Alkaline earth metal

alkaline earthalkaline earth metalsgroup 2alkali earth metal2alkaline earthsalkalinegroup 2 elementGroup IIalkali earths
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.wikipedia
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Magnesium

MgMg 2+ Mg2+
They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra).
It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure.

Calcium

CaCa 2+ calcium ions
They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra).
As an alkaline earth metal, calcium is a reactive metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air.

Beryllium

Be 7 BeBerillium
They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra).
As a free element it is a steel-gray, strong, lightweight and brittle alkaline earth metal.

Strontium

SrSr 2+ strontium-90
They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra).
An alkaline earth metal, strontium is a soft silver-white yellowish metallic element that is highly chemically reactive.

Radium

Raradium-226 226 Ra
They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra).
It is the sixth element in group 2 of the periodic table, also known as the alkaline earth metals.

Unbinilium

120element 120atomic number 120
Experiments have been conducted to attempt the synthesis of element 120, the next potential member of the group, but they have all met with failure.
In the periodic table of the elements, it is expected to be an s-block element, an alkaline earth metal, and the second element in the eighth period.

Oxidation state

oxidation numberoxidation statesoxidation
that is, this orbital contains its full complement of two electrons, which these elements readily lose to form cations with charge +2, and an oxidation state of +2.

Alkali

alkalinealkalisalkalinity
All the alkaline earth metals except beryllium also react with water to form strongly alkaline hydroxides and, thus, should be handled with great care.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly "ashes of the saltwort") is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.

Chemical element

elementelementschemical elements
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
The version of this classification used in the periodic tables presented here includes: actinides, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, lanthanides, transition metals, post-transition metals, metalloids, reactive nonmetals, and noble gases.

Electron configuration

electronic configurationconfigurationelectronic structure
As with other groups, the members of this family show patterns in their electronic configuration, especially the outermost shells, resulting in trends in chemical behavior:
For example, all the elements of group 2 have an electron configuration of [E] ns (where [E] is an inert gas configuration), and have notable similarities in their chemical properties.

Group (periodic table)

groupgroupsChemical series
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.

Metal

metalsmetal ionsmetal ion
The elements have very similar properties: they are all shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure.
The Metallic elements table in this section categorises the elemental metals on the basis of their chemical properties into alkali and alkaline earth metals; transition and post-transition metals; and lanthanides and actinides.

Barium

BaBa 2+ barium poisoning
They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra).
It is the fifth element in group 2 and is a soft, silvery alkaline earth metal.

Thorium

Ththorium-232thoriated
The longest lived isotope of radium is radium-226 with a half-life of 1600 years; it and radium-223, -224, and -228 occur naturally in the decay chains of primordial thorium and uranium.
In the periodic table published by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869, thorium and the rare-earth elements were placed outside the main body of the table, at the end of each vertical period after the alkaline earth metals.

Uranium

UU 2 U(VI)
The longest lived isotope of radium is radium-226 with a half-life of 1600 years; it and radium-223, -224, and -228 occur naturally in the decay chains of primordial thorium and uranium.
Commercial-grade uranium can be produced through the reduction of uranium halides with alkali or alkaline earth metals.

Calcium chloride

CaCl 2 calciumanhydrous calcium chloride
The alkaline earth metals all react with the halogens to form ionic halides, such as calcium chloride, as well as reacting with oxygen to form oxides such as strontium oxide.
As with most bulk commodity salt products, trace amounts of other cations from the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals (groups 1 and 2) and other anions from the halogens (group 17) typically occur, but the concentrations are trifling.

Aluminium

aluminumAlall-metal
These in turn are thermally decompressed into barium oxide, which eventually yields pure barium after a reaction with aluminium.
The only lighter metals are the metals of groups 1 and 2, which apart from beryllium and magnesium are too reactive for structural use (and beryllium is very toxic).

Transmetalation

transmetallationtransmetalatetransmetalating
Calcium, strontium, and barium react with water to produce hydrogen gas and their respective hydroxides, and also undergo transmetalation reactions to exchange ligands.
Alkaline earth metal complexes have been synthesized by RTLE, employing the same methodology used in synthesizing lanthanide complexes.

Strontium-90

90 Srstrontium 90Sr-90
Radioactive strontium-90 finds some use in RTGs, which utilize its decay heat.
Strontium-90 is a "bone seeker" that exhibits biochemical behavior similar to calcium, the next lighter group 2 element.

Group 12 element

group 1212group 12 elements
The next element with properties similar to the alkaline earth metals has been predicted to be element 166, though due to overlapping orbitals and lower energy gap below the 9s subshell, element 166 may instead be placed in group 12, below copernicium.
So, the trend in this group is unlike the trend in group 2, the alkaline earths, where metallic radius increases smoothly from top to bottom of the group.

Properties of water

waterH 2 Owater molecule
A solution of sodium fluoroberyllate and sodium hydroxide in water is then used to form beryllium hydroxide by precipitation.
It oxidizes chemicals such as hydrides, alkali metals, and some alkaline earth metals.

Plutonium

Puplutonium-239 239 Pu
The synthesis of element 120 was first attempted in March 2007, when a team at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in Dubna bombarded plutonium-244 with iron-58 ions; however, no atoms were produced, leading to a limit of 400 fb for the cross-section at the energy studied.
Exceptions include lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium of the alkali metals; and magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium of the alkaline earth metals; and europium and ytterbium of the rare earth metals.

Periodic table

periodic table of elementsperiodic table of the elementsperiodic system
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.

Reactivity (chemistry)

reactivityreactivechemical reactivity
The elements have very similar properties: they are all shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure.

Standard conditions for temperature and pressure

standard ambient temperature and pressurestandard temperature and pressurestandard conditions
The elements have very similar properties: they are all shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure.