Allied-occupied Austria

AustriaAllied occupationAllied occupation of AustriaAustria (under Allied occupation)Allied-administered AustriaOccupation of Austriaoccupation forcesoccupied AustriaAlliedAllied-occupied
The Allied occupation of Austria started on 27 April 1945 as a result of the Vienna Offensive and ended with the Austrian State Treaty on 27 July 1955.wikipedia
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Austria – the Nazis' first victim

accused of war crimesAustria was considered a ''victim'' of Nazi GermanyAustria was the first victim
In 1943 however, the Allies agreed in the Declaration of Moscow that Austria would instead be regarded as the first victim of Nazi aggression, and treated as a liberated and independent country after the war.
"Austria – the Nazis' first victim" was a political slogan first used at the Moscow Conference in 1943 which went on to become the ideological basis for Austria and the national self-consciousness of Austrians during the periods of the allied occupation of 1945-1955 and the sovereign state of the Second Austrian Republic (1955–1980s).

Allied Control Council

Four PowersAlliedAllied Control Commission
Vienna was similarly subdivided but the central district was collectively administered by the Allied Control Council.
The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in the German language as the Alliierter Kontrollrat and also referred to as the Four Powers (Vier Mächte), was the governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany and Austria after the end of World War II in Europe.

Vienna

Vienna, AustriaWienViennese
Vienna was similarly subdivided but the central district was collectively administered by the Allied Control Council.
After the war, Vienna was part of Soviet-occupied Eastern Austria until September 1945.

Cold War

The Cold WarCold War eraCold-War
Whereas Germany was divided into East and West Germany in 1949, Austria remained under joint occupation of the Western Allies and of the Soviet Union until 1955; its status became a controversial subject in the Cold War until the warming of relations known as the Khrushchev Thaw.
In Germany and Austria, France, Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States established zones of occupation and a loose framework for parceled four-power control.

Central Group of Forces

Central Groups of ForcesCGFpermanent occupation force
Red Army morale fell as soldiers prepared to be sent home; replacement of combat units with Ivan Konev's permanent occupation force only marginally reduced misbehaviour.
The Central Group of Forces was created around that time from the 1st Ukrainian Front to control troops in Austria and Hungary, and did so from 1945 until 1955, when Soviet troops were withdrawn from Austria after the Austrian State Treaty was agreed.

Austrian People's Party

ÖVPPeople's PartyAustrian People’s Party
The coalition of Christian Democrats (ÖVP) and Social Democrats (SPÖ), backed by 90% of the votes, assumed control over the cabinet and offered the position of Federal Chancellor to Christian Democrat Julius Raab.
A successor to the Christian Social Party of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was founded immediately following the reestablishment of the Republic of Austria in 1945 and since then has been one of the two largest Austrian political parties with the Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ).

Julius Raab

Chancellor Raab
The coalition of Christian Democrats (ÖVP) and Social Democrats (SPÖ), backed by 90% of the votes, assumed control over the cabinet and offered the position of Federal Chancellor to Christian Democrat Julius Raab.
Raab steered Allied-occupied Austria to independence, when he negotiated and signed the Austrian State Treaty in 1955.

Administration for Soviet Property in Austria

USIAcorporationRussian zone
On 27 June 1946, they amalgamated these assets into the USIA, a conglomerate of over 400 enterprises.
The Administration for Soviet Property in Austria, or the USIA was formed in the Soviet zone of Allied-occupied Austria in June 1946 and operated until the withdrawal of Soviet troops in 1955.

Border control

border crossingimmigration policyInternational Zone
The historical center of Vienna was declared an international zone, in which occupation forces changed every month.

Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)

expelledexpulsion of Germans after World War IIexpulsion of Germans
The "thirty-second decision" of the Council of Foreign Ministers to grant South Tyrol to Italy (4 September 1945) disregarded popular opinion in Austria and the possible effects of a forced repatriation of 200,000 German-speaking Tyroleans.
By 1950, a total of approximately 12 million Germans had fled or were expelled from east-central Europe into Allied-occupied Germany and Austria.

Potsdam Agreement

PotsdamTreaty of Potsdamagreed
The Potsdam Agreement allowed confiscation of "German external assets" in Austria, and the Soviets used the vagueness of this definition to the full.

Carinthia

KärntenCarinthianAustrian Carinthia
Vorarlberg and North Tyrol were assigned to the French Zone; Salzburg and Upper Austria south of the Danube to the American Zone; East Tyrol, Carinthia, and Styria to the British Zone; and Burgenland, Lower Austria, and the Mühlviertel area of Upper Austria, north of the Danube, to the Soviet Zone.
Carinthia, East Tyrol, and Styria then formed the UK occupation zone of Allied-administered Austria.

B-Gendarmerie

The British had been quietly arming gendarmes, the so-called B-Gendarmerie, since 1945 and discussed the creation of a proper Austrian military in 1947.
The B-Gendarmerie was the predecessor of the Federal Armed Forces in Allied-occupied Austria after World War II.

Austrian State Treaty

Austrian Independence TreatyTreaty of ViennaAllied Occupation of Austria
The Allied occupation of Austria started on 27 April 1945 as a result of the Vienna Offensive and ended with the Austrian State Treaty on 27 July 1955.

Vienna Offensive

ViennaBattle of Vienna13 April 1945
The Allied occupation of Austria started on 27 April 1945 as a result of the Vienna Offensive and ended with the Austrian State Treaty on 27 July 1955. On 3 April, at the beginning of the Vienna Offensive, the Austrian politician Karl Renner, then living in southern Lower Austria, established contact with the Soviets.

Karl Renner

RennerChancellor RennerKarl Renner’s
On 3 April, at the beginning of the Vienna Offensive, the Austrian politician Karl Renner, then living in southern Lower Austria, established contact with the Soviets.

East Tyrol

East TirolEastern TyrolE-Tyrol
Vorarlberg and North Tyrol were assigned to the French Zone; Salzburg and Upper Austria south of the Danube to the American Zone; East Tyrol, Carinthia, and Styria to the British Zone; and Burgenland, Lower Austria, and the Mühlviertel area of Upper Austria, north of the Danube, to the Soviet Zone.
After World War II East Tyrol became part of the British occupied zone of Austria.

Mark W. Clark

Mark ClarkMark Wayne ClarkGeneral Mark Clark
American High Commissioner Mark W. Clark vocally resisted Soviet expansionist intentions, and his reports to Washington, along with George F. Kennan's The Long Telegram, supported Truman's tough stance against the Soviets.
Later in 1945, as Commander in Chief of US Forces of Occupation in Austria, Clark gained experience negotiating with Communists, which he would put to good use a few years later.

1945 Austrian legislative election

19451945 legislative electionElections to the Austrian National Council
The election held on 25 November 1945 was a blow for the Communist Party of Austria which received a bit more than 5% of the vote.
The Communists only gained four seats, which some blamed on the conduct of the Red Army in the Soviet occupied zone of Austria.

Federation of Independents

VdUVerband der UnabhängigenElectoral Party of Independents
The B-Gendarmerie knowingly hired Wehrmacht veterans and VdU members; the denazification of Austria's 537,000 registered Nazis had largely ended in 1948.
On the next day the constituent assembly was held at Salzburg, then in the US occupation zone.

1950 Austrian general strikes

The government and the unions deadlocked in negotiations, and gave the communists the opportunity to organize the 1950 Austrian general strikes which became the gravest threat since the 1947 food riots.
Allied-occupied Austria was split into four occupation zones.

Anschluss

annexation of AustriaAnschlußannexation
He put forward three conditions for Austrian independence: neutrality, no foreign military bases, and guarantees against a new Anschluss.
Henceforth, Austria was recognized as a separate country, although it remained divided into occupation zones and controlled by the Allied Commission until 1955, when the Austrian State Treaty restored its sovereignty.

Soviet War Memorial (Vienna)

Soviet War MemorialHeroes' Monument of the Red Army in ViennaRussisches-Helden-Denkmal (War Memorial of the Red Army)
The Soviets left in Vienna the large Soviet War Memorial and to the new government a symbolic cache of small arms, artillery, and T-34 tanks; the Americans left a far greater gift of "Stockpile A" assets.
The agreement mandated the creation of four occupation zones (American, British, French and Soviet) in Vienna, similar to Berlin.

Geoffrey Wallinger

Sir Geoffrey WallingerGeoffrey Arnold WallingerSir Geoffrey Arnold Wallinger
Western powers were stunned; Wallinger reported to London that the deal "was far too good to be true, to be honest".
He was appointed Ambassador to Austria in 1954, but served as High Commissioner until Austria was released from Allied occupation; during that time he completed the negotiations of, and signed, the Austrian Independence Treaty of May 1955.

Allied-occupied Germany

GermanyBritish occupation zoneoccupied Germany
On 9 July 1945 the Allies agreed on the borders of their occupation zones.