Alkene

olefinalkenesolefinsalkenylolefin polymerizationdouble bondunsaturated-enealkene polymerizationunsaturated hydrocarbons
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains a carbon–carbon double bond (unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two or more double bonds and are known as alkadienes, alkatrienes, alkatetraenes, and so on, the suffix denoting the number of double bonds).wikipedia
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Unsaturated hydrocarbon

unsaturated
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains a carbon–carbon double bond (unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two or more double bonds and are known as alkadienes, alkatrienes, alkatetraenes, and so on, the suffix denoting the number of double bonds).
The configuration of an unsaturated carbons include straight chain, such as alkenes and alkynes, as well as branched chains and aromatic compounds.

Double bond

double bondsdoubledouble-bond
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains a carbon–carbon double bond (unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two or more double bonds and are known as alkadienes, alkatrienes, alkatetraenes, and so on, the suffix denoting the number of double bonds).
The most common double bond occurs between two carbon atoms and can be found in alkenes.

Homologous series

homologuehomologhomologues
Acyclic alkenes, with only one double bond and no other functional groups, known as mono-enes, form a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula n 2n.
(For example, the series of primary straight-chained alcohols has a hydroxyl at the end of the carbon chain.) These properties typically change gradually along the series, and the changes can often be explained by mere differences in molecular size and mass.The name "homologous series" is also often used for any collection of compounds that have similar structures or include the same functional group, such as the general alkanes (straight and branched), the alkenes (olefins), the carbohydrates, etc. However, if the members cannot be arranged in a linear order by a single parameter, the collection may be better called a "chemical family" or "class of homologous compounds" than a "series".

Functional group

groupfunctional groupsmoiety
Acyclic alkenes, with only one double bond and no other functional groups, known as mono-enes, form a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula n 2n.

Butene

butylenebutenesbutylenes
For example, of the isomers of butene, the two methyl groups of (Z)-but-2-ene (a.k.a. cis-2-butene) appear on the same side of the double bond, and in (E)-but-2-ene (a.k.a. trans-2-butene) the methyl groups appear on opposite sides.
Butene, also known as butylene, is a series of alkenes with the general formula C 4 H 8.

Pyramidal alkene

tetradehydrodianthracene
Some pyramidal alkenes are stable.
Pyramidal alkenes are alkenes in which the two carbon atoms making up the double bond are not coplanar with their four substituents.

Hydrocarbon

hydrocarbonsliquid hydrocarbonHC
Acyclic alkenes, with only one double bond and no other functional groups, known as mono-enes, form a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula n 2n.

Propene

propyleneC 3 H 6 propane dehydrogenation
For example, the C–C–C bond angle in propylene is 123.9°.
It has one double bond, and is the second simplest member of the alkene class of hydrocarbons.

Simmons–Smith reaction

Simmons-SmithSimmons-Smith reagentSimmons-Smith intermediate
Examples are hydrohalogenation, halogenation, halohydrin formation, oxymercuration, hydroboration, dichlorocarbene addition, Simmons–Smith reaction, catalytic hydrogenation, epoxidation, radical polymerization and hydroxylation.
The Simmons–Smith reaction is an organic cheletropic reaction involving an organozinc carbenoid that reacts with an alkene (or alkyne) to form a cyclopropane.

Hydrogenation

hydrogenatedcatalytic hydrogenationhydrogenated vegetable oil
Examples are hydrohalogenation, halogenation, halohydrin formation, oxymercuration, hydroboration, dichlorocarbene addition, Simmons–Smith reaction, catalytic hydrogenation, epoxidation, radical polymerization and hydroxylation.
Hydrogenation typically constitutes the addition of pairs of hydrogen atoms to a molecule, often an alkene.

Hydrohalogenation

hydrochlorination
Examples are hydrohalogenation, halogenation, halohydrin formation, oxymercuration, hydroboration, dichlorocarbene addition, Simmons–Smith reaction, catalytic hydrogenation, epoxidation, radical polymerization and hydroxylation.
A hydrohalogenation reaction is the electrophilic addition of hydrohalic acids like hydrogen chloride or hydrogen bromide to alkenes to yield the corresponding haloalkanes.

Halogenation

chlorinationbrominationhalogenated
Examples are hydrohalogenation, halogenation, halohydrin formation, oxymercuration, hydroboration, dichlorocarbene addition, Simmons–Smith reaction, catalytic hydrogenation, epoxidation, radical polymerization and hydroxylation.
Unsaturated compounds, especially alkenes and alkynes, add halogens:

Isomer

isomersisomerismisomeric
As a consequence, substituted alkenes may exist as one of two isomers, called cis or trans isomers.
For alkenes, these descriptors describe relative stereochemistry so can be ambiguous.

Radical polymerization

free-radical polymerizationfree radical polymerizationradical polymerisation
Examples are hydrohalogenation, halogenation, halohydrin formation, oxymercuration, hydroboration, dichlorocarbene addition, Simmons–Smith reaction, catalytic hydrogenation, epoxidation, radical polymerization and hydroxylation.

Addition reaction

addition1,2-additionaddition reactions
Alkenes react in many addition reactions, which occur by opening up the double-bond.
Addition reactions are limited to chemical compounds that have multiple bonds, such as molecules with carbon–carbon double bonds (alkenes), or with triple bonds (alkynes).

Mukaiyama hydration

Alkenes can also be converted into alcohols via the oxymercuration–demercuration reaction, the hydroboration–oxidation reaction or by Mukaiyama hydration.
The Mukaiyama hydration is an organic reaction involving formal addition of an equivalent of water across an olefin by the action of catalytic bis(acetylacetonato)cobalt(II) complex, phenylsilane and atmospheric oxygen to produce an alcohol with Markovnikov selectivity.

Hydration reaction

hydrationhydrateshydratase
Hydration, the addition of water across the double bond of alkenes, yields alcohols.
In organic chemistry, water is added to an unsaturated substrate, which is usually an alkene or an alkyne.

Ozonolysis

Harries ozonide reactionozonizedozonolysis reaction
Reaction with ozone in ozonolysis leads to the breaking of the double bond, yielding two aldehydes or ketones.
Ozonolysis is an organic reaction where the unsaturated bonds of alkenes, alkynes, or azo compounds are cleaved with ozone.

Organic redox reaction

reductionoxidationorganic reduction
Alkenes are oxidized with a large number of oxidizing agents.
Classical reductions include alkene reduction to alkanes and classical oxidations include oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes.

Markovnikov's rule

anti-Markovnikovanti-Markovnikov additionMarkovnikov
This patterns is known as Markovnikov's rule.
The rule states that with the addition of a protic acid HX to an asymmetric alkene, the acid hydrogen (H) gets attached to the carbon with more hydrogen substituents, and the halide (X) group gets attached to the carbon with more alkyl substituents.

Epoxide

epoxidationepoxidesepoxidized
Examples are hydrohalogenation, halogenation, halohydrin formation, oxymercuration, hydroboration, dichlorocarbene addition, Simmons–Smith reaction, catalytic hydrogenation, epoxidation, radical polymerization and hydroxylation.
Aside from ethylene oxide, most epoxides are generated by treating alkenes with peroxide-containing reagents, which donate a single oxygen atom.

Diene

conjugated dienedienes1,3-Dienes
A common example is the [4+2]-cycloaddition of singlet oxygen with a diene such as cyclopentadiene to yield an endoperoxide:
They thus contain two alkene units, with the standard prefix di of systematic nomenclature.

Polyolefin

polyolefinspolyalphaolefinpolyalphaolefins
Polymers from alkene monomers are referred to in a general way as polyolefins or in rare instances as polyalkenes.
A polyolefin is a type of polymer produced from a simple olefin (also called an alkene with the general formula C n H 2n ) as a monomer.

Dichlorocarbene

dibromocarbeneCCl 2 chlorocarbene
Examples are hydrohalogenation, halogenation, halohydrin formation, oxymercuration, hydroboration, dichlorocarbene addition, Simmons–Smith reaction, catalytic hydrogenation, epoxidation, radical polymerization and hydroxylation.
Dichlorocarbene reacts with alkenes in a formal [1+2]cycloaddition to form geminal dichlorocyclopropanes.

Halohydrin

chlorohydrinhalohydrin formation reactionbromohydrin
Examples are hydrohalogenation, halogenation, halohydrin formation, oxymercuration, hydroboration, dichlorocarbene addition, Simmons–Smith reaction, catalytic hydrogenation, epoxidation, radical polymerization and hydroxylation.
Halohydrins are usually prepared by treatment of an alkene with a halogen, in the presence of water.