Alternative media

alternativealternative pressalternative newsalternative journalismalternative weekliesindependent mediaalternative magazineindependent comics alternative weekly newspaperalternative journalist
Alternative media are media that differ from established or dominant types of media in terms of their content, production, or distribution.wikipedia
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Mainstream media

mainstreammainstream pressmainstream news media
While mainstream mass media, on the whole, "represent government and corporate interests", alternative media tend to be "non-commercial projects that advocate the interests of those excluded from the mainstream", for example, the poor, political and ethnic minorities, labor groups, and LGBT identities.
The term is used to contrast with alternative media which may contain content with more dissenting thought at variance with the prevailing views of mainstream sources.

Chris Atton

In his assessment of a variety of definitions for the term, Chris Atton notes repeatedly the importance of alternative media production originating from small-scale, counter-hegemonic groups and individuals.
His work focuses on Alternative Media where his contribution has concentrated on the notion of alternative media not as an essentialised political position but as a set of socio-cultural processes that redraw the boundaries of expert culture and media power.

John D. H. Downing

John Downing
John Downing, for example, defines "radical alternative media" as media "that express an alternative vision to hegemonic policies, priorities, and perspectives".
John D. H. Downing is a communications scholar who has written extensively on Alternative Media and Social Movements.

Radical media

radical
Community media includes citizens′ media, participatory media, activist and radical media and the broader forms of communication that local or regional specific platforms engage in. Like other forms of alternative media, community media seeks to bypass the commercialization of media.
While the coverage of this term coincides with other branches of alternative media, namely tactical and activist media, it differs from conventional mass media in terms of its ideological and behavioural practices, making radical media significant in terms of its amplification of social movements.

Clemencia Rodriguez

This connection is strengthened in the work of alternative media scholar Clemencia Rodriguez.
Clemencia Rodriguez is a Colombian US-based media and communication scholar recognized for her role in establishing and promoting the field of alternative media studies in English language media studies, notably through her work on 'citizens' media,' a term she coined in her 2001 book Fissures in the Mediascape and through co-founding and facilitating OURMedia/NUESTROSMedios, a global network of researchers and practitioners of alternative media, community media and citizens' media, currently the biggest network of its kind with over 500 members in over 40 countries.

Citizen journalism

citizen journalistparticipatory journalismcitizen journalists
Alternative media are also created by participatory journalism as citizens play an active role in collecting, reporting, analyzing, and disseminating news and information.
Citizen journalism, as a form of alternative media, presents a "radical challenge to the professionalized and institutionalized practices of the mainstream media".

Tactical media

tactical art
An example of alternative media is tactical media, which uses 'hit-and-run' tactics to bring attention to an emerging problem.
Tactical media is a term coined in 1996, to denote a form of media activism that privileges temporary, hit-and-run interventions in the media sphere over the creation of permanent and alternative media outlets.

Democracy Now!

Democracy NowDemocracynow.orgDemocracy Now News Hour
These media disseminate marginalized viewpoints, such as those heard in the progressive news program Democracy Now!, and create communities of identity, as seen for example in the It Gets Better Project that was created on YouTube in response to a rise in gay teen suicides at the time it was created.
Alternative media

Zine

zineszinesteradzine
Some examples include the counter-culture zines of the 1960s, ethnic and indigenous media such as the First People's television network in Canada (later rebranded Aboriginal Peoples Television Network), and more recently online open publishing journalism sites such as Indymedia.
An open-source wiki site solely for zines, small press publications and independent media as well as their history.

YouTube

youtube.comYouTube channelYouTuber
These media disseminate marginalized viewpoints, such as those heard in the progressive news program Democracy Now!, and create communities of identity, as seen for example in the It Gets Better Project that was created on YouTube in response to a rise in gay teen suicides at the time it was created.
Alternative media

Underground press

underground newspaperundergroundunderground newspapers
Factsheet Five publisher Mike Gunderloy described the alternative press as "sort of the 'grown-up' underground press. Whole Earth, the Boston Phoenix, and Mother Jones are the sorts of things that fall in this classification."
The underground press began to evolve into the socially conscious, life-style oriented alternative press that predominates this form of weekly print media in 2013 in North America

Alternative media in South Africa

South Africa's alternative press
Alternative media in South Africa
South Africa has a long history of alternative media.

Alternative media (U.S. political left)

alternativeleft
Alternative media (U.S. political left)
This is a list of alternative media espousing the views of the American political left.

Alternative media in the United Kingdom

Alternative media in the United Kingdom
A list of alternative media outlets in the United Kingdom.

Counterculture

counterculturalcounter-culturecounter-cultural
Some examples include the counter-culture zines of the 1960s, ethnic and indigenous media such as the First People's television network in Canada (later rebranded Aboriginal Peoples Television Network), and more recently online open publishing journalism sites such as Indymedia.

Aboriginal Peoples Television Network

APTNAboriginal Peoples Television Network (APTN)Aboriginal People's Television Network
Some examples include the counter-culture zines of the 1960s, ethnic and indigenous media such as the First People's television network in Canada (later rebranded Aboriginal Peoples Television Network), and more recently online open publishing journalism sites such as Indymedia.

Open publishing

Open publication
Some examples include the counter-culture zines of the 1960s, ethnic and indigenous media such as the First People's television network in Canada (later rebranded Aboriginal Peoples Television Network), and more recently online open publishing journalism sites such as Indymedia.

It Gets Better Project

It Gets BetterIt Gets BetteIt Gets Better" project
These media disseminate marginalized viewpoints, such as those heard in the progressive news program Democracy Now!, and create communities of identity, as seen for example in the It Gets Better Project that was created on YouTube in response to a rise in gay teen suicides at the time it was created.

Antonio Gramsci

GramsciGramscian(Antonio Gramsci
Alternative media challenge the dominant beliefs and values of a culture and have been described as "counter-hegemonic" by adherents of Antonio Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony.

Cultural hegemony

hegemonichegemonycultural
Alternative media challenge the dominant beliefs and values of a culture and have been described as "counter-hegemonic" by adherents of Antonio Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony.

Jürgen Habermas

HabermasHabermasianJurgen Habermas
Philosopher Jürgen Habermas proposed that a healthy democratic community requires a space where rational debate can take place between engaged citizens.

Public sphere

public discoursepolitical discoursepublic
It is essential that the dialogue in this public sphere occurs outside the control of any authority so that citizens can exchange ideas as equals.

Nancy Fraser

Fraser (Nancy)
In light of this social inequality, philosopher Nancy Fraser argues for the importance of multiple independent public spheres, in which members of subordinated groups can first deliberate their issues and concerns among themselves and later assert those issues into the larger public sphere.

Social movement

social movementsmovementmovements
Social movements are a type of collective action.

Occupy movement

OccupyOccupy Wall Street movementoccupation
An example of how the mainstream media problematically covers social movements is the Occupy movement, which began with Occupy Wall Street in September 2011.