Alphabet

alphabeticalphabetsalphabeticalalphabetic writingalphabetic scriptsletteralphabetic languagealphabetic scriptalphabetic writing systemletter name
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that represent the phonemes (basic significant sounds) of any spoken language it is used to write.wikipedia
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Letter (alphabet)

letterlettersbookstaff
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that represent the phonemes (basic significant sounds) of any spoken language it is used to write.
The inventory of all letters forms the alphabet.

Phoenician alphabet

PhoenicianPhoenician scriptSemitic
The first fully phonemic script, the Proto-Canaanite script, later known as the Phoenician alphabet, is considered to be the first alphabet, and is the ancestor of most modern alphabets, including Arabic, Greek, Latin, Cyrillic, Hebrew, and possibly Brahmic.
The Phoenician alphabet (also called the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet when found in the Levantine interior ) is an alphabet of abjad type, consisting of 22 consonant letters only, leaving vowel sounds implicit, although certain late varieties use matres lectionis for some vowels.

Symbol

symbolssymbologysymbologist
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that represent the phonemes (basic significant sounds) of any spoken language it is used to write.
Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds.

Logogram

logographiclogographlogograms
This is in contrast to other types of writing systems, such as syllabaries (in which each character represents a syllable) and logographic systems (in which each character represents a word, morpheme, or semantic unit).
In the alphabets and syllabaries, individual written characters represent sounds only, rather than entire concepts.

Abugida

abugidasalphasyllabaryalphasyllabaries
Peter T. Daniels, however, distinguishes an abugida or alphasyllabary, a set of graphemes that represent consonantal base letters which diacritics modify to represent vowels (as in Devanagari and other South Asian scripts), an abjad, in which letters predominantly or exclusively represent consonants (as in the original Phoenician, Hebrew or Arabic), and an "alphabet", a set of graphemes that represent both vowels and consonants.
This contrasts with a full alphabet, in which vowels have status equal to consonants, and with an abjad, in which vowel marking is absent, partial, or optional (although in less formal contexts, all three types of script may be termed alphabets).

Diacritic

diacriticsdiacritical markdiacritical marks
Peter T. Daniels, however, distinguishes an abugida or alphasyllabary, a set of graphemes that represent consonantal base letters which diacritics modify to represent vowels (as in Devanagari and other South Asian scripts), an abjad, in which letters predominantly or exclusively represent consonants (as in the original Phoenician, Hebrew or Arabic), and an "alphabet", a set of graphemes that represent both vowels and consonants.
In other alphabetic systems, diacritical marks may perform other functions.

Alphabetical order

ordered alphabeticallyalphabeticallyalphabetic order
This makes them useful for purposes of collation, specifically by allowing words to be sorted in alphabetical order.
Alphabetical order is a system whereby character strings are placed in order based on the position of the characters in the conventional ordering of an alphabet.

Arabic script

ArabicPerso-Arabic scriptPerso-Arabic
Peter T. Daniels, however, distinguishes an abugida or alphasyllabary, a set of graphemes that represent consonantal base letters which diacritics modify to represent vowels (as in Devanagari and other South Asian scripts), an abjad, in which letters predominantly or exclusively represent consonants (as in the original Phoenician, Hebrew or Arabic), and an "alphabet", a set of graphemes that represent both vowels and consonants.
With the spread of Islam, it came to be used as the primary script for many language families, leading to the addition of new letters and other symbols, with some versions, such as Kurdish, Uyghur and old Bosnian being abugidas or true alphabets.

Writing system

scriptwriting systemsscripts
This is in contrast to other types of writing systems, such as syllabaries (in which each character represents a syllable) and logographic systems (in which each character represents a word, morpheme, or semantic unit).
Writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies, although any particular system may have attributes of more than one category.

Consonant

consonantsCconsonantal
Peter T. Daniels, however, distinguishes an abugida or alphasyllabary, a set of graphemes that represent consonantal base letters which diacritics modify to represent vowels (as in Devanagari and other South Asian scripts), an abjad, in which letters predominantly or exclusively represent consonants (as in the original Phoenician, Hebrew or Arabic), and an "alphabet", a set of graphemes that represent both vowels and consonants. Egyptian writing had a set of some 24 hieroglyphs that are called uniliterals, to represent syllables that begin with a single consonant of their language, plus a vowel (or no vowel) to be supplied by the native speaker.
Since the number of possible sounds in all of the world's languages is much greater than the number of letters in any one alphabet, linguists have devised systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to assign a unique and unambiguous symbol to each attested consonant.

Alphabet song

The Alphabet SongABCsABC
Sometimes, like in the alphabet song in English, the term "ABCs" is used instead of the word "alphabet" (Now I know my ABCs...).
An alphabet song is any of various songs used to teach children the alphabet.

Abjad

Semitic abjadsconsonantal alphabetabjads
Peter T. Daniels, however, distinguishes an abugida or alphasyllabary, a set of graphemes that represent consonantal base letters which diacritics modify to represent vowels (as in Devanagari and other South Asian scripts), an abjad, in which letters predominantly or exclusively represent consonants (as in the original Phoenician, Hebrew or Arabic), and an "alphabet", a set of graphemes that represent both vowels and consonants.
According to the formulations of Peter T. Daniels, abjads differ from alphabets in that only consonants, not vowels, are represented among the basic graphemes.

Transliteration of Ancient Egyptian

transliterationEgyptian uniliteral signstransliterated
Egyptian writing had a set of some 24 hieroglyphs that are called uniliterals, to represent syllables that begin with a single consonant of their language, plus a vowel (or no vowel) to be supplied by the native speaker.
In the field of Egyptology, transliteration of Ancient Egyptian is the process of converting (or mapping) texts written in the Egyptian language to alphabetic symbols representing uniliteral hieroglyphs or their hieratic and Demotic counterparts.

Greek alphabet

GreekGreek lettersGreek letter
The first fully phonemic script, the Proto-Canaanite script, later known as the Phoenician alphabet, is considered to be the first alphabet, and is the ancestor of most modern alphabets, including Arabic, Greek, Latin, Cyrillic, Hebrew, and possibly Brahmic.
The use of both vowels and consonants makes Greek the first alphabet in the narrow sense, as distinguished from the abjads used in Semitic languages, which have letters only for consonants.

Egyptian hieroglyphs

hieroglyphicshieroglyphichieroglyphs
The Proto-Sinaitic or Proto-Canaanite script and the Ugaritic script were the first scripts with a limited number of signs, in contrast to the other widely used writing systems at the time, Cuneiform, Egyptian hieroglyphs, and Linear B.
Hieroglyphs combined logographic, syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters.

Aramaic alphabet

AramaicAramaic scriptImperial Aramaic
By the tenth century, two other forms can be distinguished, namely Canaanite and Aramaic.
The Aramaic alphabet is historically significant since virtually all modern Middle Eastern writing systems can be traced back to it as well as numerous non-Chinese writing systems of Central and East Asia.

Peter T. Daniels

Daniels, Peter T.
Peter T. Daniels, however, distinguishes an abugida or alphasyllabary, a set of graphemes that represent consonantal base letters which diacritics modify to represent vowels (as in Devanagari and other South Asian scripts), an abjad, in which letters predominantly or exclusively represent consonants (as in the original Phoenician, Hebrew or Arabic), and an "alphabet", a set of graphemes that represent both vowels and consonants.
He was co-editor (with William Bright) of the book The World's Writing Systems (1996), and he introduced the terms abjad (an "alphabet" with no vowel letters) and abugida (a system partly alphabetic, partly syllabic) as modern linguistic terms for categories of scripts.

Collation

collatedcollatecollating
This makes them useful for purposes of collation, specifically by allowing words to be sorted in alphabetical order.
Alphabetical order is the basis for many systems of collation where items of information are identified by strings consisting principally of letters from an alphabet.

Khmer script

KhmerKhmer alphabetKhmer alphabet – Unicode
The Khmer alphabet (for Cambodian) is the longest, with 74 letters.
The spoken name of each consonant letter is its value together with its inherent vowel.

Runes

runicrunerunic alphabet
Some adaptations of the Latin alphabet are augmented with ligatures, such as æ in Danish and Icelandic and Ȣ in Algonquian; by borrowings from other alphabets, such as the thorn þ in Old English and Icelandic, which came from the Futhark runes; and by modifying existing letters, such as the eth ð of Old English and Icelandic, which is a modified d.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.

Old Hungarian script

Old Hungarian alphabetOld Hungarianrunic-like script
The Old Hungarian script is a contemporary writing system of the Hungarians.
The Old Hungarian script (Székely-magyar rovás, 'székely-magyar runiform', or rovásírás) is an alphabetic writing system used for writing the Hungarian language.

Glagolitic script

GlagoliticGlagolitic alphabetGlagolithic
The Glagolitic alphabet was the initial script of the liturgical language Old Church Slavonic and became, together with the Greek uncial script, the basis of the Cyrillic script.
The Glagolitic script (, Glagolitsa) is the oldest known Slavic alphabet.

Ukrainian alphabet

UkrainianUkrainian CyrillicUkrainian orthography
Cyrillic alphabets include the Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian, Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian.
The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine.

Latin alphabet

LatinRoman alphabetRoman
The first fully phonemic script, the Proto-Canaanite script, later known as the Phoenician alphabet, is considered to be the first alphabet, and is the ancestor of most modern alphabets, including Arabic, Greek, Latin, Cyrillic, Hebrew, and possibly Brahmic.

Cuneiform

cuneiform scriptAkkadian cuneiformSumerian cuneiform
The Proto-Sinaitic or Proto-Canaanite script and the Ugaritic script were the first scripts with a limited number of signs, in contrast to the other widely used writing systems at the time, Cuneiform, Egyptian hieroglyphs, and Linear B. An alphabetic cuneiform script with 30 signs including three that indicate the following vowel was invented in Ugarit before the 15th century BC.
Ultimately, it was completely replaced by alphabetic writing (in the general sense) in the course of the Roman era, and there are no cuneiform systems in current use.