A report on LithiumCaesium and Alkali metal

Atomic structure of Lithium-7
High-purity caesium-133 stored in argon.
Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated
Lithium ingots with a thin layer of black nitride tarnish
Caesium crystals (golden) compared to rubidium crystals (silvery)
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner was among the first to notice similarities between what are now known as the alkali metals.
Lithium floating in oil
Ball-and-stick model of the cubic coordination of Cs and Cl in CsCl
Lepidolite, the rubidium mineral from which rubidium was first isolated
Lithium is about as common as chlorine in the Earth's upper continental crust, on a per-atom basis.
Monatomic caesium halide wires grown inside double-wall carbon nanotubes (TEM image).
Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic system proposed in 1871 showing hydrogen and the alkali metals as part of his group I, along with copper, silver, and gold
Nova Centauri 2013 is the first in which evidence of lithium has been found.
cluster
Estimated abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar system. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (lithium, beryllium, and boron) are rare because they are poorly synthesised in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers, and (2) a general decrease in abundance, as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Johan August Arfwedson is credited with the discovery of lithium in 1817
Decay of caesium-137
Spodumene, an important lithium mineral
Hexameric structure of the n-butyllithium fragment in a crystal
Pollucite, a caesium mineral
Effective nuclear charge on an atomic electron
Scatter plots of lithium grade and tonnage for selected world deposits, as of 2017
Gustav Kirchhoff (left) and Robert Bunsen (centre) discovered caesium with their newly invented spectroscope.
Periodic trend for ionisation energy: each period begins at a minimum for the alkali metals, and ends at a maximum for the noble gases. Predicted values are used for elements beyond 104.
Lithium use in flares and pyrotechnics is due to its rose-red flame.
Atomic clock ensemble at the U.S. Naval Observatory
The variation of Pauling electronegativity (y-axis) as one descends the main groups of the periodic table from the second to the sixth period
The launch of a torpedo using lithium as fuel
FOCS-1, a continuous cold caesium fountain atomic clock in Switzerland, started operating in 2004 at an uncertainty of one second in 30 million years
A reaction of 3 pounds (≈ 1.4 kg) of sodium with water
Lithium deuteride was used as fuel in the Castle Bravo nuclear device.
Caesium chloride powder
Liquid NaK alloy at room temperature
Estimates of global lithium uses in 2011 (picture) and 2019 (numbers below) 
Ceramics and glass (18%)
Batteries (65%)
Lubricating greases (5%)
Continuous casting (3%)
Air treatment (1%)
Polymers
Primary aluminum production
Pharmaceuticals
Other (5%)
Schematics of an electrostatic ion thruster developed for use with caesium or mercury fuel
Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride. On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but that would be geometrically impossible: thus lithium nitride takes on this unique crystal structure.
The portion of the total radiation dose (in air) contributed by each isotope plotted against time after the Chernobyl disaster. Caesium-137 became the primary source of radiation about 200 days after the accident.
Structure of the octahedral n-butyllithium hexamer, (C4H9Li)6. The aggregates are held together by delocalised covalent bonds between lithium and the terminal carbon of the butyl chain. There is no direct lithium–lithium bonding in any organolithium compound.
Solid phenyllithium forms monoclinic crystals can be described as consisting of dimeric Li2(C6H5)2 subunits. The lithium atoms and the ipso carbons of the phenyl rings form a planar four-membered ring. The plane of the phenyl groups are perpendicular to the plane of this Li2C2 ring. Additional strong intermolecular bonding occurs between these phenyllithium dimers and the π electrons of the phenyl groups in the adjacent dimers, resulting in an infinite polymeric ladder structure.
Reduction reactions using sodium in liquid ammonia
Empirical (Na–Cs, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Fr–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) atomic radius of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in angstroms
Empirical (Na–Fr) and predicted (Uue) electron affinity of the alkali metals from the third to the eighth period, measured in electron volts
Empirical (Na–Fr, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Uue–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) ionisation energy of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in electron volts
Similarly to the alkali metals, ammonia reacts with hydrochloric acid to form the salt ammonium chloride.
Very pure thallium pieces in a glass ampoule, stored under argon gas
This sample of uraninite contains about 100,000 atoms (3.3 g) of francium-223 at any given time.
FOCS 1, a caesium atomic clock in Switzerland
Lithium carbonate
A wheel type radiotherapy device which has a long collimator to focus the radiation into a narrow beam. The caesium-137 chloride radioactive source is the blue square, and gamma rays are represented by the beam emerging from the aperture. This was the radiation source involved in the Goiânia accident, containing about 93 grams of caesium-137 chloride.

The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).

- Alkali metal

It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal.

- Lithium

It is a soft, silvery-golden alkali metal with a melting point of 28.5 C, which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature.

- Caesium

Like the other alkali metals (which are sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr)), lithium has a single valence electron that is easily given up to form a cation.

- Lithium

The only economically important ore for caesium is pollucite, which is found in a few places around the world in zoned pegmatites, associated with the more commercially important lithium minerals, lepidolite and petalite.

- Caesium
Atomic structure of Lithium-7

5 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Partially molten rubidium metal in an ampoule

Rubidium

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Chemical element with the symbol Rb and atomic number 37.

Chemical element with the symbol Rb and atomic number 37.

Partially molten rubidium metal in an ampoule
Rubidium crystals (silvery) compared to caesium crystals (golden)
cluster
Flame test for rubidium
Gustav Kirchhoff (left) and Robert Bunsen (center) discovered rubidium by spectroscopy. (Henry Enfield Roscoe is on the right side.)
A rubidium fountain atomic clock at the United States Naval Observatory

Rubidium is a very soft, whitish-grey metal in the alkali metal group.

Rubidium metal shares similarities to potassium metal and caesium metal in physical appearance, softness and conductivity.

It forms amalgams with mercury and alloys with gold, iron, caesium, sodium, and potassium, but not lithium (even though rubidium and lithium are in the same group).

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table

Chemical element

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Species of atoms that have a given number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

Species of atoms that have a given number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table
Estimated distribution of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Only the fraction of the mass and energy in the universe labeled "atoms" is composed of chemical elements.
Periodic table showing the cosmogenic origin of each element in the Big Bang, or in large or small stars. Small stars can produce certain elements up to sulfur, by the alpha process. Supernovae are needed to produce "heavy" elements (those beyond iron and nickel) rapidly by neutron buildup, in the r-process. Certain large stars slowly produce other elements heavier than iron, in the s-process; these may then be blown into space in the off-gassing of planetary nebulae
Abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar System. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (Li, Be, B) are rare because they are poorly synthesized in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers (the Oddo-Harkins rule), and (2) a general decrease in abundance as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table: An experiment on a system of elements. Based on their atomic weights and chemical similarities.
Dmitri Mendeleev
Henry Moseley

The lightest chemical elements are hydrogen and helium, both created by Big Bang nucleosynthesis during the first 20 minutes of the universe in a ratio of around 3:1 by mass (or 12:1 by number of atoms), along with tiny traces of the next two elements, lithium and beryllium.

The version of this classification used in the periodic tables presented here includes: actinides, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, lanthanides, transition metals, post-transition metals, metalloids, reactive nonmetals, and noble gases.

Only bromine and mercury are liquids at 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and normal atmospheric pressure; caesium and gallium are solids at that temperature, but melt at 28.4 °C (83.2 °F) and 29.8 °C (85.6 °F), respectively.

Lepidolite

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Lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group of minerals with chemical formula K3(Al,Si,Rb)4O10(F,OH)2.

Lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group of minerals with chemical formula K3(Al,Si,Rb)4O10(F,OH)2.

Yellow lepidolite from Itinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Size: 6.1 x 4.9 x 3.1 cm
Lavender lepidolite "books" from Himalaya Mine, Mesa Grande District, San Diego County, California, US. Size: 4.8 x 3.9 x 3.5 cm
Lepidolite, Virgem da Lapa, Minas Gerais, Brazil (size 2.4 x 2.1 x 0.7 cm)

It is the most abundant lithium-bearing mineral and is a secondary source of this metal.

It is the major source of the alkali metal rubidium.

Fluoride ions can substitute for some of the hydroxide in the structure, while sodium, rubidium, or caesium may substitute in small quantities for potassium.

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Periodic table

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Tabular display of the chemical elements.

Tabular display of the chemical elements.

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3D views of some hydrogen-like atomic orbitals showing probability density and phase (g orbitals and higher are not shown)
Idealized order of shell-filling (most accurate for n  ≲ 4.)
Trend in atomic radii
Graph of first ionisation energies of the elements in electronvolts (predictions used for elements 105–118)
Trend in electron affinities
Flowing liquid mercury. Its liquid state at room temperature is a result of special relativity.
A periodic table colour-coded to show some commonly used sets of similar elements. The categories and their boundaries differ somewhat between sources. Alkali metals
 Alkaline earth metals
 Lanthanides
 Actinides
 Transition metals Other metals
 Metalloids
 Other nonmetals
 Halogens
 Noble gases
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table
Mendeleev's 1871 periodic table
Dmitri Mendeleev
Henry Moseley
Periodic table of van den Broek
Glenn T. Seaborg
One possible form of the extended periodic table to element 172, suggested by Finnish chemist Pekka Pyykkö. Deviations from the Madelung order (8s < < 6f < 7d < 8p) begin to appear at elements 139 and 140, though for the most part it continues to hold approximately.
Otto Theodor Benfey's spiral periodic table (1964)
Iron, a metal
Sulfur, a nonmetal
Arsenic, an element often called a semi-metal or metalloid

Hydrogen is the element with atomic number 1; helium, atomic number 2; lithium, atomic number 3; and so on.

The sixth row of the table likewise starts with two s-block elements: caesium and barium.

For example, the alkali metals in the first group all have one valence electron, and form a very homogeneous class of elements: they are all soft and reactive metals.

The unit cell of rutile. Ti(IV) centers are grey; oxygen centers are red. Notice that oxygen forms three bonds to titanium and titanium forms six bonds to oxygen.

Oxide

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Chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

Chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

The unit cell of rutile. Ti(IV) centers are grey; oxygen centers are red. Notice that oxygen forms three bonds to titanium and titanium forms six bonds to oxygen.
Oxides, such as iron(III) oxide or rust, which consists of hydrated iron(III) oxides Fe2O3·nH2O and iron(III) oxide-hydroxide (FeO(OH), Fe(OH)3), form when oxygen combines with other elements
Carbon dioxide is the main product of fossil fuel combustion.
Carbon monoxide is the product of the incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels and a precursor to many useful chemicals.
Nitrogen dioxide is a problematic pollutant from internal combustion engines.
Sulfur dioxide, the principal oxide of sulfur, is emitted from volcanoes.
Nitrous oxide ("laughing gas") is a potent greenhouse gas produced by soil bacteria.

In part, for this reason, alkali and alkaline earth metals are not found in nature in their metallic, i.e., native, form.

Cesium is so reactive with oxygen that it is used as a getter in vacuum tubes, and solutions of potassium and sodium, so-called NaK are used to deoxygenate and dehydrate some organic solvents.

Lithium oxide (Li2O)