Alois Hába

Alois Haba
Alois Hába (21 June 1893 – 18 November 1973) was a Czech composer, music theorist and teacher.wikipedia
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Quarter tone

quarter-tonequarter tonesquarter tone scale
He belongs to the important discoverers in modern classical music, and major composers of microtonal music, especially using the quarter-tone scale, though he used others such as sixth-tones (e.g., in the 5th, 10th and 11th String Quartets), fifth-tones (Sixteenth String Quartet), and twelfth-tones.
Composers who have written music using this scale include: Pierre Boulez, Julián Carrillo, Mildred Couper, George Enescu, Alberto Ginastera, Gérard Grisey, Alois Hába, Ljubica Marić, Charles Ives, Tristan Murail, Krzysztof Penderecki, Giacinto Scelsi, Ammar El Sherei, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Tui St. George Tucker, Ivan Alexandrovich Wyschnegradsky, and Iannis Xenakis.

72 equal temperament

72-ET72-TET1/12 tone
He belongs to the important discoverers in modern classical music, and major composers of microtonal music, especially using the quarter-tone scale, though he used others such as sixth-tones (e.g., in the 5th, 10th and 11th String Quartets), fifth-tones (Sixteenth String Quartet), and twelfth-tones.
It was theoreticized in the form of twelfth-tones by Alois Hába and Ivan Wyschnegradsky, who considered it as a good approach to the continuum of sound.

Microtonal music

microtonalmicrotonalitymicrotones
He belongs to the important discoverers in modern classical music, and major composers of microtonal music, especially using the quarter-tone scale, though he used others such as sixth-tones (e.g., in the 5th, 10th and 11th String Quartets), fifth-tones (Sixteenth String Quartet), and twelfth-tones.
Some authors in Russia, and some musicology dissertations (, more references can be located here) disseminate the term микрохроматика (microchromatics), coined in the 1970s by Yuri Kholopov, to describe a kind of 'intervallic genus' for all possible microtonal structures, both ancient (as enharmonic genus—γένος ἐναρμόνιον—of Greeks) and modern (as quarter-tone scales of Alois Haba); this generalization term allowed also to avoid derivatives such as микротональность (microtonality, which could be understood in Russian as a sub-tonality, which is subordinate to the dominating tonality, especially in the context of European music of the 19th century) and микротоника (microtonic, "a barely perceptible tonic"; see a clarification in ).

Czechs

CzechBohemianCzech people
Alois Hába (21 June 1893 – 18 November 1973) was a Czech composer, music theorist and teacher.
The contribution of Alois Hába to microtonal music in the 20th century must be also mentioned.

List of compositions by Alois Hába

complete list of compositions
For a detailed survey, see complete list of compositions.
The works of the Czech composer Alois Hába consists of 103 opuses, with the majority of the compositions being various kinds of chamber music pieces, predominantly for piano or strings.

Vizovice

Alois Hába was born in the small town of Vizovice in Moravian Wallachia, into a family of 10 children.
Alois Hába, composer

Franz Schreker

SchrekerSchreker, Franz
There he almost immediately became a student of Franz Schreker, who brought out his more radical tendencies.
In March 1920 he was appointed director of the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin and between 1920 and 1932 he gave extensive musical tuition in a variety of subjects with Berthold Goldschmidt, Alois Hába, Jascha Horenstein, Julius Bürger, Ernst Krenek, Artur Rodziński, Stefan Wolpe, Zdenka Ticharich and Grete von Zieritz numbering among his students.

Moravian Wallachia

ValašskoWallachianCzech Republic
Alois Hába was born in the small town of Vizovice in Moravian Wallachia, into a family of 10 children.
Alois Hába - composer

Subject (music)

themethemessubject
Hába wrote several theoretical articles on microtonality, athematicism, and church modes at this time.
Examples include the pre-twelve-tone or early atonal works of Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern, Alban Berg, and Alois Hába.

Vítězslav Novák

NovákNovák, VitezslavVitězslav Novák
Hába was dissatisfied by small-town life, and in 1914, he moved to Prague and became a pupil of neoromantic composer Vítězslav Novák.
With two ballet-pantomimes completed in the years 1928–29, Signorina Gioventù and Nikotina, Novák regained some of the respect he had lost among his colleagues; the layering of orchestral effects (including mixed meters and even references to tango) won him the approval of some younger composers, such as Iša Krejčí and Alois Hába.

String quartet

string quartetsquartetstring ensemble
Among the most important are his string quartets, which document and demonstrate the development of his style.
Alois Hába's 16 string quartets

Chamber music

chamberchamber ensemblechamber works
Alois Hába's works total 103 opuses, the majority of which are various kinds of chamber music.

Neutral third

neutral11/9
The name "neutral third" has been taken over by Alois Hába.

Donaueschingen Festival

Donaueschinger MusiktageMusiktageDonaueschingen
On 31 July 1921 the Donaueschingen Chamber Music Performances for the advancement of contemporary music gave world premiere performances of music by Alois Hába, Ernst Krenek and Paul Hindemith.

Karel Ančerl

Ančerl, KarelKarel Ancerl
He was the assistant conductor at the Munich premiere of Alois Hába's quarter-tone opera Mother (1931) and conducted the orchestra of the avant-garde theatre Osvobozené divadlo in Prague (1931–1933).

Mother (opera)

MatkaMother'' (opera)Die Mutter
After the premiere of his quarter-tone opera Matka (Mother) in 1931, introducing a practically athematic concept, Hába emerged as a leader of Czech modernist music and became internationally well known as one of the most important avantgarde composers.
Mother, op. 35 (Matka) is a quarter-tone opera in ten scenes by the Czech composer Alois Hába.

Jaroslav Ježek (composer)

Jaroslav Ježek
He studied composition at the Prague Conservatory as a pupil of Karel Boleslav Jirák (1924–1927), at the master school of composition with Josef Suk (1927–1930), and shortly also with Alois Hába (1927–1928).

20th-century classical music

20th century20th century classical musicmodern classical
The process of extending musical vocabulary by exploring all available tones was pushed further by the use of Microtones in works by Charles Ives, Julián Carrillo, Alois Hába, John Foulds, Ivan Wyschnegradsky, Harry Partch and Mildred Couper among many others.

Hans Winterberg

He went on to study at the Academy of Music and Performing Arts in Prague (Composition with Fidelio F. Finke, and conducting with Alexander Zemlinsky) and at the Prague Conservatory, where he studied with Alois Hába.

Berthold Goldschmidt

GoldschmidtGoldschmidt, Berthold
In 1922, Goldschmidt entered the Berlin Hochschule für Musik and joined Franz Schreker's composition class, where his fellow pupils included Ernst Krenek, Alois Hába, Felix Petryek, and Jascha Horenstein.

Gideon Klein

Gidéon KleinKlein
Klein was born into a Moravian Jewish family in Přerov and, showing musical talent early, studied piano with Růžena Kurzová and Vilém Kurz, and composition with Alois Hába (in 1939–40).

Julius Bürger

BürgerJulius Berger
He studied at the Vienna Academy of Music under Franz Schreker, and was one of the group of Schreker's pupils - Alois Hába, Jascha Horenstein, Ernst Křenek, Karol Rathaus - who followed Schreker to Berlin when Schreker was appointed Director of the Hochschule für Musik.

Quarter tone clarinet

In the 1920s Alois Hába commissioned a quarter tone clarinet from the Kohlert company of Grazlitz.

20th-century music

20th century20th century musicModern
In the early decades of the 20th century, composers such as Julián Carrillo, Mildred Couper, Alois Hába, Charles Ives, Erwin Schulhoff, Ivan Wyschnegradsky turned their attention to quarter tones (24 equal intervals per octave), and other finer divisions.