painting by Jan Matejko
The Teutonic Order's castle at Marienburg
Polish and Lithuanian conflict with Teutonic Prussia, 1377–1434.
Jagiełło's sarcophagus, Wawel Cathedral
Władysław II Jagiełło by Jan Matejko
Władysław Jagiełło as depicted in Ksawery Pillati's Portraits of Polish Princes and Kings, 1888
A 17th-century depiction of Władysław II Jagiełło and Jadwiga of Poland by the cross by Tommaso Dolabella
King Jagiello Monument, Central Park, New York
Grunwald Monument, Kraków

He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

He was a descendant of the Gediminid dynasty and was the son of Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his second wife, Uliana of Tver.


Capital and most populous city of Ukraine.

Capital and most populous city of Ukraine.

Detail of Sebastian Münster's [[:File:Polonia Et Ungaria XX Nova Tabula.jpg|Map of Poland and Hungary]], 1552, showing Kyiv labelled "Kyouia epatus" (Kyovia episcopatus)
A fragment of the New Universal Atlas by John Cary, London, 1808. The city was situated on the borderline between the former Polish (left) and Russian (right) zones of influence, with the name being presented as Kiev.
Legendary Kyi, Shchek, Khoryv and Lybid in the Radziwiłł Chronicle
Hungarians at Kyiv in 830 during the times of the Rus' Khaganate
The Baptism of Kyivans, a painting by Klavdiy Lebedev
The 1686 city map of Kyiv ("Kiovia")
Cossack Bohdan Khmelnytsky entering Kyiv after the Khmelnytsky Uprising against Polish domination. Painting by Mykola Ivasiuk.
Kyiv in the late 19th century
Kyiv's council chambers in 1930
Ruins of Kyiv during World War II
The Ukrainian national flag was raised outside Kyiv's City Hall for the first time on 24 July 1990.
A Copernicus Programme Sentinel-2 image of Kyiv and the Dnieper
A view of the left bank neighbourhoods of Kyiv
The Berezniaky neighbourhood in Dnipro Raion
The Kyiv National Opera House
The Kyiv Academic Puppet Theatre
A public concert held on Maidan Nezalezhnosti during Kyiv's 2005 Eurovision Song Contest
Lilacs in the National Botanical Garden, with the Vydubychi Monastery, Darnitskiy Rail Bridge and left-bank Kyiv visible in the background
The National Historical Museum of Ukraine
The annual 5.5 km "Run under the Chestnuts" is a popular public sporting event in Kyiv, with hundreds taking part every year.
The TsUM department store
The An-124, the largest aircraft ever mass-produced, designed by Antonov in Kyiv
The Ukrainian Academy of Sciences is based in Kyiv.
National Taras Shevchenko University
Trolleybus ElektroLAZ-301 at Sofia Square, passing by the statue of Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Zoloti Vorota Metro Station Central Hall.
Golda Meir, Prime Minister of Israel.
Igor Sikorsky on Time magazine cover, 1953.
Pianist Vladimir Horowitz was born in Kyiv.
Milla Jovovich
Golden Gate
Holy Dormition Cathedral
St. Sophia Cathedral
St. Volodymyr's Cathedral
St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery
Intercession Convent
St. Nicholas Roman Catholic Cathedral
Saint Andrew's Church
Mariinskyi Palace
National Bank of Ukraine
"House with Chimaeras"
Brodsky Choral Synagogue - Moorish Revival architecture

It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours, first Lithuania, then Poland and ultimately Russia.

Finally, as a result of the Battle of Blue Waters in 1362, Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, incorporated Kyiv and surrounding areas into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Grand Duchy of Moscow

Rus' principality of the Late Middle Ages centered on Moscow, and the predecessor state of the Tsardom of Russia in the early modern period.

Rus' principality of the Late Middle Ages centered on Moscow, and the predecessor state of the Tsardom of Russia in the early modern period.

Territorial expansion between 1300 and 1547
The seal of Simeon the Proud (1340s), reads: "The seal of the Grand Duke Simeon of all Rus
Territorial expansion between 1300 and 1547
The seal of Ivan III the Great (1490s), reads: "Ioan (John), by God's grace, the Sovereign of all Rus' and the Grand Duke"
Blaeu's map of Russia (1645); Moscovia is Moscow and the vicinities
The Moscow Kremlin under Prince Ivan Kalita (early XIV century) by Apollinary Vasnetsov
Dmitry Donskoi in the Battle of Kulikovo
Andrei Rublev's famous icon of the Trinity
Territorial growth from 1300 to 1462
Great Stand on the Ugra River, 1480
The Dormition Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin
Traveling by sleigh

Ivan III further consolidated the state during his 43-year reign, campaigning against his major remaining rival power, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and by 1503 he had tripled the territory of his realm, adopting the title of tsar and claiming the title of "Ruler of all Rus. By his marriage to Sophia Palaiologina, niece of Constantine XI Palaiologos, the last Byzantine emperor, he claimed Muscovy to be the successor state of the Roman Empire, the "Third Rome". The immigration of Byzantine people influenced and strengthened Moscow's identity as the heir of Orthodox traditions. Ivan's successor Vasili III also enjoyed military success, gaining Smolensk from Lithuania in 1512 and pushing Muscovy's borders to the Dnieper. Vasili's son Ivan IV (later known as Ivan the Terrible) was an infant upon his father's death in 1533.

Grand Duke Algirdas of Lithuania allied himself by marriage with Tver and undertook three expeditions against Moscow (1368, 1370, 1372) but was unable to take it.