A report on Ganges and Allahabad

Bhagirathi River at Gangotri.
The Ashoka pillar at Allahabad (photo c. 1900) contains many inscriptions since the 3rd-century BCE. Sometime about 1575 CE, Birbal of Akbar's era added an inscription that mentions the "Magh mela at Prayag Tirth Raj".
Devprayag, confluence of Alaknanda (right) and Bhagirathi (left), and beginning of the Ganges proper.
Allahabad Fort, built by Mughal Emperor Akbar in 1575 on the banks of the Yamuna River.
The Himalayan headwaters of the Ganges River in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India.
Tomb of Nithar Begum (daughter of Mughal Emperor Jahangir) at Khusro Bagh.
The Gandhi Setu Bridge across the Ganges in Patna, Bihar
Mahatma Gandhi at a January 1940 Congress Working Committee meeting with Vallabhbhai Patel and Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit at Anand Bhavan in Allahabad
A sailboat on the main distributory of the Ganges in Bangladesh, the Padma river.
Allahabad University, established in 1887, is one of the oldest modern universities in the Indian subcontinent.
The Ganges delta in a 2020 satellite image.
Pilgrims at the Triveni Sangam, the confluence of the Ganges and the Yamuna rivers in Allahabad.
A 1908 map showing the course of the Ganges and its tributaries.
The Yamuna in Allahabad during the rainy season
The River Ganges at Kolkata, with Howrah Bridge in the background
A typical Indian peacock, found in Allahabad on a large scale
Lower Ganges in Lakshmipur, Bangladesh
The Allahabad High Court is India's fourth-oldest high court
Hardinge Bridge, Bangladesh, crosses the Ganges-Padma River. It is one of the key sites for measuring streamflow and discharge on the lower Ganges.
New Yamuna Bridge in Allahabad
Chromolithograph, Indian woman floating lamps on the Ganges, by William Simpson, 1867
MLN Medical College, the Government Medical College in Allahabad
Descent of Ganga, painting by Raja Ravi Varma c. 1910
Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, a public engineering and management school
Preparations for cremations on the banks of the Ganges in Varanasi], 1903. The dead are being bathed, wrapped in cloth, and covered with wood. The photograph has a caption, "Who dies in the waters of the Ganges obtains heaven."]
Anand Bhavan, owned by Indian political leader Motilal Nehru
Women and children at a bathing ghat on the Ganges in Banares (Varanasi), 1885.
A procession of pilgrims cross the Ganges during the 2001 Kumbh Mela in Allahabad
Shiva, as Gangadhara, bearing the Descent of the Ganges, as the goddess Parvati, the sage Bhagiratha, and the bull Nandi look on (circa 1740).
A procession of Akharas marching over a makeshift bridge over the Ganges River. Kumbh Mela at Allahabad, 2001.
Head works of the Ganges canal in Haridwar (1860). Photograph by Samuel Bourne.
The Ganges Canal highlighted in red stretching between its headworks off the Ganges River in Haridwar and its confluences with the Jumna (Yamuna) River in Etawah and with the Ganges in Cawnpore (now Kanpur).
A girl selling plastic containers in Haridwar for carrying Ganges water.
Ganges from Space
Lesser florican (Sypheotides indicus)
The catla (Catla catla) is one of the Indian carp species that support major fisheries in the Ganges
The threatened gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is a large fish-eating crocodilian that is harmless to humans
The Gangetic dolphin in a sketch by Whymper and P. Smit, 1894.
People bathing and washing clothes in the Ganges in Varanasi.
The Ganges at Sultanganj.

Allahabad lies close to Triveni Sangam, the "three-river confluence" of the Ganges, Yamuna and Sarasvati rivers.

- Allahabad

The Ganges joins the 1444 km long River Yamuna at the Triveni Sangam at Allahabad, (now Prayagraj) a confluence considered holy in Hinduism.

- Ganges

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Overall

Uttar Pradesh

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State in northern India.

State in northern India.

A part of the Gangetic Plain
Monsoon clouds over Indirapuram
Divisions of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh is the largest subdivion by population in the world. The red area has a smaller population than Uttar Pradesh.
Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha), the lower house of the bicameral legislature.
Logo of Uttar Pradesh Police, the largest police force in the world.
Sown saplings of rice in a paddy; located in the rich fertile Indo-Gangetic Plain, agriculture is the largest employment generator in the state.
IT premise in Noida, which is known for infrastructure and services, as well as high-end housing complexes.
A section of Delhi–Noida Direct Flyway
Indian field hockey legend Major Dhyan Chand
Ekana Cricket Stadium in Lucknow.
JRHU is the world's first school for the handicapped
Central Drug Research Institute, an autonomous multidisciplinary research institute
Kumbh Mela 2013 at Sangam, Allahabad
The battle of Kurukshetra, folio from the Mahabharata
Kathak dancer performing
Devotees inside Krishna temple during Lathmaar Holi
Uttar Pradeshi thali with naan, sultani dal, raita, and shahi paneer
Paan (betel leaves) being served with silver foil
Anandabodhi tree in Jetavana Monastery, Sravasti
A hybrid nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) showing nectar spur, found mainly in Hardoi district
View of the Terai region
The threatened Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is a large fish-eating crocodilian found in the Ganges River

The state is divided into 18 divisions and 75 districts, with the state capital being Lucknow, and Prayagraj serving as the judicial capital.

The two major rivers of the state, the Ganges and its tributary Yamuna, meet at the Triveni Sangam in Prayagraj, a Hindu pilgrimage site.

Kabir, a 15th-century Indian mystic poet and saint

Varanasi

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Kabir, a 15th-century Indian mystic poet and saint
Banarasi sari
Tourists shopping for jewellery in Varanasi
Ganges view from Bhadaini water works, Varanasi
Ramnagar Fort was built in 1750 by Kashi Naresh Raja Balwant Singh.
Alamgiri Mosque
Memorial of Sant Ravidas at Sant Ravidas Ghat
Sarnath, the suburb of Varanasi
Bharat Kala Bhavan Museum, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
Wall paintings, Varanasi, 1973
Sant Goswami Tulsidas Awadhi Hindi poet and propagator of Bhakthi music in Varanasi
Krishna standing on serpent Kaliya during Nag Nathaiya festival in Varanasi
The Banaras Hindu University in Varanasi
Indian Institute of Technology in Varanasi
The Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport is the main airport that serves Varanasi.
Varanasi Junction, is the main railway station which serves Varanasi.
Banaras railway station at night
Ring Road Phase I
Road in Varanasi Cantonment
BLW manufactured locomotives hauling load across the nation.
A lithograph by James Prinsep (1832) of a Brahmin placing a garland on the holiest location in the city.
A painting by Edwin Lord Weeks (1883) of Varanasi, viewed from the Ganges.
An illustration (1890) of Bathing Ghat in Varanasi.
Maharaja of Benares, 1870s.
Map of the city, c. 1914.
An 1895 photograph of the Varanasi riverfront.
The lanes of Varanasi are bathed in a plethora of colours.
Dashashwamedh Ghat
Manikarnika Ghat
The Jain Ghat/Bachraj Ghat
Kedar Ghat during Kartika Purnima
The Kashi Vishwanath Temple, the most important temple in Varanasi.
Shri Vishwanath Mandir has the tallest temple tower in the world.<ref name="Brief description">{{cite news|title=Brief description|publisher=Benaras Hindu University website|access-date=7 March 2015|url=http://www.bhu.ac.in/VT/|url-status=dead |archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/6zTH4V8Me?url=http://www.bhu.ac.in/VT/ |archive-date=17 May 2018}}</ref>
The 18th century Durga Kund Temple
Parshvanath Jain temple

Varanasi is a city on the Ganges river in northern India that has a central place in pilgrimage, death, and mourning in the Hindu world, even as the traditions are transformed in the face of modernization, generational changes and emigration.

It is 692 km to the southeast of India's capital New Delhi, 320 km south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and 121 km east of Allahabad, another Hindu pilgrimage site.

North India

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Loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.

Loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.

States under Northern India Zonal Council in orange
Late Vedic Culture (1100-500 BCE)
Vedic India covered North, Central, Western and Eastern India
Children playing cricket in North Indian state of Himachal Pradesh
Sunset on the sand dunes at Thar desert located in North Indian state of Rajasthan
Distribution of Indo-Aryan languages.
North Indian Hindu bride in Lehenga
Chinkara in Madhya Pradesh, India
Goat at Great Himalayan national Park in Himachal Pradesh
Jim Corbett National Park
Sunrise in Kishtwar National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Akshardham Temple, Delhi
The Taj Mahal at Agra
Amer Fort in Rajasthan
India's Köppen climate classification map is based on native vegetation, temperature, precipitation and their seasonality.(Major categories)
(Am) Tropical monsoon
(Aw) Tropical savanna, wet & dry
(BWh) Hot desert
(BWk) Cold desert
(BSh) Hot semi arid
(Cwa) Subtropical humid summer, dry winter
(Cwb) Subtropical highland, dry wint

It has a diverse culture, and includes the Hindu pilgrimage centres of Char Dham, Haridwar, Varanasi, Ayodhya, Mathura, Allahabad, Vaishno Devi and Pushkar, the Buddhist pilgrimage centres of Sarnath and Kushinagar, the Sikh Golden Temple as well as world heritage sites such as the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Khajuraho temples, Hill Forts of Rajasthan, Jantar Mantar (Jaipur), Qutb Minar, Red Fort, Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri and the Taj Mahal.

Varanasi, on the banks of the River Ganga, is considered one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world and the second oldest in India after Nalanda.

Kanpur from the river in 1858

Kanpur

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Industrial city in the central-western part of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Industrial city in the central-western part of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Kanpur from the river in 1858
Kanpur skyline
Kanpur Municipal Corporation HQ
Kanpur Central Railway Station
Faculty Building, IIT Kanpur
Aerial view of Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University

Nestled on the banks of Ganges River, Kanpur stands as the major financial and industrial centre of North India and also the ninth-largest urban economy in India.

They surrendered on the agreement that they would get safe passage to the nearby Satti Chaura Ghat whereupon they would board barges and be allowed to go by river to Allahabad.

Doab

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Term used in South Asia for the tract of land lying between two confluent rivers.

Term used in South Asia for the tract of land lying between two confluent rivers.

The Doab, United Provinces, 1908 map
A map of the Punjab region showing the different doabs
In any doab, khadir land (green) lies next to a river, while bangar land (olive) has greater elevation and lies further from the river

The Doab designates the flat alluvial tract between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers extending from the Sivalik Hills to the two rivers' confluence at Prayagraj.

A Balinese Hindu family after puja at Bratan temple in Bali, Indonesia

Hinduism

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Variously defined as an Indian religion, a set of religious beliefs or practices, a religious tradition, a way of life, or dharma—a religious and universal order by which followers abide.

Variously defined as an Indian religion, a set of religious beliefs or practices, a religious tradition, a way of life, or dharma—a religious and universal order by which followers abide.

A Balinese Hindu family after puja at Bratan temple in Bali, Indonesia
Om, a stylized letter of Devanagari script, used as a religious symbol in Hinduism
Swami Vivekananda was a key figure in introducing Vedanta and Yoga in Europe and the United States, raising interfaith awareness and making Hinduism a world religion.
Ganesha is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon.
The Hare Krishna group at the Esplanadi Park in Helsinki, Finland
The festival of lights, Diwali, is celebrated by Hindus all over the world.
Hindus in Ghana celebrating Ganesh Chaturti
Holi celebrated at the Sri Sri Radha Krishna Temple in Utah, United States.
Kedar Ghat, a bathing place for pilgrims on the Ganges at Varanasi
Priests performing Kalyanam (marriage) of the holy deities at Bhadrachalam Temple, in Telangana. It is one of the temples in India, where Kalyanam is done everyday throughout the year.
A statue of Shiva in yogic meditation.
Basic Hindu symbols: Shatkona, Padma, and Swastika.
Kauai Hindu monastery in Kauai Island in Hawaii is the only Hindu Monastery in the North American continent.
A sadhu in Madurai, India.
The Hindu Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram was built by Narasimhavarman II.
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This pilgrimage rotates at a gap of three years among four sites: Prayag Raj at the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna rivers, Haridwar near source of the Ganges, Ujjain on the Shipra river and Nasik on the bank of the Godavari river.

Haridwar Kumbh Mela in 2010

Kumbh Mela

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Major pilgrimage and festival in Hinduism.

Major pilgrimage and festival in Hinduism.

Haridwar Kumbh Mela in 2010
Prayagraj Maha Kumbh Mela in 2013
A 2019 stamp dedicated to Kumbh Mela
Prayagraj Maha Kumbh Mela in 2013
A pot (Kumbh) containing Amrita was one of the creative product of the Samudra manthan legend in ancient Hindu texts.
Large crowds at the Ganga (Ganges) on a major bathing day in the 2019 Kumbh Mela
The first page of Prayag Snana Vidhi manuscript (Sanskrit, Devanagari script). It describes methods to complete a bathing pilgrimage at Prayag. The manuscript (1674 CE) has a colophon, which states "Copied by Sarvottama, son of Vishvanatha Bhatta, Samvat 1752".
Hindu pilgrims heading to the Kumbh Mela site
The Ashoka pillar at Allahabad (photo c. 1900) contains many inscriptions since the 3rd-century BCE. Sometime about 1575 CE, Birbal of Akbar's era added an inscription that mentions the "Magh mela at Prayag Tirth Raj".
Haridwar Kumbh Mela by the English painter J. M. W. Turner. Steel engraving, c. 1850s.
A cultural program pandal at Prayag Kumbh Mela (2019)
Kumbh Mela – a dip in the waters is one of the key rituals.
Cooking at Kumbh Mela in 2019.
Triveni Sangam during Allahabad Kumbh Mela, c. 2013.
Kumbh Mela at Haridwar.
Nashik Pilgrims gather for the Shahi Snan (royal bath) in Ramkund in Dakshin Ganga River, c. 1991.
Naga sadhu at a Kumbh procession (1998).
Water dip at the Kumbh festival
A cultural event at a Kumbh Mela pandal
A sadhu at Maha Kumbh, 2013.

It is celebrated in a cycle of approximately 12 years, to celebrate every revolution Brihaspati (Jupiter) completes, at four river-bank pilgrimage sites: Allahabad (Ganges-Yamuna-Sarasvati rivers confluence), Haridwar (Ganges), Nashik (Godavari), and Ujjain (Shipra).

The Khulasat-ut-Tawarikh lists the following melas: an annual mela and a Kumbh Mela every 12 years at Haridwar; a mela held at Trimbak when Jupiter enters Leo (that is, once in 12 years); and an annual mela held at Prayag (in modern Allahabad) in Magh.

Confluence of the Dhauliganga (right) with the Alaknanda (left) at Vishnuprayag

Panch Prayag

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Expression in Hindu religious ethos, specifically used to connote the five sacred river confluences in the Garhwal Himalayas in the state of Uttarakhand, India.

Expression in Hindu religious ethos, specifically used to connote the five sacred river confluences in the Garhwal Himalayas in the state of Uttarakhand, India.

Confluence of the Dhauliganga (right) with the Alaknanda (left) at Vishnuprayag
The Nandakini River (foreground) meets the Alaknanda River (background) in Nandprayag, in the Garhwal Himalayas, Uttarakhand, India.
Karna Prayag confluence of Alaknanda and Pindar Rivers
Rudraprayag, the confluence of the Alaknanda (foreground) and the Mandakini rivers.
Dev Prayag - Confluence of Alakananda (right) and Bhagirathi (left) Rivers

It starts with the Vishnu Prayag on the Alaknanda River, which is one of the two source streams of the river Ganga in the Garhwal Himalayas; the other streams are the Dhauliganga, Nandakini, Pindar, Mandakini and the Bhagirathi - the head stream of the Ganges.

While the Prayag at Allahabad, where the three rivers namely, the Ganges, the Yamuna and the Saraswati confluence, is considered the holiest, the Panch Prayag of Garhwal Himalayas are the next in the order of piety.