Allophone

allophonicallophonesallophonyallophonicallyallophonic variationallotonephonetic alternationsallocomplementary allophonescomplementary distribution
In phonology, an allophone (from the Greek ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.wikipedia
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Benjamin Lee Whorf

WhorfBenjamin WhorfWhorf, Benjamin Lee
The term "allophone" was coined by Benjamin Lee Whorf in the 1940s.
By comparison, Whorf's other work in linguistics, the development of such concepts as the allophone and the cryptotype, and the formulation of "Whorf's law" in Uto-Aztecan historical linguistics, have met with broad acceptance.

Free variation

freely variesfree variantsalternate forms
The specific allophone selected in a given situation is often predictable from the phonetic context, with such allophones being called positional variants, but some allophones occur in free variation.
In the case of allophones, however, free variation is exceedingly common and, along with differing intonation patterns, variation in allophony is the most important single feature in the characterization of regional accents.

Phonology

phonologicalphonologicallyphonologist
In phonology, an allophone (from the Greek ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
He also worked on the theory of phonetic alternations (what is now called allophony and morphophonology), and may have had an influence on the work of Saussure according to E. F. K. Koerner.

Spanish language

SpanishSpanish-languageCastilian
For example, (as in stop ) and (as in letter ) are allophones for the phoneme in English, while these two are considered to be different phonemes in Spanish.
The main allophonic variation among vowels is the reduction of the high vowels and to glides— and respectively—when unstressed and adjacent to another vowel.

Aspirated consonant

aspiratedaspirationunaspirated
Aspiration: In English, a voiceless plosive is aspirated (has a string explosion of breath) if it is at the beginning of the first or a stressed syllable in a word. For example, as in pin and as in spin are allophones for the phoneme because they cannot distinguish words (in fact, they occur in complementary distribution). English-speakers treat them as the same sound, but they are different: the first is aspirated and the second is unaspirated (plain). Many languages treat the two phones differently.
In English, aspirated consonants are allophones in complementary distribution with their unaspirated counterparts, but in some other languages, notably most Indian and East Asian languages, the difference is contrastive, while in Arabic and Persian, all stops are aspirated.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
For example, (as in stop ) and (as in letter ) are allophones for the phoneme in English, while these two are considered to be different phonemes in Spanish.
In RP, the lateral approximant, has two main allophones (pronunciation variants): the clear or plain, as in light, and the dark or velarised, as in full.

American English

EnglishAmericanEnglish-language
English-speakers may be unaware of the differences among six allophones of the phoneme : unreleased as in cat, aspirated as in top, glottalized as in button, flapped as in American English water, nasalized flapped as in winter, and none of the above as in stop.
/æ/ tensing in environments that vary widely from accent to accent. With most American speakers, for whom the phoneme operates under a somewhat continuous system, has both a tense and a lax allophone (with a kind of "continuum" of possible sounds between those two extremes, rather than a definitive split). In these accents, is overall realized before nasal stops as more tense (approximately ), while other environments are more lax (approximately the standard ); for example, note the vowel sound in for mass, but for man). In some American accents, though, specifically those from Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York City, and are entirely separate (or "split") phonemes, for example, in planet vs. plan it . This is often called the Mid-Atlantic split-a system. Note that these vowels move in the opposite direction in the mouth compared to the backed British "broad A"; this phenomenon has been noted as related to the increasingly rare phenomenon of older speakers of the eastern New England (Boston) area for whom changes to before alone or when preceded by a homorganic nasal. For the purposes of the chart below, represents a very tense vowel, a somewhat tense (or intermediate) vowel, and a non-tense (or lax) vowel, and the symbol "~" represents a continuous system in which the vowel may variably waver between two pronunciations.

Complementary distribution

complimentaryconditional allophonesconditioned variation
Aspiration: In English, a voiceless plosive is aspirated (has a string explosion of breath) if it is at the beginning of the first or a stressed syllable in a word. For example, as in pin and as in spin are allophones for the phoneme because they cannot distinguish words (in fact, they occur in complementary distribution). English-speakers treat them as the same sound, but they are different: the first is aspirated and the second is unaspirated (plain). Many languages treat the two phones differently.
Complementary distribution is commonly applied to phonology in which similar phones in complementary distribution are usually allophones of the same phoneme.

Phone (phonetics)

phonesphonespeech sound
In phonology, an allophone (from the Greek ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
When phones are considered to be realizations of the same phoneme, they are called allophones of that phoneme (more information on the methods of making such assignments can be found under phoneme).

Phoneme

phonemicphonemesphonemically
In phonology, an allophone (from the Greek ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language. wide range of variation in Japanese (as archiphoneme /N/)
Different speech sounds that are realizations of the same phoneme are known as allophones. Allophonic variation may be conditioned, in which case a certain phoneme is realized as a certain allophone in particular phonological environments, or it may be free in which case it may vary randomly.

Relative articulation

retractedcentralizedadvanced
Retraction: In English, are retracted before.
In Spanish, the lenited allophones of the voiced stops are generally transcribed as fricatives even though they are approximants, or intermediate between fricative and approximant.

Hawaiian language

HawaiianHawaiian forHawaii
Typically, languages with a small phoneme inventory allow for quite a lot of allophonic variation: examples are Hawaiian and Toki Pona. [v] and [w]: Hindustani, Hawaiian
In 1826, the developers voted to eliminate some of the letters which represented functionally redundant allophones (called "interchangeable letters"), enabling the Hawaiian alphabet to approach the ideal state of one-symbol-one-phoneme, and thereby optimizing the ease with which people could teach and learn the reading and writing of Hawaiian.

Lenition

lenitedspirantizationsoft mutation
Lenition: Manx
It is also synchronic in an analysis of as allophonic realizations of : illustrating with, 'wine' is pronounced after pause, but with intervocalically, as in 'of wine'; likewise, →.

Hindustani phonology

HindustaniHindi-Urdu
[v] and [w]: Hindustani, Hawaiian
In addition, occurs as a conditioned allophone of (schwa) in proximity to, if and only if the is surrounded on both sides by two schwas.

Xavante language

XavanteAkwexav
Allophones for /b/: Arapaho, Xavante
The language however has a high degree of allophony, and nasal stops appear before nasal vowels.

Nahuatl

náhuatlNahuaAztec
Final devoicing particularly final-obstruent devoicing: Arapaho, English, Nahuatl, and many others
Most varieties have relatively simple patterns of sound alternation (allophony).

Taos phonology

TaosTaos loanword phonologyTaos phonology: Reduplicative vowel patterning
Allophones for /s/: Bengali, Taos
* Fricative tends to have a post-alveolar allophone before high vowels (especially the high front vowel ):

Algonquin language

AlgonquinAlgonquianAlgonquian language
Aspiration changes: Algonquin
The consonant phonemes and major allophones of Algonquin in one of several common orthographies are listed below (with IPA notation in brackets):

Manx language

ManxManx Gaeliclanguage
Lenition: Manx
This process introduces the allophones to the series of voiced fricatives in Manx.

Close central unrounded vowel

ɨclose central unroundedhigh central unrounded vowel
[ ʉ, ʊ, o̞, o] as all ophones for short /u/, and [ ɨ, ɪ, e̞, e] a s alloph ones f or short /i/ in various Arabic dialects (long /uː/, /oː/, /iː/, /eː/ are separate phonemes in most Arabic dialects).
is uncommon as a phoneme in Indo-European languages, occurring most commonly as an allophone in some Slavic languages.

Varieties of Arabic

variety of ArabicArabic dialectsvariety
[ ʉ, ʊ, o̞, o] as all ophones for short /u/, and [ ɨ, ɪ, e̞, e] a s alloph ones f or short /i/ in various Arabic dialects (long /uː/, /oː/, /iː/, /eː/ are separate phonemes in most Arabic dialects). [g] and [q] as allophones: a number of Arabic dialects
The most obvious phonetic difference between the two groups is the pronunciation of the letter ق qaf, which is pronounced as a voiced in the Urban varieties of the Arabian Peninsula (like the Hejazi dialect in the ancient urban cities of Mecca and Medina) as well as in the Bedouin dialects across all Arabic-Speaking Countries, but is voiceless mainly in the post-Arabized Urban centers as either (with being an allophone in few words mostly in North African cities) or (merging with ) in the urban centers of Egypt and the Levant, all of which were mostly Arabized after the Islamic Conquests.

Japanese phonology

Japanesephonological reasonslong vowel
wide range of variation in Japanese (as archiphoneme /N/)
If a speaker pronounces a given word consistently with the allophone (i.e. a B-speaker), that speaker will never have as an allophone in that same word.

Finnish language

FinnishFinnish-languagefi
[ŋ]: Finnish and many more.
Allophony is restricted.

Polish phonology

PolishPolish accentphonological
Polish
In some phonological descriptions of Polish that make a phonemic distinction between palatized and unpalatized labials, and may thus be treated as allophones of a single phoneme.