Allostatic load

allostaticallostatic overloadallostatic stress loadphysiological
Allostatic load is "the wear and tear on the body" which accumulates as an individual is exposed to repeated or chronic stress.wikipedia
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Stress (biology)

stressenvironmental stressemotional stress
Allostatic load is "the wear and tear on the body" which accumulates as an individual is exposed to repeated or chronic stress. It represents the physiological consequences of chronic exposure to fluctuating or heightened neural or neuroendocrine response which results from repeated or prolonged chronic stress.
See allostatic load for further discussion of the biological process by which chronic stress may affect the body.

Cortisol

stress hormonestress hormoneshydrocortisone
Whereas both types of allostatic load are associated with increased release of cortisol and catecholamines, they differentially affect thyroid homeostasis: Concentrations of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine are decreased in type 1 allostasis, but elevated in type 2 allostasis.
Sustained stress can lead to high levels of circulating cortisol, which can create an allostatic load.

Allostasis

allostaticallostatic changes
The term is part of the regulatory model of allostasis, where the predictive regulation or stabilisation of internal sensations in response to stimuli is ascribed to the brain.
In the long run, the maintenance of allostatic changes over a long period may result in wear and tear, the so-called allostatic load.

Shift-and-persist model

Low socioeconomic status is hypothesized to get “under the skin” by producing chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which increases allostatic load, leading to the pathogenesis of chronic disease.

Psychoneuroimmunology

psychosomaticpsycho-neuroimmunologicalpsychoneuroimmunological

Physiology

physiologistphysiologicalphysiologically
It represents the physiological consequences of chronic exposure to fluctuating or heightened neural or neuroendocrine response which results from repeated or prolonged chronic stress.

Nervous system

neuralnervousneurogenic
It represents the physiological consequences of chronic exposure to fluctuating or heightened neural or neuroendocrine response which results from repeated or prolonged chronic stress.

Neuroendocrine cell

neuroendocrineneuroendocrine cellscell
It represents the physiological consequences of chronic exposure to fluctuating or heightened neural or neuroendocrine response which results from repeated or prolonged chronic stress.

Fight-or-flight response

stress responsefight or flightfight-or-flight
It represents the physiological consequences of chronic exposure to fluctuating or heightened neural or neuroendocrine response which results from repeated or prolonged chronic stress.

Homeostasis

homeostaticequilibriumimmunomodulation
Allostasis involves the regulation of homeostasis in the body to decrease physiological consequences on the body.

Starvation

starvedstarvingstarve
Typical situations ending up in type 1 allostasis are starvation, hibernation and critical illness.

Hibernation

hibernatehibernateshibernating
Typical situations ending up in type 1 allostasis are starvation, hibernation and critical illness.

Intensive care medicine

intensive carecritical carecritical care medicine
Typical situations ending up in type 1 allostasis are starvation, hibernation and critical illness.

Neurotransmitter

neurotransmittersexcitatory neurotransmitterneurotransmitter system
In all cases, secretion of glucocorticosteroids and activity of other mediators of allostasis such as the autonomic nervous system, CNS neurotransmitters, and inflammatory cytokines wax and wane with allostatic load.

Catecholamine

catecholaminescatecholamine synthesiscatecholamine systems
Whereas both types of allostatic load are associated with increased release of cortisol and catecholamines, they differentially affect thyroid homeostasis: Concentrations of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine are decreased in type 1 allostasis, but elevated in type 2 allostasis.

Hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis

thyroid homeostasisHPT axisHPT
Whereas both types of allostatic load are associated with increased release of cortisol and catecholamines, they differentially affect thyroid homeostasis: Concentrations of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine are decreased in type 1 allostasis, but elevated in type 2 allostasis.

Thyroid hormones

thyroid hormonethyroxineT4
Whereas both types of allostatic load are associated with increased release of cortisol and catecholamines, they differentially affect thyroid homeostasis: Concentrations of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine are decreased in type 1 allostasis, but elevated in type 2 allostasis.

Triiodothyronine

T 3 T3triiodothyronine (T3)
Whereas both types of allostatic load are associated with increased release of cortisol and catecholamines, they differentially affect thyroid homeostasis: Concentrations of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine are decreased in type 1 allostasis, but elevated in type 2 allostasis.

Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axisHPA axishypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
The Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis is the central stress response system responsible for modulating inflammatory responses throughout the body.

Decompensation

decompensateddecompensateheart decompensation
Dysfunctional allostasis causes allostatic load to increase which may, over time, lead to disease, sometimes with decompensation of the allostatically controlled problem.

Stuttering

stutterstammerstammering
Acute nervousness and stress are not thought to cause stuttering, but they can trigger stuttering in people who have the speech disorder, and living with a stigmatized disability can result in anxiety and high allostatic stress load (chronic nervousness and stress) that reduce the amount of acute stress necessary to trigger stuttering in any given person who stutters, worsening the problem in the manner of a positive feedback system; the name 'stuttered speech syndrome' has been proposed for this condition.

Euthyroid sick syndrome

non-thyroidal illness syndromeLow-T3 syndromenonthyroidal illness syndrome
This classical pattern results from type 1 allostatic load, i.e. a stress response resulting from lacking energy, oxygen and glutathione.

Stress in early childhood

toxic stress
Allostatic load is "the wear and tear on the body" that accumulates as an individual is exposed to repeated or chronic stress.