Allied Control Council

Four PowersAlliedAllied Control CommissionControl Commission for GermanyAllied Control AuthorityAllied Control Council for GermanyAllied OccupationAllied occupation of GermanyControl CommissionFour Power Allied Control Council
The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in the German language as the Alliierter Kontrollrat and also referred to as the Four Powers (Vier Mächte), was the governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany and Austria after the end of World War II in Europe.wikipedia
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Allied-occupied Austria

AustriaAllied occupationAllied occupation of Austria
The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in the German language as the Alliierter Kontrollrat and also referred to as the Four Powers (Vier Mächte), was the governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany and Austria after the end of World War II in Europe.
Vienna was similarly subdivided but the central district was collectively administered by the Allied Control Council.

Schöneberg

Berlin-SchönebergSchoenebergSchöneberg, Berlin
The organisation was based in Berlin-Schöneberg. During its short active life, the Allied Control Council was housed in and operated from the former building of the Kammergericht, the supreme court of the state of Prussia, which is situated in Berlin's Schöneberg borough in the American sector.

European Advisory Commission

EAC Protocols
Most of the planning was carried out by the European Advisory Commission (EAC) established in early 1944.

Control Council Law No. 1 - Repealing of Nazi Laws

Law no. 1 of the Control Council
Law no. 1 of the Control Council (also enacted on 20 September 1945) repealed some of the stricter Nazi laws enacted under the Third Reich.
1''') was a law passed by the Allied Control Council for post-World War II Germany on 20 September 1945.

End of World War II in Europe

1945end of the war in Europeend of the war
The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in the German language as the Alliierter Kontrollrat and also referred to as the Four Powers (Vier Mächte), was the governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany and Austria after the end of World War II in Europe.
Allied Control Council created to effect the Allies assumed supreme authority over Germany, specifically to implement their assumed joint authority over Germany.

Berlin Declaration (1945)

Berlin DeclarationDeclaration Regarding the Defeat of Germany1945 Berlin Declaration
On 5 June 1945, in Berlin, the supreme commanders of the four occupying powers signed a common Declaration Regarding the Defeat of Germany (the so-called Berlin Declaration of 1945), which formally confirmed the total dissolution of the Third Reich at the death of Adolf Hitler and the consequent termination of any German governance over the nation:
This spelled out the Allied position that, following the gross criminal abuses of Nazism, and in the circumstances of complete defeat, Germany now had no government or central administration, and that the vacated civil authority in Germany had consequently been assumed as a condominium of the four Allied Representative Powers on behalf of the Allied Governments overall; an authority subsequently constituted into the Allied Control Council.

Abolition of Prussia

25 February 1947abolishedan Allied decree
46 (25 February 1947) proclaimed the abolition of Prussia as an administrative unit within Germany, citing past militarism associated with that name as the cause for the change.
The formal abolition of Prussia (Abschaffung von Preußen) occurred on 25 February 1947, by decree of the Allied Control Council.

Denazification

de-NazificationdenazifiedDefunct
Denazification in Germany was attempted through a series of directives issued by the Allied Control Council, seated in Berlin, beginning in January 1946.

Potsdam Agreement

PotsdamTreaty of Potsdamagreed
The Potsdam Agreement of 2 August 1945 further specified the tasks of the Control Council. De Gaulle had not been invited to the Potsdam Conference and accordingly the French did not accept any obligation to abide by the Potsdam Agreement in the proceedings of the Allied Control Council.

Potsdam Conference

Potsdamin 1945Potsdam negotiations
De Gaulle had not been invited to the Potsdam Conference and accordingly the French did not accept any obligation to abide by the Potsdam Agreement in the proceedings of the Allied Control Council.
At the Yalta Conference France had been granted an occupation zone within Germany, France had been a participant in the Berlin Declaration, and France was to be an equal member of the Allied Control Council.

Allied Commission

Allied Control CommissionAllied Commission for AustriaControl Commission
The purpose of the Allied Control Council in Germany, like the other Allied Control Commissions and Councils which were established by the Allies over every defeated Axis power, was to deal with the central administration of the country (an idea that hardly materialised in the case of Germany, as that administration totally broke down with the end of the war) and to assure that the military administration was carried out with a certain uniformity throughout all of Germany.
The Allied Control Council (ACC) for Germany oversaw the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany.

President of Germany (1919–1945)

PresidentPresident of GermanyReichspräsident
After the death of Adolf Hitler on 30 April 1945, Karl Dönitz assumed the title of Reichspräsident in accordance with Hitler's last political testament.
On 5 June 1945, the four occupying powers signed a document creating the Allied Control Council, that did not mention the name of the previous German government.

Office of Military Government, United States

OMGUSAmerican military governmentOffice of Military Government
Within each zone each power ran its own administration, such as the Gouvernement Militaire de la Zone Française d'Occupation en Allemagne (GMZFO) in Karlsruhe, the Soviet Military Administration in Germany (Советская военная администрация в Германии, СВАГ; Sovetskaia Voennaia Administratsia v Germanii, SVAG) in East Berlin, the Control Commission for Germany - British Element (CCG/BE) in Bad Oeynhausen and the Office of Military Government, United States (OMGUS) in West Berlin and Frankfurt.
The Allied Control Council comprised military authorities from the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and France.

Berlin Blockade

Berlin AirliftBerlin Air Liftblockade
As the Control Council could only act with the agreement of all four members, this move basically shut down the institution, while the Cold War reached an early high point during the Soviet blockade of Berlin of 1948-49.
The Allied Control Council (ACC) met for the last time on 20 March 1948, when Vasily Sokolovsky demanded to know the outcome of the London Conference and, on being told by negotiators that they had not yet heard the final results from their governments, he said, "I see no sense in continuing this meeting, and I declare it adjourned."

German Instrument of Surrender

surrender of GermanyGerman surrenderDisestablishment
The German Instrument of Surrender signed in Berlin had been drafted by the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force and was modeled on the one used a few days previously for the surrender of the German forces in Italy.
This spelled out the Allied position that as a result of its complete defeat Germany had no government or central authority, and that the vacated civil authority in Germany had consequently been assumed solely by the four Allied Representative Powers (the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the French Republic) on behalf of the Allied Governments overall, an authority subsequently constituted into the Allied Control Council.

East Germany

East GermanGerman Democratic RepublicGDR
In Eastern Germany, the Soviet administration with its representative of the ACC was the highest authority, later this position was converted to a High Commissioner as well, until the German Democratic Republic gained sovereignty.
In the Yalta and Potsdam conferences, the Allies established their joint military occupation and administration of Germany via the Allied Control Council (ACC), a four-power (US, UK, USSR, France) military government effective until the restoration of German sovereignty.

Allied High Commission

High CommissionerU.S. High CommissionerAllied High Commission for Germany
The Western powers instituted the Allied High Commission by September 1949 which remained in operation until 1955 and which approved the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Allied High Commission (also known as the High Commission for Occupied Germany, HICOG; in German Alliierte Hohe Kommission, AHK) was established by the United States, the United Kingdom, and France after the 1948 breakdown of the Allied Control Council to regulate and supervise the development of the newly established Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany).

Nuremberg trials

NurembergInternational Military TribunalNuremberg Trial
Shortly after the commencement of the Nuremberg Trial, the council enacted Law no. The Allied Control Council was not formally dissolved but ceased all activity except the operations of the Four-Power Authorities, namely the management of the Spandau Prison where persons convicted at the Nuremberg Trials were held until 1987 and the Berlin Air Safety Center.
Political authority for Germany had been transferred to the Allied Control Council which, having sovereign power over Germany, could choose to punish violations of international law and the laws of war.

Flensburg Government

FlensburgDönitz GovernmentCabinet Schwerin von Krosigk
As such, he authorised the signing of the unconditional surrender of all German armed forces, which took effect on 8 May 1945 and tried to establish a government under Ludwig Graf Schwerin von Krosigk in Flensburg.
During the initial stage of the occupation of Germany, supreme authority was discharged by the Four Powers jointly for all occupation zones via the Allied Control Council, so that this council was the immediate successor of the Dönitz Administration in the Government of Germany.

Prussia

PrussianPrussian statePrussian army
During its short active life, the Allied Control Council was housed in and operated from the former building of the Kammergericht, the supreme court of the state of Prussia, which is situated in Berlin's Schöneberg borough in the American sector.
Prussia existed de jure until its formal abolition by the Allied Control Council Enactment No.

IG Farben

I.G. FarbenI. G. FarbenI.G. Farbenindustrie
7) provided for the confiscation of all assets owned by the IG Farben conglomerate.
On 30 November 1945 Allied Control Council Law No.

Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany

Two Plus Four AgreementTwo Plus Four TreatyTwo Plus Four
Germany remained under nominal military occupation until 15 March 1991, when the final ratification of the Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany (signed on 12 September 1990) was lodged with the German Government. After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the departure of Russian troops in August 1994 (a withdrawal that took place in accordance with article 4 of the Two Plus Four Treaty), the building was returned to the German government.
The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany (Vertrag über die abschließende Regelung in Bezug auf Deutschland), or the Two Plus Four Agreement (Zwei-plus-Vier-Vertrag; short: German Treaty), was negotiated in 1990 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (the eponymous Two), and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Spandau Prison

SpandauSpandau Allied Prison
The Allied Control Council was not formally dissolved but ceased all activity except the operations of the Four-Power Authorities, namely the management of the Spandau Prison where persons convicted at the Nuremberg Trials were held until 1987 and the Berlin Air Safety Center.
Spandau was one of only two Four-Power organizations to continue to operate after the breakdown of the Allied Control Council; the other was the Berlin Air Safety Center.

Berlin Wall

fall of the Berlin WallWallthe wall
After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the departure of Russian troops in August 1994 (a withdrawal that took place in accordance with article 4 of the Two Plus Four Treaty), the building was returned to the German government.
The capital of Berlin, as the seat of the Allied Control Council, was similarly subdivided into four sectors despite the city's location, which was fully within the Soviet zone.

Allied Kommandatura

Kommandatura
The Kommandatura was often known as the little brother to the Allied Control Council, which had the same function for the whole of Germany, and was subordinate to it.