Alveolar macrophage

Alveolar macrophagesmacrophages, alveolardust cell
An alveolar macrophage (or dust cell) is a type of macrophage, a professional phagocyte, found in the pulmonary alveoli, near the pneumocytes, but separated from the wall.wikipedia
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Macrophage

macrophagesM2 macrophagesTissue macrophages
An alveolar macrophage (or dust cell) is a type of macrophage, a professional phagocyte, found in the pulmonary alveoli, near the pneumocytes, but separated from the wall.
They take various forms (with various names) throughout the body (e.g., histiocytes, Kupffer cells, alveolar macrophages, microglia, and others), but all are part of the mononuclear phagocyte system.

Pulmonary alveolus

alveolialveolarpulmonary alveoli
An alveolar macrophage (or dust cell) is a type of macrophage, a professional phagocyte, found in the pulmonary alveoli, near the pneumocytes, but separated from the wall.
Two types are pneumocytes known as type I and type II cells found in the alveolar wall, and a large phagocytic cell known as an alveolar macrophage that moves about in the lumens of the alveoli, and in the connective tissue between them.

Phagocytosis

phagocyticphagocytosedphagocytose
An alveolar macrophage (or dust cell) is a type of macrophage, a professional phagocyte, found in the pulmonary alveoli, near the pneumocytes, but separated from the wall.

Microorganism

microorganismsmicrobemicrobes
They are responsible for removing particles such as dust or microorganisms from the respiratory surfaces.

Carbon

Ccarbonaceouscarbon atom
Alveolar macrophages are frequently seen to contain granules of exogenous material such as particulate carbon that they have picked up from respiratory surfaces.

Smoking

smokerssmokersmoke
Such black granules may be especially common in smoker's lungs or long-term city dwellers.

Degradative enzyme

These organelles contain a myriad of degradative enzymes and antimicrobial peptides that are released into the phagolysosome, such as proteases, nucleases, phosphatases, esterases, lipases, and highly basic peptides.

Interferon gamma

IFN-γinterferon-gammaIFNγ
There are two explanations for the lack of responsiveness in the promoter of human inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) to NO activation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) + interferon gamma (IFNγ).

Arachidonic acid

arachidonic acid metabolismarachidonatearachidonic
PGE2 is an immunomodulatory eicosanoid derived from the cell membrane component, arachidonic acid, and is processed in the arachidonic acid cascade: the successive oxygenation and isomerization of arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase and PGE2 synthase enzymes.

Cyclooxygenase

COXcyclooxygenase 1cyclo-oxygenase
PGE2 is an immunomodulatory eicosanoid derived from the cell membrane component, arachidonic acid, and is processed in the arachidonic acid cascade: the successive oxygenation and isomerization of arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase and PGE2 synthase enzymes.

Toll-like receptor

Toll-like receptorsTLRToll
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are signaling PRRs, capable of recognizing various bacterial proteins.

Pattern recognition receptor

pattern recognition receptorspattern recognition receptors (PRRs)(PRRs)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are signaling PRRs, capable of recognizing various bacterial proteins.

Surfactant protein A2

SFTPA2SFTPA2Bsurfactant, pulmonary-associated protein A2B
Using specific monoclonal antibodies for Surfactant protein A, the protein can be detected in lung alveolar type II pneumocytes, Club cells, and alveolar macrophages, but no extrapulmonary SP-A immunoreactivity was observed.

Lung

lungspulmonaryright lung
Alveoli consist of two types of alveolar cell and an alveolar macrophage.

Surfactant protein A1

SFTPA1Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A1
Using specific monoclonal antibodies for Surfactant protein A, the protein can be detected in lung alveolar type II pneumocytes, club cells, and alveolar macrophages, but no extrapulmonary SP-A immunoreactivity was observed.

Measles

Rubeolameasles encephalitisAcute Measles encephalitis
Within days, the measles virus spreads through local tissue and is picked up by dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages, and carried from that local tissue in the lungs to the local lymph nodes.

Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage

bledbroke a blood vesselbleeding
Hemosiderophages are alveolar macrophages that have ingested and digested red blood cells from previous episodes of EIPH.

Mononuclear phagocyte system

reticuloendothelialmononuclear phagocytic systemLymphoreticular

Henry Mwandumba

In particular, Mwandumba is interested in how TB pathogens impact the innate function of alveolar macrophage.

Pathogenic fungus

fungal diseasepathogenic fungifungal diseases
neoformans'' cells are usually phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages in the lung.

Mir-589 microRNA precursor family

miR-589 has been implicated in the regulation of antimicrobial targets in bovine lung alveolar macrophages, and alongside other miRNAs has been suggested to play a part in the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.