Alois Hábawikipedia
Alois Hába (21 June 1893 – 18 November 1973) was a Czech composer, music theorist and teacher.
Alois HábaAlois Haba

Quarter tone

quarter tonequarter-tonequarter tones
He belongs to the important discoverers in modern classical music, and major composers of microtonal music, especially using the quarter-tone scale, though he used others such as sixth-tones (e.g., in the 5th, 10th and 11th String Quartets), fifth-tones (Sixteenth String Quartet), and twelfth-tones.
Composers who have written music using this scale include: Pierre Boulez, Julián Carrillo, Mildred Couper, George Enescu, Alberto Ginastera, Gérard Grisey, Alois Hába, Ljubica Marić, Charles Ives, Tristan Murail, Krzysztof Penderecki, Giacinto Scelsi, Ammar El Sherei, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Tui St. George Tucker, Ivan Alexandrovich Wyschnegradsky, and Iannis Xenakis.

72 equal temperament

72 equal temperament72-ET72-TET
He belongs to the important discoverers in modern classical music, and major composers of microtonal music, especially using the quarter-tone scale, though he used others such as sixth-tones (e.g., in the 5th, 10th and 11th String Quartets), fifth-tones (Sixteenth String Quartet), and twelfth-tones.
It was theoreticized in the form of twelfth-tones by Alois Hába and Ivan Wyschnegradsky, who considered it as a good approach to the continuum of sound.

Microtonal music

microtonalmicrotonal musicmicrotonality
He belongs to the important discoverers in modern classical music, and major composers of microtonal music, especially using the quarter-tone scale, though he used others such as sixth-tones (e.g., in the 5th, 10th and 11th String Quartets), fifth-tones (Sixteenth String Quartet), and twelfth-tones.
Some authors in Russia, and some musicology dissertations (, more references can be located here) disseminate the term микрохроматика (microchromatics), coined in the 1970s by Yuri Kholopov, to describe a kind of 'intervallic genus' for all possible microtonal structures, both ancient (as enharmonic genus—γένος ἐναρμόνιον—of Greeks) and modern (as quarter-tone scales of Alois Haba); this generalization term allowed also to avoid derivatives such as микротональность (microtonality, which could be understood in Russian as a sub-tonality, which is subordinate to the dominating tonality, especially in the context of European music of the 19th century) and микротоника (microtonic, "a barely perceptible tonic"; see a clarification in ).

Czechs

CzechCzechsBohemian
Alois Hába (21 June 1893 – 18 November 1973) was a Czech composer, music theorist and teacher.
The contribution of Alois Hába to microtonal music in the 20th century must be also mentioned.

Moravian Wallachia

ValašskoWallachianCzech Republic
Alois Hába was born in the small town of Vizovice in Moravian Wallachia, into a family of 10 children.

List of compositions by Alois Hába

complete list of compositions
For a detailed survey, see complete list of compositions.
The works of the Czech composer Alois Hába consists of 103 opuses, with the majority of the compositions being various kinds of chamber music pieces, predominantly for piano or strings.

Franz Schreker

Franz SchrekerSchrekerSchreker, Franz
There he almost immediately became a student of Franz Schreker, who brought out his more radical tendencies.
In March 1920 he was appointed director of the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin and between 1920 and 1932 he gave extensive musical tuition in a variety of subjects with Berthold Goldschmidt, Alois Hába, Jascha Horenstein, Julius Bürger, Ernst Krenek, Artur Rodziński, Stefan Wolpe, Zdenka Ticharich and Grete von Zieritz numbering among his students.

Subject (music)

themethemessubject
Hába wrote several theoretical articles on microtonality, athematicism, and church modes at this time.
Examples include the pre-twelve-tone or early atonal works of Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern, Alban Berg, and Alois Hába.

Vizovice

Alois Hába was born in the small town of Vizovice in Moravian Wallachia, into a family of 10 children.

Vítězslav Novák

Vítězslav NovákNovákNovák, Vitezslav
Hába was dissatisfied by small-town life, and in 1914, he moved to Prague and became a pupil of neoromantic composer Vítězslav Novák.
With two ballet-pantomimes completed in the years 1928–29, Signorina Gioventù and Nikotina, Novák regained some of the respect he had lost among his colleagues; the layering of orchestral effects (including mixed meters and even references to tango) won him the approval of some younger composers, such as Iša Krejčí and Alois Hába.

Chamber music

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Alois Hába's works total 103 opuses, the majority of which are various kinds of chamber music.

Neutral third

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A neutral third is a musical interval wider than a minor third but narrower than a major third, named by Jan Pieter Land in 1880; the name has been taken over by Alois Hába.

Donaueschingen Festival

Donaueschinger MusiktageMusiktageDonaueschingen
On 31 July 1921 the Donaueschingen Chamber Music Performances for the advancement of contemporary music gave world premiere performances of music by Alois Hába, Ernst Krenek and Paul Hindemith.

Karel Ančerl

Ančerl, KarelKarel AnčerlKarel Ancerl
He was the assistant conductor at the Munich premiere of Alois Hába's quarter-tone opera Mother (1931) and conducted the orchestra of the avant-garde theatre Osvobozené divadlo in Prague (1931–1933).

Mother (opera)

Mother'' (opera)MatkaMother
Mother, op. 35 (Matka) is a quarter-tone opera in ten scenes by the Czech composer Alois Hába.

Jaroslav Ježek (composer)

Jaroslav Ježek
He studied composition at the Prague Conservatory as a pupil of Karel Boleslav Jirák (1924–1927), at the master school of composition with Josef Suk (1927–1930), and shortly also with Alois Hába (1927–1928).

20th-century classical music

20th-century classical music20th century20th century classical music
The process of extending musical vocabulary by exploring all available tones was pushed further by the use of Microtones in works by Charles Ives, Julián Carrillo, Alois Hába, John Foulds, Ivan Wyschnegradsky, Harry Partch and Mildred Couper among many others.

Hans Winterberg

He went on to study at the Academy of Music and Performing Arts in Prague (Composition with Fidelio F. Finke, and conducting with Alexander Zemlinsky) and at the Prague Conservatory, where he studied with Alois Hába.

Berthold Goldschmidt

Berthold GoldschmidtGoldschmidt, BertholdGoldschmidt
In 1922, Goldschmidt entered the Berlin Hochschule für Musik and joined Franz Schreker's composition class, where his fellow pupils included Ernst Krenek, Alois Hába, Felix Petryek, and Jascha Horenstein.

Gideon Klein

KleinGidéon Klein
Klein was born into a Moravian Jewish family in Přerov and, showing musical talent early, studied piano with Růžena Kurzová and Vilém Kurz, and composition with Alois Hába (in 1939–40).

Quarter tone clarinet

quarter tone clarinet
In the 1920s Alois Hába commissioned a quarter tone clarinet from the Kohlert company of Grazlitz.

Julius Bürger

BürgerJulius Berger
He studied at the Vienna Academy of Music under Franz Schreker, and was one of the group of Schreker's pupils - Alois Hába, Jascha Horenstein, Ernst Křenek, Karol Rathaus - who followed Schreker to Berlin when Schreker was appointed Director of the Hochschule für Musik.

20th-century music

20th-century music20th century20th century music
In the early decades of the 20th century, composers such as Julián Carrillo, Mildred Couper, Alois Hába, Charles Ives, Erwin Schulhoff, Ivan Wyschnegradsky turned their attention to quarter tones (24 equal intervals per octave), and other finer divisions.