A report on Alkali metalLithium and Oxide

Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated
Atomic structure of Lithium-7
The unit cell of rutile. Ti(IV) centers are grey; oxygen centers are red. Notice that oxygen forms three bonds to titanium and titanium forms six bonds to oxygen.
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner was among the first to notice similarities between what are now known as the alkali metals.
Lithium ingots with a thin layer of black nitride tarnish
Oxides, such as iron(III) oxide or rust, which consists of hydrated iron(III) oxides Fe2O3·nH2O and iron(III) oxide-hydroxide (FeO(OH), Fe(OH)3), form when oxygen combines with other elements
Lepidolite, the rubidium mineral from which rubidium was first isolated
Lithium floating in oil
Carbon dioxide is the main product of fossil fuel combustion.
Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic system proposed in 1871 showing hydrogen and the alkali metals as part of his group I, along with copper, silver, and gold
Lithium is about as common as chlorine in the Earth's upper continental crust, on a per-atom basis.
Carbon monoxide is the product of the incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels and a precursor to many useful chemicals.
Estimated abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar system. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (lithium, beryllium, and boron) are rare because they are poorly synthesised in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers, and (2) a general decrease in abundance, as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Nova Centauri 2013 is the first in which evidence of lithium has been found.
Nitrogen dioxide is a problematic pollutant from internal combustion engines.
Spodumene, an important lithium mineral
Johan August Arfwedson is credited with the discovery of lithium in 1817
Sulfur dioxide, the principal oxide of sulfur, is emitted from volcanoes.
Effective nuclear charge on an atomic electron
Hexameric structure of the n-butyllithium fragment in a crystal
Nitrous oxide ("laughing gas") is a potent greenhouse gas produced by soil bacteria.
Periodic trend for ionisation energy: each period begins at a minimum for the alkali metals, and ends at a maximum for the noble gases. Predicted values are used for elements beyond 104.
Scatter plots of lithium grade and tonnage for selected world deposits, as of 2017
The variation of Pauling electronegativity (y-axis) as one descends the main groups of the periodic table from the second to the sixth period
Lithium use in flares and pyrotechnics is due to its rose-red flame.
A reaction of 3 pounds (≈ 1.4 kg) of sodium with water
The launch of a torpedo using lithium as fuel
Liquid NaK alloy at room temperature
Lithium deuteride was used as fuel in the Castle Bravo nuclear device.
Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride. On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but that would be geometrically impossible: thus lithium nitride takes on this unique crystal structure.
Estimates of global lithium uses in 2011 (picture) and 2019 (numbers below) 
Ceramics and glass (18%)
Batteries (65%)
Lubricating greases (5%)
Continuous casting (3%)
Air treatment (1%)
Primary aluminum production
Other (5%)
Structure of the octahedral n-butyllithium hexamer, (C4H9Li)6. The aggregates are held together by delocalised covalent bonds between lithium and the terminal carbon of the butyl chain. There is no direct lithium–lithium bonding in any organolithium compound.
Solid phenyllithium forms monoclinic crystals can be described as consisting of dimeric Li2(C6H5)2 subunits. The lithium atoms and the ipso carbons of the phenyl rings form a planar four-membered ring. The plane of the phenyl groups are perpendicular to the plane of this Li2C2 ring. Additional strong intermolecular bonding occurs between these phenyllithium dimers and the π electrons of the phenyl groups in the adjacent dimers, resulting in an infinite polymeric ladder structure.
Reduction reactions using sodium in liquid ammonia
Empirical (Na–Cs, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Fr–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) atomic radius of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in angstroms
Empirical (Na–Fr) and predicted (Uue) electron affinity of the alkali metals from the third to the eighth period, measured in electron volts
Empirical (Na–Fr, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Uue–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) ionisation energy of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in electron volts
Similarly to the alkali metals, ammonia reacts with hydrochloric acid to form the salt ammonium chloride.
Very pure thallium pieces in a glass ampoule, stored under argon gas
This sample of uraninite contains about 100,000 atoms (3.3 g) of francium-223 at any given time.
FOCS 1, a caesium atomic clock in Switzerland
Lithium carbonate
A wheel type radiotherapy device which has a long collimator to focus the radiation into a narrow beam. The caesium-137 chloride radioactive source is the blue square, and gamma rays are represented by the beam emerging from the aperture. This was the radiation source involved in the Goiânia accident, containing about 93 grams of caesium-137 chloride.

The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).

- Alkali metal

It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal.

- Lithium

In part, for this reason, alkali and alkaline earth metals are not found in nature in their metallic, i.e., native, form.

- Oxide

Lithium oxide (Li2O)

- Oxide

When used as a flux for welding or soldering, metallic lithium promotes the fusing of metals during the process and eliminates the forming of oxides by absorbing impurities.

- Lithium

They form various types of oxides, such as simple oxides (containing the O2− ion), peroxides (containing the ion, where there is a single bond between the two oxygen atoms), superoxides (containing the ion), and many others.

- Alkali metal
Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated

2 related topics with Alpha


High-purity caesium-133 stored in argon.


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Chemical element with the symbol Cs and atomic number 55.

Chemical element with the symbol Cs and atomic number 55.

High-purity caesium-133 stored in argon.
Caesium crystals (golden) compared to rubidium crystals (silvery)
Ball-and-stick model of the cubic coordination of Cs and Cl in CsCl
Monatomic caesium halide wires grown inside double-wall carbon nanotubes (TEM image).
Decay of caesium-137
Pollucite, a caesium mineral
Gustav Kirchhoff (left) and Robert Bunsen (centre) discovered caesium with their newly invented spectroscope.
Atomic clock ensemble at the U.S. Naval Observatory
FOCS-1, a continuous cold caesium fountain atomic clock in Switzerland, started operating in 2004 at an uncertainty of one second in 30 million years
Caesium chloride powder
Schematics of an electrostatic ion thruster developed for use with caesium or mercury fuel
The portion of the total radiation dose (in air) contributed by each isotope plotted against time after the Chernobyl disaster. Caesium-137 became the primary source of radiation about 200 days after the accident.

It is a soft, silvery-golden alkali metal with a melting point of 28.5 C, which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature.

The phosphate, acetate, carbonate, halides, oxide, nitrate, and sulfate salts are water-soluble.

The only economically important ore for caesium is pollucite, which is found in a few places around the world in zoned pegmatites, associated with the more commercially important lithium minerals, lepidolite and petalite.

Partially molten rubidium metal in an ampoule


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Chemical element with the symbol Rb and atomic number 37.

Chemical element with the symbol Rb and atomic number 37.

Partially molten rubidium metal in an ampoule
Rubidium crystals (silvery) compared to caesium crystals (golden)
Flame test for rubidium
Gustav Kirchhoff (left) and Robert Bunsen (center) discovered rubidium by spectroscopy. (Henry Enfield Roscoe is on the right side.)
A rubidium fountain atomic clock at the United States Naval Observatory

Rubidium is a very soft, whitish-grey metal in the alkali metal group.

It forms amalgams with mercury and alloys with gold, iron, caesium, sodium, and potassium, but not lithium (even though rubidium and lithium are in the same group).

It occurs naturally in the minerals leucite, pollucite, carnallite, and zinnwaldite, which contain as much as 1% rubidium oxide.