Atomic structure of Lithium-7
Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated
Pictorial representation of examples of diagonal relationship.
Lithium ingots with a thin layer of black nitride tarnish
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner was among the first to notice similarities between what are now known as the alkali metals.
Lithium floating in oil
Lepidolite, the rubidium mineral from which rubidium was first isolated
Lithium is about as common as chlorine in the Earth's upper continental crust, on a per-atom basis.
Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic system proposed in 1871 showing hydrogen and the alkali metals as part of his group I, along with copper, silver, and gold
Nova Centauri 2013 is the first in which evidence of lithium has been found.
Estimated abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar system. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (lithium, beryllium, and boron) are rare because they are poorly synthesised in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers, and (2) a general decrease in abundance, as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Johan August Arfwedson is credited with the discovery of lithium in 1817
Spodumene, an important lithium mineral
Hexameric structure of the n-butyllithium fragment in a crystal
Effective nuclear charge on an atomic electron
Scatter plots of lithium grade and tonnage for selected world deposits, as of 2017
Periodic trend for ionisation energy: each period begins at a minimum for the alkali metals, and ends at a maximum for the noble gases. Predicted values are used for elements beyond 104.
Lithium use in flares and pyrotechnics is due to its rose-red flame.
The variation of Pauling electronegativity (y-axis) as one descends the main groups of the periodic table from the second to the sixth period
The launch of a torpedo using lithium as fuel
A reaction of 3 pounds (≈ 1.4 kg) of sodium with water
Lithium deuteride was used as fuel in the Castle Bravo nuclear device.
Liquid NaK alloy at room temperature
Estimates of global lithium uses in 2011 (picture) and 2019 (numbers below) 
Ceramics and glass (18%)
Batteries (65%)
Lubricating greases (5%)
Continuous casting (3%)
Air treatment (1%)
Primary aluminum production
Other (5%)
Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride. On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but that would be geometrically impossible: thus lithium nitride takes on this unique crystal structure.
Structure of the octahedral n-butyllithium hexamer, (C4H9Li)6. The aggregates are held together by delocalised covalent bonds between lithium and the terminal carbon of the butyl chain. There is no direct lithium–lithium bonding in any organolithium compound.
Solid phenyllithium forms monoclinic crystals can be described as consisting of dimeric Li2(C6H5)2 subunits. The lithium atoms and the ipso carbons of the phenyl rings form a planar four-membered ring. The plane of the phenyl groups are perpendicular to the plane of this Li2C2 ring. Additional strong intermolecular bonding occurs between these phenyllithium dimers and the π electrons of the phenyl groups in the adjacent dimers, resulting in an infinite polymeric ladder structure.
Reduction reactions using sodium in liquid ammonia
Empirical (Na–Cs, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Fr–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) atomic radius of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in angstroms
Empirical (Na–Fr) and predicted (Uue) electron affinity of the alkali metals from the third to the eighth period, measured in electron volts
Empirical (Na–Fr, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Uue–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) ionisation energy of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in electron volts
Similarly to the alkali metals, ammonia reacts with hydrochloric acid to form the salt ammonium chloride.
Very pure thallium pieces in a glass ampoule, stored under argon gas
This sample of uraninite contains about 100,000 atoms (3.3 g) of francium-223 at any given time.
FOCS 1, a caesium atomic clock in Switzerland
Lithium carbonate
A wheel type radiotherapy device which has a long collimator to focus the radiation into a narrow beam. The caesium-137 chloride radioactive source is the blue square, and gamma rays are represented by the beam emerging from the aperture. This was the radiation source involved in the Goiânia accident, containing about 93 grams of caesium-137 chloride.

The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).

- Alkali metal

It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal.

- Lithium

These pairs (lithium (Li) and magnesium (Mg), beryllium (Be) and aluminium (Al), boron (B) and silicon (Si), etc.) exhibit similar properties; for example, boron and silicon are both semiconductors, forming halides that are hydrolysed in water and have acidic oxides.

- Diagonal relationship

2) Li is the only group 1 element which forms a stable nitride, Li3N. Mg, as well as other group 2 elements, also form nitrides.

- Diagonal relationship

Lithium and magnesium have a diagonal relationship due to their similar atomic radii, so that they show some similarities.

- Alkali metal

Lithium has a diagonal relationship with magnesium, an element of similar atomic and ionic radius.

- Lithium
Atomic structure of Lithium-7

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Periodic table

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Tabular display of the chemical elements.

Tabular display of the chemical elements.

3D views of some hydrogen-like atomic orbitals showing probability density and phase (g orbitals and higher are not shown)
Idealized order of shell-filling (most accurate for n  ≲ 4.)
Trend in atomic radii
Graph of first ionisation energies of the elements in electronvolts (predictions used for elements 105–118)
Trend in electron affinities
Flowing liquid mercury. Its liquid state at room temperature is a result of special relativity.
A periodic table colour-coded to show some commonly used sets of similar elements. The categories and their boundaries differ somewhat between sources. Alkali metals
 Alkaline earth metals
 Transition metals Other metals
 Other nonmetals
 Noble gases
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table
Mendeleev's 1871 periodic table
Dmitri Mendeleev
Henry Moseley
Periodic table of van den Broek
Glenn T. Seaborg
One possible form of the extended periodic table to element 172, suggested by Finnish chemist Pekka Pyykkö. Deviations from the Madelung order (8s < < 6f < 7d < 8p) begin to appear at elements 139 and 140, though for the most part it continues to hold approximately.
Otto Theodor Benfey's spiral periodic table (1964)
Iron, a metal
Sulfur, a nonmetal
Arsenic, an element often called a semi-metal or metalloid

Hydrogen is the element with atomic number 1; helium, atomic number 2; lithium, atomic number 3; and so on.

For example, the alkali metals in the first group all have one valence electron, and form a very homogeneous class of elements: they are all soft and reactive metals.

There are some other relationships throughout the periodic table between elements that are not in the same group, such as the diagonal relationships between elements that are diagonally adjacent (e.g. lithium and magnesium).