A report on Alkali metal

Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner was among the first to notice similarities between what are now known as the alkali metals.
Lepidolite, the rubidium mineral from which rubidium was first isolated
Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic system proposed in 1871 showing hydrogen and the alkali metals as part of his group I, along with copper, silver, and gold
Estimated abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar system. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (lithium, beryllium, and boron) are rare because they are poorly synthesised in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers, and (2) a general decrease in abundance, as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Spodumene, an important lithium mineral
Effective nuclear charge on an atomic electron
Periodic trend for ionisation energy: each period begins at a minimum for the alkali metals, and ends at a maximum for the noble gases. Predicted values are used for elements beyond 104.
The variation of Pauling electronegativity (y-axis) as one descends the main groups of the periodic table from the second to the sixth period
A reaction of 3 pounds (≈ 1.4 kg) of sodium with water
Liquid NaK alloy at room temperature
Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride. On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but that would be geometrically impossible: thus lithium nitride takes on this unique crystal structure.
Structure of the octahedral n-butyllithium hexamer, (C4H9Li)6. The aggregates are held together by delocalised covalent bonds between lithium and the terminal carbon of the butyl chain. There is no direct lithium–lithium bonding in any organolithium compound.
Solid phenyllithium forms monoclinic crystals can be described as consisting of dimeric Li2(C6H5)2 subunits. The lithium atoms and the ipso carbons of the phenyl rings form a planar four-membered ring. The plane of the phenyl groups are perpendicular to the plane of this Li2C2 ring. Additional strong intermolecular bonding occurs between these phenyllithium dimers and the π electrons of the phenyl groups in the adjacent dimers, resulting in an infinite polymeric ladder structure.
Reduction reactions using sodium in liquid ammonia
Empirical (Na–Cs, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Fr–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) atomic radius of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in angstroms
Empirical (Na–Fr) and predicted (Uue) electron affinity of the alkali metals from the third to the eighth period, measured in electron volts
Empirical (Na–Fr, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Uue–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) ionisation energy of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in electron volts
Similarly to the alkali metals, ammonia reacts with hydrochloric acid to form the salt ammonium chloride.
Very pure thallium pieces in a glass ampoule, stored under argon gas
This sample of uraninite contains about 100,000 atoms (3.3 g) of francium-223 at any given time.
FOCS 1, a caesium atomic clock in Switzerland
Lithium carbonate
A wheel type radiotherapy device which has a long collimator to focus the radiation into a narrow beam. The caesium-137 chloride radioactive source is the blue square, and gamma rays are represented by the beam emerging from the aperture. This was the radiation source involved in the Goiânia accident, containing about 93 grams of caesium-137 chloride.

The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).

- Alkali metal
Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated

77 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table

Chemical element

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Species of atoms that have a given number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

Species of atoms that have a given number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table
Estimated distribution of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Only the fraction of the mass and energy in the universe labeled "atoms" is composed of chemical elements.
Periodic table showing the cosmogenic origin of each element in the Big Bang, or in large or small stars. Small stars can produce certain elements up to sulfur, by the alpha process. Supernovae are needed to produce "heavy" elements (those beyond iron and nickel) rapidly by neutron buildup, in the r-process. Certain large stars slowly produce other elements heavier than iron, in the s-process; these may then be blown into space in the off-gassing of planetary nebulae
Abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar System. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (Li, Be, B) are rare because they are poorly synthesized in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers (the Oddo-Harkins rule), and (2) a general decrease in abundance as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table: An experiment on a system of elements. Based on their atomic weights and chemical similarities.
Dmitri Mendeleev
Henry Moseley

The version of this classification used in the periodic tables presented here includes: actinides, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, lanthanides, transition metals, post-transition metals, metalloids, reactive nonmetals, and noble gases.

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Periodic table

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Tabular display of the chemical elements.

Tabular display of the chemical elements.

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3D views of some hydrogen-like atomic orbitals showing probability density and phase (g orbitals and higher are not shown)
Idealized order of shell-filling (most accurate for n  ≲ 4.)
Trend in atomic radii
Graph of first ionisation energies of the elements in electronvolts (predictions used for elements 105–118)
Trend in electron affinities
Flowing liquid mercury. Its liquid state at room temperature is a result of special relativity.
A periodic table colour-coded to show some commonly used sets of similar elements. The categories and their boundaries differ somewhat between sources. Alkali metals
 Alkaline earth metals
 Lanthanides
 Actinides
 Transition metals Other metals
 Metalloids
 Other nonmetals
 Halogens
 Noble gases
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table
Mendeleev's 1871 periodic table
Dmitri Mendeleev
Henry Moseley
Periodic table of van den Broek
Glenn T. Seaborg
One possible form of the extended periodic table to element 172, suggested by Finnish chemist Pekka Pyykkö. Deviations from the Madelung order (8s < < 6f < 7d < 8p) begin to appear at elements 139 and 140, though for the most part it continues to hold approximately.
Otto Theodor Benfey's spiral periodic table (1964)
Iron, a metal
Sulfur, a nonmetal
Arsenic, an element often called a semi-metal or metalloid

For example, the alkali metals in the first group all have one valence electron, and form a very homogeneous class of elements: they are all soft and reactive metals.

Atomic structure of Lithium-7

Lithium

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Chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3.

Chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3.

Atomic structure of Lithium-7
Lithium ingots with a thin layer of black nitride tarnish
Lithium floating in oil
Lithium is about as common as chlorine in the Earth's upper continental crust, on a per-atom basis.
Nova Centauri 2013 is the first in which evidence of lithium has been found.
Johan August Arfwedson is credited with the discovery of lithium in 1817
Hexameric structure of the n-butyllithium fragment in a crystal
Scatter plots of lithium grade and tonnage for selected world deposits, as of 2017
Lithium use in flares and pyrotechnics is due to its rose-red flame.
The launch of a torpedo using lithium as fuel
Lithium deuteride was used as fuel in the Castle Bravo nuclear device.
Estimates of global lithium uses in 2011 (picture) and 2019 (numbers below) 
Ceramics and glass (18%)
Batteries (65%)
Lubricating greases (5%)
Continuous casting (3%)
Air treatment (1%)
Polymers
Primary aluminum production
Pharmaceuticals
Other (5%)

It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal.

High-purity caesium-133 stored in argon.

Caesium

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Chemical element with the symbol Cs and atomic number 55.

Chemical element with the symbol Cs and atomic number 55.

High-purity caesium-133 stored in argon.
Caesium crystals (golden) compared to rubidium crystals (silvery)
Ball-and-stick model of the cubic coordination of Cs and Cl in CsCl
Monatomic caesium halide wires grown inside double-wall carbon nanotubes (TEM image).
cluster
Decay of caesium-137
Pollucite, a caesium mineral
Gustav Kirchhoff (left) and Robert Bunsen (centre) discovered caesium with their newly invented spectroscope.
Atomic clock ensemble at the U.S. Naval Observatory
FOCS-1, a continuous cold caesium fountain atomic clock in Switzerland, started operating in 2004 at an uncertainty of one second in 30 million years
Caesium chloride powder
Schematics of an electrostatic ion thruster developed for use with caesium or mercury fuel
The portion of the total radiation dose (in air) contributed by each isotope plotted against time after the Chernobyl disaster. Caesium-137 became the primary source of radiation about 200 days after the accident.

It is a soft, silvery-golden alkali metal with a melting point of 28.5 C, which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature.

The flame test of potassium.

Potassium

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Chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number19.

Chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number19.

The flame test of potassium.
Structure of solid potassium superoxide.
Potassium in feldspar
Sir Humphry Davy
Pieces of potassium metal
Sylvite from New Mexico
Monte Kali, a potash mining and beneficiation waste heap in Hesse, Germany, consisting mostly of sodium chloride.
Potassium sulfate/magnesium sulfate fertilizer

In the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals, all of which have a single valence electron in the outer electron shell, that is easily removed to create an ion with a positive charge – a cation, that combines with anions to form salts.

Emission spectrum for sodium, showing the D line.

Sodium

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Chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11.

Chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11.

Emission spectrum for sodium, showing the D line.
A positive flame test for sodium has a bright yellow color.
The structure of sodium chloride, showing octahedral coordination around Na+ and Cl− centres. This framework disintegrates when dissolved in water and reassembles when the water evaporates.
Two equivalent images of the chemical structure of sodium stearate, a typical soap.
The structure of the complex of sodium (Na+, shown in yellow) and the antibiotic monensin-A.
NaK phase diagram, showing the melting point of sodium as a function of potassium concentration. NaK with 77% potassium is eutectic and has the lowest melting point of the NaK alloys at −12.6 °C.

Sodium is an alkali metal, being in group 1 of the periodic table.

High-resolution STEM-HAADF micrograph of Al atoms viewed along the [001] zone axis.

Aluminium

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Chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13.

Chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13.

High-resolution STEM-HAADF micrograph of Al atoms viewed along the [001] zone axis.
Aluminium hydrolysis as a function of pH. Coordinated water molecules are omitted. (Data from Baes and Mesmer)
Structure of trimethylaluminium, a compound that features five-coordinate carbon.
Bauxite, a major aluminium ore. The red-brown color is due to the presence of iron oxide minerals.
The statue of Anteros in Piccadilly Circus, London, was made in 1893 and is one of the first statues cast in aluminium.
World production of aluminium since 1900
1897 American advertisement featuring the aluminum spelling
Extrusion billets of aluminium
Common bins for recyclable waste along with a bin for unrecyclable waste. The bin with a yellow top is labeled "aluminum". Rhodes, Greece.
Aluminium-bodied Austin A40 Sports (c. 1951)
Aluminium can
Laser deposition of alumina on a substrate
Schematic of aluminium absorption by human skin.
There are five major aluminium forms absorbed by human body: the free solvated trivalent cation (Al3+(aq)); low-molecular-weight, neutral, soluble complexes (LMW-Al0(aq)); high-molecular-weight, neutral, soluble complexes (HMW-Al0(aq)); low-molecular-weight, charged, soluble complexes (LMW-Al(L)n+/−(aq)); nano and micro-particulates (Al(L)n(s)). They are transported across cell membranes or cell epi-/endothelia through five major routes: (1) paracellular; (2) transcellular; (3) active transport; (4) channels; (5) adsorptive or receptor-mediated endocytosis.
"Bauxite tailings" storage facility in Stade, Germany. The aluminium industry generates about 70 million tons of this waste annually.

The only lighter metals are the metals of groups 1 and 2, which apart from beryllium and magnesium are too reactive for structural use (and beryllium is very toxic).

Atomic orbitals of the electron in a hydrogen atom at different energy levels. The probability of finding the electron is given by the color, as shown in the key at upper right.

Atomic orbital

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Domain coloring of a

Domain coloring of a

Atomic orbitals of the electron in a hydrogen atom at different energy levels. The probability of finding the electron is given by the color, as shown in the key at upper right.
3D views of some hydrogen-like atomic orbitals showing probability density and phase (g orbitals and higher are not shown)
The Rutherford–Bohr model of the hydrogen atom.
Energetic levels and sublevels of polyelectronic atoms.
Experimentally imaged 1s and 2p core-electron orbitals of Sr, including the effects of atomic thermal vibrations and excitation broadening, retrieved from energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM).
The 1s, 2s, and 2p orbitals of a sodium atom.
Atomic orbitals spdf m-eigenstates and superpositions
Electron atomic and molecular orbitals. The chart of orbitals (left) is arranged by increasing energy (see Madelung rule). Note that atomic orbits are functions of three variables (two angles, and the distance r from the nucleus). These images are faithful to the angular component of the orbital, but not entirely representative of the orbital as a whole.
Drum mode <math>u_{01}</math>
Drum mode <math>u_{02}</math>
Drum mode <math>u_{03}</math>
Wave function of 1s orbital (real part, 2D-cut, <math>r_{max}=2 a_0</math>)
Wave function of 2s orbital (real part, 2D-cut, <math>r_{max}=10 a_0</math>)
Wave function of 3s orbital (real part, 2D-cut, <math>r_{max}=20 a_0</math>)
Drum mode <math>u_{11}</math>
Drum mode <math>u_{12}</math>
Drum mode <math>u_{13}</math>
Wave function of 2p orbital (real part, 2D-cut, <math>r_{max}=10 a_0</math>)
Wave function of 3p orbital (real part, 2D-cut, <math>r_{max}=20 a_0</math>)
Wave function of 4p orbital (real part, 2D-cut, <math>r_{max}=25 a_0</math>)
Drum mode <math>u_{21}</math>
Drum mode <math>u_{22}</math>
Drum mode <math>u_{23}</math>

They are derived from the description by early spectroscopists of certain series of alkali metal spectroscopic lines as sharp, principal, diffuse, and fundamental.

Jöns Jacob Berzelius discovered the silicon element in 1823.

Silicon

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Chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14.

Chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14.

Jöns Jacob Berzelius discovered the silicon element in 1823.
The MOSFET, also known as the MOS transistor, is the key component of the Silicon Age. It was invented by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959.
Silicon crystallizes in a diamond cubic crystal structure by forming sp3 hybrid orbitals.
Phase diagram of the Fe–Si system
Condensed polysilicic acid
A typical zeolite structure
Silicon carbide
A hydrosilylation reaction, in which Si–H is added to an unsaturated substrate
Structure of polydimethylsiloxane, the principal component of silicones
Olivine
Ferrosilicon alloy
Silicon wafer with mirror finish
A diatom, enclosed in a silica cell wall
Quartz
Agate
Tridymite
Cristobalite
Coesite

For example, the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals react with silicon or silicon oxide to give silicides.

Partially molten rubidium metal in an ampoule

Rubidium

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Chemical element with the symbol Rb and atomic number 37.

Chemical element with the symbol Rb and atomic number 37.

Partially molten rubidium metal in an ampoule
Rubidium crystals (silvery) compared to caesium crystals (golden)
cluster
Flame test for rubidium
Gustav Kirchhoff (left) and Robert Bunsen (center) discovered rubidium by spectroscopy. (Henry Enfield Roscoe is on the right side.)
A rubidium fountain atomic clock at the United States Naval Observatory

Rubidium is a very soft, whitish-grey metal in the alkali metal group.