Aliyah

immigratedimmigrantsolimemigratedJewish immigrantsimmigrated to Israelemigrated to IsraelJewish immigrationnew immigrantsmoved to Israel
Aliyah (, ; aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).wikipedia
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Zionism

ZionistZionistsZionist movement
Also defined as "the act of going up"—that is, towards Jerusalem—"making Aliyah" by moving to the Land of Israel is one of the most basic tenets of Zionism.
A religious variety of Zionism supports Jews upholding their Jewish identity defined as adherence to religious Judaism, opposes the assimilation of Jews into other societies, and has advocated the return of Jews to Israel as a means for Jews to be a majority nation in their own state.

Yerida

Israeli diasporaabroadexpatriate Israelis
The opposite action, emigration from the Land of Israel, is referred to in Hebrew as yerida ("descent").
Yerida is the opposite of Aliyah (, lit. "ascent"), which is immigration to Israel.

Aliyah Bet

illegal immigrationillegal Jewish immigrantsillegal Jewish immigration
The following waves of migration have been identified: the First Aliyah and the Second Aliyah to Ottoman Palestine; the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Aliyah to Mandatory Palestine including Aliyah Bet (immigration done in spite of restrictive Mandatory law) between 1934 and 1948 and the Bericha of the Holocaust survivors; the Aliyah from elsewhere in the Middle East and North Africa as well as the Aliyah from western and Communist countries following the Six-Day War with the 1968 Polish political crisis, as well as the Aliyah from post-Soviet states in the 1990s.
Aliyah Bet (, "Aliyah 'B'" – bet being the second letter of the Hebrew alphabet) was the code name given to illegal immigration by Jews, most of whom were Holocaust survivors and refugees from Nazi Germany, to Mandatory Palestine between 1934–48, in violation of the restrictions laid out in the British White Paper of 1939.

Third Aliyah

ThirdJewish coloniespioneer
The following waves of migration have been identified: the First Aliyah and the Second Aliyah to Ottoman Palestine; the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Aliyah to Mandatory Palestine including Aliyah Bet (immigration done in spite of restrictive Mandatory law) between 1934 and 1948 and the Bericha of the Holocaust survivors; the Aliyah from elsewhere in the Middle East and North Africa as well as the Aliyah from western and Communist countries following the Six-Day War with the 1968 Polish political crisis, as well as the Aliyah from post-Soviet states in the 1990s.
The Third Aliyah (, HaAliyah HaShlishit) refers to the third wave—or aliyah—of modern Zionist immigration to Palestine from Europe.

First Aliyah

FirstFirst AliyaHalutz
The following waves of migration have been identified: the First Aliyah and the Second Aliyah to Ottoman Palestine; the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Aliyah to Mandatory Palestine including Aliyah Bet (immigration done in spite of restrictive Mandatory law) between 1934 and 1948 and the Bericha of the Holocaust survivors; the Aliyah from elsewhere in the Middle East and North Africa as well as the Aliyah from western and Communist countries following the Six-Day War with the 1968 Polish political crisis, as well as the Aliyah from post-Soviet states in the 1990s.
The First Aliyah (Hebrew: העלייה הראשונה, HaAliyah HaRishona), also known as the agriculture Aliyah, was a major wave of Zionist immigration (aliyah) to Palestine between 1881 and 1903.

Second Aliyah

secondSecond Aliyaemigrated to Ottoman Palestine
The following waves of migration have been identified: the First Aliyah and the Second Aliyah to Ottoman Palestine; the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Aliyah to Mandatory Palestine including Aliyah Bet (immigration done in spite of restrictive Mandatory law) between 1934 and 1948 and the Bericha of the Holocaust survivors; the Aliyah from elsewhere in the Middle East and North Africa as well as the Aliyah from western and Communist countries following the Six-Day War with the 1968 Polish political crisis, as well as the Aliyah from post-Soviet states in the 1990s.
The Second Aliyah (העלייה השנייה, HaAliyah HaShniya) was an important and highly influential aliyah (Jewish emigration to Palestine) that took place between 1904 and 1914, during which approximately 35,000 Jews immigrated into Ottoman-ruled Palestine, mostly from the Russian Empire, some from Yemen.

1990s post-Soviet aliyah

immigrants from the former Soviet UnionRussian-speakersRussian immigration to Israel in the 1990s
The following waves of migration have been identified: the First Aliyah and the Second Aliyah to Ottoman Palestine; the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Aliyah to Mandatory Palestine including Aliyah Bet (immigration done in spite of restrictive Mandatory law) between 1934 and 1948 and the Bericha of the Holocaust survivors; the Aliyah from elsewhere in the Middle East and North Africa as well as the Aliyah from western and Communist countries following the Six-Day War with the 1968 Polish political crisis, as well as the Aliyah from post-Soviet states in the 1990s.
The 1990s post-Soviet aliyah began en masse in late 1980s when the government of Mikhail Gorbachev opened the borders of the USSR and allowed Jews to leave the country for Israel.

Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries

immigrantsJewish exodus from Arab landsJewish immigrants and refugees
The following waves of migration have been identified: the First Aliyah and the Second Aliyah to Ottoman Palestine; the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Aliyah to Mandatory Palestine including Aliyah Bet (immigration done in spite of restrictive Mandatory law) between 1934 and 1948 and the Bericha of the Holocaust survivors; the Aliyah from elsewhere in the Middle East and North Africa as well as the Aliyah from western and Communist countries following the Six-Day War with the 1968 Polish political crisis, as well as the Aliyah from post-Soviet states in the 1990s.
A number of small-scale Jewish exoduses began in many Middle Eastern countries early in the 20th century with the only substantial aliyah (immigration to the area today known as Israel) coming from Yemen and Syria.

Jewish population by country

Jewish populationJewish community in the worldJews by country
As of 2014, Israel and adjacent territories contain 42.9% of the world's Jewish population.
The Jewish state has a positive immigration balance (called aliyah in Hebrew).

Pre-Modern Aliyah

foreign pilgrims
Throughout the years of dispersion, a small-scale return migration of Diaspora Jews to the Land of Israel is characterized as the Pre-Modern Aliyah.
Aliyah was also spurred during this period by the resurgence of messianic fervor among the Jews of France, Italy, the Germanic states, Russia and North Africa.

Return to Zion

returnThe Return to ZionRestoration
A few decades after the fall of the Kingdom of Judah and the Babylonian exile of the Jewish people, approximately 50,000 Jews returned to Zion following the Cyrus Declaration from 538 BC.
The biblical meaning of the return to Zion, aliyah, was borrowed later from the ancient event and was adopted as the definition of all the immigration events of Jews to the Land of Israel and the State of Israel in modern times.

Old Yishuv

Yishuv haYashanJewish communitylocal Jews
In 1808 hundreds of the Gaon's disciples, known as Perushim, settled in Tiberias and Safed, and later formed the core of the Old Yishuv in Jerusalem.
The Old Yishuv (, haYishuv haYashan) were the Jewish communities of the southern Syrian provinces in the Ottoman period, up to the onset of Zionist aliyah and the consolidation of the New Yishuv by the end of World War I. As opposed to the later Zionist aliyah and the New Yishuv, which began with the First Aliyah (of 1882) and was more based on a socialist and/or secular ideology emphasizing labor and self-sufficiency, many Jews of the Old Yishuv, whose members had continuously resided in or had come to Eretz Yisrael in the earlier centuries, were largely religious Jews, who depended on external donations (Halukka) for financial support.

Karaite Judaism

KaraiteKaraitesKaraite Jews
In the 10th century, leaders of the Karaite Jewish community, mostly living under Persian rule, urged their followers to settle in Eretz Yisrael.
Another estimate holds that, of the 50,000 worldwide, more than 40,000 descend from those who made aliyah from Egypt and Iraq to Israel.

Hastening Redemption

This was part of a larger movement of thousands of Jews from countries as widely spaced as Persia and Morocco, Yemen and Russia, who moved to Israel beginning in the first decade of the nineteenth century—and in even larger numbers after the conquest of the region by Muhammad Ali of Egypt in 1832—all drawn by the expectation of the arrival of the Messiah in the Jewish year 5600, Christian year 1840, a movement documented in Arie Morgenstern's Hastening Redemption.
Hastening Redemption: Messianism and the Resettlement of the Land of Israel is a history of nineteenth century Jewish immigration to Palestine published in 1985 by Israeli historian Arie Morgenstern.

Who is a Jew?

who is a Jewhalf-JewishJew
It is enshrined in Israel's Law of Return, which accords any Jew (deemed as such by halakha and/or Israeli secular law) and eligible non-Jews (a child and a grandchild of a Jew, the spouse of a Jew, the spouse of a child of a Jew and the spouse of a grandchild of a Jew), the legal right to assisted immigration and settlement in Israel, as well as Israeli citizenship.
Karaite Jews are eligible for Aliyah under the Law of Return.

Jewish history

Jewishhistory of Judaismhistory
For much of Jewish history, most Jews have lived in the diaspora where aliyah was developed as a national aspiration for the Jewish people, although it was not usually fulfilled until the development of the Zionist movement in the late nineteenth century.
Yechiel had emigrated to Acre in 1260, along with his son and a large group of followers.

Jews

JewishJewJewish people
Aliyah (, ; aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).
The early years of the State of Israel were marked by the mass immigration of Holocaust survivors in the aftermath of the Holocaust and Jews fleeing Arab lands.

1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine

1936–39 Arab revolt in PalestineArab revoltArab revolt in Palestine
This was followed by more violence during the "Great Uprising" of 1936–1939.
Ben Gurion however described Arab causes as fear of growing Jewish economic power, opposition to mass Jewish immigration and fear of the English identification with Zionism.

Israeli citizenship law

Israeli citizenshipIsraeli citizenIsraeli
The State of Israel's Law of Return gives Jews and their descendants automatic rights regarding residency and Israeli citizenship.
In 1970, Israel amended the Law of Return to state that the non-Jewish spouse of a Jew was eligible for citizenship as part of aliyah.

White City (Tel Aviv)

White CityWhite City of Tel AvivThe White City
Refugee architects and musicians introduced the Bauhaus style (the White City of Tel Aviv has the highest concentration of International Style architecture in the world with a strong element of Bauhaus) and founded the Palestine Philharmonic Orchestra.
The White City (העיר הלבנה, Ha-Ir ha-Levana; المدينة البيضاء Al-Madinah al-Baydha’a) refers to a collection of over 4,000 buildings built in a unique form of the International Style in Tel Aviv from the 1930s, with a strong Bauhaus component, by Jewish architects from Germany and other Central and East European countries with German Cultural influences, who immigrated to the British Mandate of Palestine after the rise to power of the Nazis in Germany.

Mossad LeAliyah Bet

Mossad Le'aliyah BetHamossad Le'aliyah BetFoundation for Immigration B
The illegal immigration was known as Aliyah Bet ("secondary immigration"), or Ha'apalah, and was organized by the Mossad Le'aliyah Bet, as well as by the Irgun.
The Mossad LeAliyah Bet (, lit. Institution for Immigration B) was a branch of the Haganah in the British Mandate of Palestine, and later the State of Israel that operated to facilitate Jewish immigration to British Palestine (later Israel).

Ma'abarot

ma'abaratransit campmaabara
The earliest immigrants received desirable homes in established urban areas, but most of the immigrants were then sent to transit camps, known initially as immigrant camps, and later as Ma'abarot.
The ma'abarot were meant to provide accommodation for the large influx of Jewish refugees and new Jewish immigrants (olim) arriving to the newly independent State of Israel, replacing the less habitable immigrant camps or tent cities.

Immigrant camps (Israel)

immigrant camps Immigrant campsabsorption center
The earliest immigrants received desirable homes in established urban areas, but most of the immigrants were then sent to transit camps, known initially as immigrant camps, and later as Ma'abarot.
The Immigrant camps in Israel ( Mahanot Olim) were temporary refugee absorption camps, meant to provide accommodation for the large influx of Jewish refugees and new Olim (Jewish immigrants) arriving to Mandatory Palestine and later the independent State of Israel, since early 1947.

Hovevei Zion

Hibbat ZionLovers of ZionChovevei Zion
The majority, belonging to the Hovevei Zion and Bilu movements, came from the Russian Empire with a smaller number arriving from Yemen.
The vast majority of them emigrated to the United States, but some decided to form an aliyah.

Israel

State of IsraelIsraeliISR
This traditional Hebrew toponym, in turn, has lent its name to the modern State of Israel.
During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and later Mandatory Palestine.