Alps

AlpineItalian Alpsthe AlpsAlpine regionEuropean AlpsAlpiAlpine MountainsAlpAlpesAlpen
The Alps (Alpes ; Alpen ; Alpi ; Alps; Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, and stretching approximately 1200 km across eight Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia.wikipedia
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Italy

ItalianITAItalia
The Alps (Alpes ; Alpen ; Alpi ; Alps; Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, and stretching approximately 1200 km across eight Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia.
Italy (Italia ), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana ), is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and surrounded by several islands.

Liechtenstein

Principality of LiechtensteinLIEFürstentum Liechtenstein
The Alps (Alpes ; Alpen ; Alpi ; Alps; Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, and stretching approximately 1200 km across eight Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a German-speaking microstate in Alpine Central Europe.

Germany

GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
The Alps (Alpes ; Alpen ; Alpi ; Alps; Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, and stretching approximately 1200 km across eight Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia.
Germany (Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland, ), is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north and the Alps, Lake Constance, and the High Rhine to the south.

List of Alpine four-thousanders

List of 4000 metre peaks of the Alpsalpine four-thousanders 4000 metre summits of the Alps
The Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4000 m.
This list contains all of the 128 summits and subsidiary tops of 4000 m or more above sea level in the Alps in France, Italy and Switzerland as defined by the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (UIAA).

Matterhorn

Monte CervinoCervinoThe Matterhorn
Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. The highest portion of the range is divided by the glacial trough of the Rhône valley, from Mont Blanc to the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa on the southern side, and the Bernese Alps on the northern.
The Matterhorn (, ; Cervino ; Cervin ) is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy.

Alpine states

Alpine countriesAlpinealpine country
The Alps (Alpes ; Alpen ; Alpi ; Alps; Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, and stretching approximately 1200 km across eight Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia.
The term Alpine states or Alpine countries refers to the territory of eight countries associated with the Alpine region, as defined by the Alpine Convention of 1991: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia, and Switzerland.

Mont Blanc

Mont-BlancMonte BiancoMount Blanc
Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. The highest portion of the range is divided by the glacial trough of the Rhône valley, from Mont Blanc to the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa on the southern side, and the Bernese Alps on the northern.
Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco ; meaning "White Mountain") is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe west of the Caucasus peaks of Russia and Georgia.

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
The Alps (Alpes ; Alpen ; Alpi ; Alps; Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, and stretching approximately 1200 km across eight Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia.
Around 390 BC the Gallic chieftain Brennus and his troops made their way to Italy through the Alps, defeated the Romans in the Battle of the Allia, and besieged and ransomed Rome.

Leontopodium nivale

EdelweissLeontopodium alpinumEdelweiß
Wildlife such as ibex live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3400 m, and plants such as Edelweiss grow in rocky areas in lower elevations as well as in higher elevations.
Edelweiß was one of several regional names for the plant and entered wide usage during the first half of the 19th century, in the context of early Alpine tourism.

Golden age of alpinism

goldengreat age of conquestthe Alpenstock on a Swiss mountain
The 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists, writers, and artists, in particular, the Romantics, followed by the golden age of alpinism as mountaineers began to ascend the peaks.
The golden age of alpinism was the decade in mountaineering between Alfred Wills's ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854 and Edward Whymper's ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865, during which many major peaks in the Alps saw their first ascents.

Alpine transhumance

alpine pastureseasonal alpine herdingalm
In modern languages the term alp, alm, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks.
Alpine transhumance is transhumance as practiced in the Alps, that is, a seasonal droving of grazing livestock between the valleys in winter and the high mountain pastures in summer (German Alpwirtschaft, Almwirtschaft from the term for "seasonal mountain pasture", Alp, Alm).

Bernese Alps

BerneseBernese Alpine foothillsFribourg Prealps
The highest portion of the range is divided by the glacial trough of the Rhône valley, from Mont Blanc to the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa on the southern side, and the Bernese Alps on the northern.
The Bernese Alps (Berner Alpen, Alpes bernoises, Alpi bernesi) are a mountain range of the Alps, located in western Switzerland.

Eastern Alps

Tyrolean AlpsAlpineEastern
The variances in nomenclature in the region spanned by the Alps makes classification of the mountains and subregions difficult, but a general classification is that of the Eastern Alps and Western Alps with the divide between the two occurring in eastern Switzerland according to geologist Stefan Schmid, near the Splügen Pass.
Eastern Alps is the name given to the eastern half of the Alps, usually defined as the area east of a line from Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine valley up to the Splügen Pass at the Alpine divide and down the Liro River to Lake Como in the south.

Western Alps

western Alpine summits
The variances in nomenclature in the region spanned by the Alps makes classification of the mountains and subregions difficult, but a general classification is that of the Eastern Alps and Western Alps with the divide between the two occurring in eastern Switzerland according to geologist Stefan Schmid, near the Splügen Pass.
The Western Alps are the western part of the Alpine range including the southeastern part of France (i.e. Savoie), the whole of Monaco, the northwestern part of Italy and the southwestern part of Switzerland (i.e. Valais).

Bavaria

BayernFree State of BavariaBavarian
To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the southern border of Bavaria in Germany.
Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, cuisine, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism.

Brenner Pass

BrennerBrenneroBrenner Route
The most important passes are the Col de l'Iseran (the highest), the Col Agnel, the Brenner Pass, the Mont-Cenis, the Great St. Bernard Pass, the Col de Tende, the Gotthard Pass, the Semmering Pass, the Simplon Pass, and the Stelvio Pass.
The Brenner Pass (Brennerpass ; Passo del Brennero ) is a mountain pass through the Alps which forms the border between Italy and Austria.

Ancient Rome

RomanRomansRome
Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, and the Romans had settlements in the region.
Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barca, rapidly marched through Hispania to the Italian Alps, causing panic among Rome's Italian allies.

Gotthard Pass

St. Gotthard PassGotthardSt Gotthard Pass
The most important passes are the Col de l'Iseran (the highest), the Col Agnel, the Brenner Pass, the Mont-Cenis, the Great St. Bernard Pass, the Col de Tende, the Gotthard Pass, the Semmering Pass, the Simplon Pass, and the Stelvio Pass.
The Gotthard Pass or St. Gotthard Pass (Passo del San Gottardo, Gotthardpass) at 2106 m is a mountain pass in the Alps traversing the Saint-Gotthard Massif and connecting northern and southern Switzerland.

Col de l'Iseran

Iseran
The most important passes are the Col de l'Iseran (the highest), the Col Agnel, the Brenner Pass, the Mont-Cenis, the Great St. Bernard Pass, the Col de Tende, the Gotthard Pass, the Semmering Pass, the Simplon Pass, and the Stelvio Pass.
2764 m) is a mountain pass in France, the highest paved pass in the Alps.

Slovenia

SloveneSlovenianRepublic of Slovenia
The Alps (Alpes ; Alpen ; Alpi ; Alps; Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, and stretching approximately 1200 km across eight Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia.
Four major European geographic regions meet in Slovenia: the Alps, the Dinarides, the Pannonian Plain, and the Mediterranean.

Ibex

ibexesCapra ibexGoat
Wildlife such as ibex live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3400 m, and plants such as Edelweiss grow in rocky areas in lower elevations as well as in higher elevations.

Rhône

RhoneRhone ValleyRhône River
The highest portion of the range is divided by the glacial trough of the Rhône valley, from Mont Blanc to the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa on the southern side, and the Bernese Alps on the northern.
In French, the adjective derived from the river is rhodanien, as in le sillon rhodanien (literally "the furrow of the Rhône"), which is the name of the long, straight Saône and Rhône river valleys, a deep cleft running due south to the Mediterranean and separating the Alps from the Massif Central.

La Tène culture

La TèneLa Tène periodLa Tène times
By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established.
Though there is no agreement on the precise region in which La Tène culture first developed, there is a broad consensus that the centre of the culture lay on the northwest edges of Hallstatt culture, north of the Alps, within the region between in the West the valleys of the Marne and Moselle, and the part of the Rhineland nearby.

Piz Bernina

BerninaBernina massif
The highest peaks of the Western Alps and Eastern Alps, respectively, are Mont Blanc, at 4810 m and Piz Bernina at 4049 m.
It is also the most easterly mountain higher than 4,000 m in the Alps, the highest point of the Swiss canton of Graubünden, and the fifth-most prominent peak in the Alps.

Col de Tende

colle di TendaCol de Tende (Tenda Pass)Col Tenda
The most important passes are the Col de l'Iseran (the highest), the Col Agnel, the Brenner Pass, the Mont-Cenis, the Great St. Bernard Pass, the Col de Tende, the Gotthard Pass, the Semmering Pass, the Simplon Pass, and the Stelvio Pass. From the Colle di Cadibona to Col de Tende it runs westwards, before turning to the northwest and then, near the Colle della Maddalena, to the north.
Col de Tende (Colle di Tenda; elevation 1870 m) is a high mountain pass in the Alps, close to the border between France and Italy, although the highest section of the pass is wholly within France.