Almond

almondsbitter almondalmond oilbitter almondsalmond treesalmond treealmond extractbadamalmond splintersamygdaloidal
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East and Southern Asia.wikipedia
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Peach

nectarinepeachesnectarines
Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by corrugations on the shell (endocarp) surrounding the seed.
It belongs to the genus Prunus which includes the cherry, apricot, almond and plum, in the rose family.

Nut (fruit)

nutsnutnutlet
The fruit of the almond is a drupe, consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed, which is not a true nut, inside.
The general and original usage of the term is less restrictive, and many nuts (in the culinary sense), such as almonds, pecans, pistachios, walnuts, and Brazil nuts, are not nuts in a botanical sense.

Prunus

cherrywild almondCerasus
Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by corrugations on the shell (endocarp) surrounding the seed.
Subgenus Amygdalus, almonds and peaches: axillary buds in threes (vegetative bud central, two flower buds to sides); flowers in early spring, sessile or nearly so, not on leafed shoots; fruit with a groove along one side; stone deeply grooved; type species: Prunus dulcis (almond).

Cherry

cherriescherry treecherry trees
The outer covering or exocarp, fleshy in other members of Prunus such as the plum and cherry, is instead a thick, leathery, grey-green coat (with a downy exterior), called the hull.
The cherry fruits of commerce usually are obtained from cultivars of a limited number of species such as the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus). The name 'cherry' also refers to the cherry tree and its wood, and is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry" or "cherry blossom".

Prunus fenzliana

The species Prunus fenzliana may be the most likely wild ancestor of the almond in part because it is native of Armenia and western Azerbaijan where it was apparently domesticated.
On the basis of morphology it has been long thought to be one of the wild species that contributed to the origin of the cultivated almond (Prunus dulcis). Genetic testing of both nuclear and chloroplast DNA has confirmed that it is the closest relative (and presumed lone ancestor) of Prunus dulcis.

Amygdalin

laetrile
It also contains the enzyme emulsin which, in the presence of water, acts on the two soluble glucosides amygdalin and prunasin yielding glucose, cyanide and the essential oil of bitter almonds, which is nearly pure benzaldehyde, the chemical causing the bitter flavor.
It is found in many plants, but most notably in the seeds (kernels) of apricot, bitter almonds, apple, peach, and plum.

Drupe

stone fruitdrupesdrupaceous
The fruit of the almond is a drupe, consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed, which is not a true nut, inside.
Some flowering plants that produce drupes are: coffee, jujube, mango, olive, most palms (including açaí, date, sabal, coconut and oil palms), pistachio, white sapote, cashew, and all members of the genus Prunus, including the almond (in which the mesocarp is somewhat leathery), apricot, cherry, damson, nectarine, peach, and plum.

Andalusia

AndalusianAndalucíaAutonomous Community of Andalusia
Spain has diverse commercial cultivars of almonds grown in Catalonia, Valencia, Murcia, Andalusia, and Aragón regions, and the Balearic Islands.
The dominant species of the climax community is the holly oak (Quercus ilex). Also abundant are cork oak (Quercus suber), various pines, and Spanish fir (Abies pinsapo). Due to cultivation, olive (Olea europaea) and almond (Prunus dulcis) trees also abound.

Blanching (cooking)

blanchedblanchingblanch
Blanched almonds are shelled almonds that have been treated with hot water to soften the seedcoat, which is then removed to reveal the white embryo.
When almonds or pistachios are blanched, the skin of the nut (botanically the seed coat surrounding the embryo) softens and can be easily removed later.

Almond butter

Almonds yield almond oil and can also be made into almond butter or almond milk.
Almond butter is a food paste made from almonds.

Benzaldehyde

2-methoxybenzaldehydebenzaldehydesm-nitrobenzaldehyde
It also contains the enzyme emulsin which, in the presence of water, acts on the two soluble glucosides amygdalin and prunasin yielding glucose, cyanide and the essential oil of bitter almonds, which is nearly pure benzaldehyde, the chemical causing the bitter flavor.
It is a colorless liquid with a characteristic almond-like odor.

Almond milk

almondalmond-Badam milk
Almonds yield almond oil and can also be made into almond butter or almond milk. In Italy, bitter almonds are the traditional base for amaretti (almond macaroons), a common dessert. Traditionally, a low percentage of bitter almonds (10–20%) is added to the ingredients, which gives the cookies their bitter taste (commercially, apricot kernels are used as a substitute for bitter almonds). Almonds are also a common choice as the nuts to include in torrone. In Apulia and Sicily, pasta di mandorle (almond paste) is used to make small soft cakes, often decorated with jam, pistachio, or chocolate. In Sicily, almond milk is a popular refreshing beverage in summer.
Almond milk is a plant milk manufactured from almonds with a creamy texture and nutty flavor, although other types or brands are flavored in imitation of dairy milk.

Macaroon

macaroonsBesitos de Coco'' (coconut kisses)coconut macaroon
Almonds are used in marzipan, nougat, many pastries (including jesuites), cookies (including French macarons, macaroons), and cakes (including financiers), noghl, and other sweets and desserts.
A macaroon is a small biscuit/cookie, typically made from ground almonds (the original main ingredient ), coconut, and/or other nuts or even potato, with sugar and sometimes flavorings (e.g. honey, vanilla, spices), food coloring, glace cherries, jam, and/or a chocolate coating.

Cyanide

cyanoCNcyanides
It also contains the enzyme emulsin which, in the presence of water, acts on the two soluble glucosides amygdalin and prunasin yielding glucose, cyanide and the essential oil of bitter almonds, which is nearly pure benzaldehyde, the chemical causing the bitter flavor.
Cyanides are found in substantial amounts in certain seeds and fruit stones, e.g., those of bitter almonds, apricots, apples, and peaches.

Hydrogen cyanide

prussic acidhydrocyanic acidHCN
Bitter almonds may yield 4–9 mg of hydrogen cyanide per almond and contain 42 times higher amounts of cyanide than the trace levels found in sweet almonds.
HCN has a faint bitter almond-like odor that some people are unable to detect owing to a recessive genetic trait.

Pollination management

pollinationmanaged pollinationartificial pollination
The pollination of California's almonds is the largest annual managed pollination event in the world, with close to one million hives (nearly half of all beehives in the US) being trucked in February to the almond groves.
Crops that traditionally have had managed pollination include apple, almonds, pears, some plum and cherry varieties, blueberries, cranberries, cucumbers, cantaloupe, watermelon, alfalfa seeds, onion seeds, and many others.

Nougat

MandolatoNougatineTörökméz
Almonds are used in marzipan, nougat, many pastries (including jesuites), cookies (including French macarons, macaroons), and cakes (including financiers), noghl, and other sweets and desserts.
Nougat (,, or ; ; Azerbaijani: لوکا; Persian: نوقا) is a family of confections made with sugar or honey, roasted nuts (almonds, walnuts, pistachios, hazelnuts, and macadamia nuts are common), whipped egg whites, and sometimes chopped candied fruit.

Noghl

Almonds are used in marzipan, nougat, many pastries (including jesuites), cookies (including French macarons, macaroons), and cakes (including financiers), noghl, and other sweets and desserts.
Mlabbas (Syrian Arabic) (Arabic: ملبس), and Noghl (Iranian Persian), or Nuql (Afghan Persian), or sugar-coated almonds, is a traditional Syrian, Iranian and Afghan confection.

Almond paste

Marzipan paste
In Morocco, almonds in the form of sweet almond paste are the main ingredient in pastry fillings, and several other desserts. Fried blanched whole almonds are also used to decorate sweet tajines such as lamb with prunes. A drink made from almonds mixed with milk is served in important ceremonies such as weddings and can also be ordered in some cafes. Southwestern Berber regions of Essaouira and Souss are also known for amlou, a spread made of almond paste, argan oil, and honey. Almond paste is also mixed with toasted flour and among others, honey, olive oil or butter, anise, fennel, sesame seeds, and cinnamon to make sellou (also called zamita in Meknes or slilou in Marrakech), a sweet snack known for its long shelf life and high nutritive value.
Almond paste is made from ground almonds or almond meal and sugar in equal quantities, with small amounts of cooking oil, beaten eggs, heavy cream or corn syrup added as a binder.

Turrón

torronetorrótorrons
In Italy, bitter almonds are the traditional base for amaretti (almond macaroons), a common dessert. Traditionally, a low percentage of bitter almonds (10–20%) is added to the ingredients, which gives the cookies their bitter taste (commercially, apricot kernels are used as a substitute for bitter almonds). Almonds are also a common choice as the nuts to include in torrone. In Apulia and Sicily, pasta di mandorle (almond paste) is used to make small soft cakes, often decorated with jam, pistachio, or chocolate. In Sicily, almond milk is a popular refreshing beverage in summer.
Turrón, or torrone, is a southern European nougat confection, typically made of honey, sugar, and egg white, with toasted almonds or other nuts, and usually shaped into either a rectangular tablet or a round cake.

Amaretti di Saronno

Amarettiamaretto
In Italy, bitter almonds are the traditional base for amaretti (almond macaroons), a common dessert. Traditionally, a low percentage of bitter almonds (10–20%) is added to the ingredients, which gives the cookies their bitter taste (commercially, apricot kernels are used as a substitute for bitter almonds). Almonds are also a common choice as the nuts to include in torrone. In Apulia and Sicily, pasta di mandorle (almond paste) is used to make small soft cakes, often decorated with jam, pistachio, or chocolate. In Sicily, almond milk is a popular refreshing beverage in summer.
Amaretti di Saronno (singular amaretto di Saronno) refer to an amaretto (almond flavored) macaron that is traditional to Saronno, a comune of Lombardy, Italy.

Prunasin

It also contains the enzyme emulsin which, in the presence of water, acts on the two soluble glucosides amygdalin and prunasin yielding glucose, cyanide and the essential oil of bitter almonds, which is nearly pure benzaldehyde, the chemical causing the bitter flavor.
Prunasin is found in species in the genus Prunus such as Prunus japonica or P. maximowiczii and in bitter almonds.

Amyelois

Navel Orange wormnavel orangeworm
The Tuono's shell protects the nut from threatening pests such as the navel orangeworm.
The larvae are considered a commercial pest of a number of California crops, including walnut (Juglans regia), fig (Ficus carica), almond (Prunus dulcis) and pistachio (Pistacia vera).

Pollination

pollinatedpollinatecross-pollination
The pollination of California's almonds is the largest annual managed pollination event in the world, with close to one million hives (nearly half of all beehives in the US) being trucked in February to the almond groves.
The largest managed pollination event in the world is in Californian almond orchards, where nearly half (about one million hives) of the US honey bees are trucked to the almond orchards each spring.

Almond meal

almond flouralmond powderalmond
Almond flour or ground almond meal combined with sugar or honey as marzipan is often used as a gluten-free alternative to wheat flour in cooking and baking.
Almond meal, almond flour or ground almond is made from ground sweet almonds.