Amateur radio

ham radioamateur radio licenseamateurradio amateursradio amateurhamham radiosamateur ("ham") radioAmateur Radio AssociationAmateur Radio Club
Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, is the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport, contesting, and emergency communication.wikipedia
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International Amateur Radio Union

IARUInternational Amateur Radio Union -IARU-region
Amateur radio is officially represented and coordinated by the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU), which is organized in three regions and has as its members the national amateur radio societies which exist in most countries.
The International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) is an international confederation of national amateur radio organisations that allows a forum for common matters of concern and collectively represents matters to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

American Radio Relay League

ARRLAmateur Radio Relay LeagueAmerican Radio Relay League (ARRL)
According to an estimate made in 2011 by the American Radio Relay League, two million people throughout the world are regularly involved with amateur radio.
The American Radio Relay League (ARRL) is the largest membership association of amateur radio enthusiasts in the USA.

Radiosport

contester
Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, is the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport, contesting, and emergency communication.
Radiosport (or radio sport) is formal competition among amateur radio operators in any of three amateur radio activities.

Amateur radio station

stationsAmateur radio station § Computer-control softwareamateur station
About 830,000 amateur radio stations are located in IARU Region 2 (the Americas) followed by IARU Region 3 (South and East Asia and the Pacific Ocean) with about 750,000 stations.
An amateur radio station is a radio station designed to provide radiocommunications in the amateur radio service for an amateur radio operator.

Transceiver

transceiversradio transceivertransceiving
In many countries, amateur radio operators may also send, receive, or relay radio communications between computers or transceivers connected to secure virtual private networks on the Internet.
Amateur radio or "ham" radio operators can build their own equipment and it is now easier to design and build a simple unit containing both of the functions: transmitting and receiving.

Amateur radio operator

radio amateuramateur radio operatorsradio amateurs
Prospective amateur operators are tested for their understanding of key concepts in electronics and the host government's radio regulations.
Amateur radio operators have been granted an amateur radio license by a governmental regulatory authority after passing an examination on applicable regulations, electronics, radio theory, and radio operation.

List of amateur radio modes

Amateur radio modesamateur radio modeemission modes
Amateur radio operators use various modes of transmission to communicate.
The following is a list of the modes of radio communication used in the amateur radio hobby.

Amateur radio emergency communications

emergency communicationsAmateur radiocommunications during emergencies
Some of the focal areas amateurs pursue include radio contesting, radio propagation study, public service communication, technical experimentation, and computer networking.
In times of crisis and natural disasters, amateur radio is often used as a means of emergency communication when wireline, cell phones and other conventional means of communications fail.

Radio spectrum

bandradio bandspectrum
Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, is the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport, contesting, and emergency communication.
Licensed amateur radio operators use portions of the 6-meter band in North America.

Amateur radio homebrew

homebrewhome builthomebrewing
Some of the focal areas amateurs pursue include radio contesting, radio propagation study, public service communication, technical experimentation, and computer networking.
Homebrew is an amateur radio slang term for home-built, noncommercial radio equipment.

Packet radio

PacketAmateur packet radiocomputer networking
Some of the focal areas amateurs pursue include radio contesting, radio propagation study, public service communication, technical experimentation, and computer networking. Hams led the development of packet radio in the 1970s, which has employed protocols such as AX.25 and TCP/IP.
Packet radio is frequently used by amateur radio operators.

Vintage amateur radio

ham radio operatorsvintagevintage and military amateur radio enthusiasts
A similar "legacy" mode popular with home constructors is amplitude modulation (AM), pursued by many vintage amateur radio enthusiasts and aficionados of vacuum tube technology.
Vintage amateur radio is a subset of amateur radio hobby where enthusiasts collect, restore, preserve, build, and operate amateur radio equipment from bygone years, such as those using vacuum tube technology.

Shortwave radio

shortwaveshort waveshort-wave
Although computer-based (digital) modes and methods have largely replaced CW for commercial and military applications, many amateur radio operators still enjoy using the CW mode—particularly on the shortwave bands and for experimental work, such as Earth–Moon–Earth communication, because of its inherent signal-to-noise ratio advantages.
It is also used for military over-the-horizon radar, diplomatic communication, and two-way international communication by amateur radio enthusiasts for hobby, educational and emergency purposes, as well as for long distance aviation and marine communications.

Q code

Q codesQFEQSO
Morse, using internationally agreed message encodings such as the Q code, enables communication between amateurs who speak different languages.
It is an operating signal initially developed for commercial radiotelegraph communication and later adopted by other radio services, especially amateur radio.

Two-way radio

two way radioRadio Operatortwo-way radios
The term "amateur" is used to specify "a duly authorised person interested in radioelectric practice with a purely personal aim and without pecuniary interest;" (either direct monetary or other similar reward) and to differentiate it from commercial broadcasting, public safety (such as police and fire), or professional two-way radio services (such as maritime, aviation, taxis, etc.).

AX.25

AX.25 PacketsAX25
Hams led the development of packet radio in the 1970s, which has employed protocols such as AX.25 and TCP/IP.
AX.25 (Amateur X.25) is a data link layer protocol originally derived from layer 2 of the X.25 protocol suite and designed for use by amateur radio operators.

Radio propagation

propagationpropagation moderadio wave propagation
Some of the focal areas amateurs pursue include radio contesting, radio propagation study, public service communication, technical experimentation, and computer networking.
It is used by amateur radio operators to talk to other countries, and shortwave broadcasting stations that broadcast internationally.

Wireless telegraphy

wireless telegraphradiotelegraphywireless
This radio callbook lists wireless telegraph stations in Canada and the United States, including 89 amateur radio stations.
Although this type of communication has been mostly replaced since its introduction over 100 years ago by other means of communication it is still used by amateur radio operators as well as some military services.

WSJT (amateur radio software)

WSJTJT65FSK441
Other modes, such as FSK441 using software such as WSJT, are used for weak signal modes including meteor scatter and moonbounce communications.
WSJT is a computer program used for weak-signal radio communication between amateur radio operators.

Amateur radio repeater

repeaterrepeatersamateur radio
Linked repeater systems, however, can allow transmissions of VHF and higher frequencies across hundreds of miles.
An amateur radio repeater is an electronic device that receives a weak or low-level amateur radio signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation.

Internet Radio Linking Project

IRLP
EchoLink using VoIP technology has enabled amateurs to communicate through local Internet-connected repeaters and radio nodes, while IRLP has allowed the linking of repeaters to provide greater coverage area. Repeaters can also be linked together by using other amateur radio bands, landline, or the Internet.
The Internet Radio Linking Project, also called IRLP, is a closed-source project that links amateur radio stations around the world by using Voice over IP (VoIP).

33-centimeter band

33 centimeters900 MHz33 cm
Because of the wide bandwidth and stable signals required, amateur television is typically found in the 70 cm (420–450 MHz) frequency range, though there is also limited use on 33 cm (902–928 MHz), 23 cm (1240–1300 MHz) and higher.
The 33-centimeter or 900 MHz band is a portion of the UHF radio spectrum internationally allocated to amateur radio on a secondary basis.

Amateur radio frequency allocations

amateur radio bandsamateur radio bandbands
Repeaters can also be linked together by using other amateur radio bands, landline, or the Internet.
Globally, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) oversees how much radio spectrum is set aside for amateur radio transmissions.

70-centimeter band

70 cm70 centimeters70 centimeter
Because of the wide bandwidth and stable signals required, amateur television is typically found in the 70 cm (420–450 MHz) frequency range, though there is also limited use on 33 cm (902–928 MHz), 23 cm (1240–1300 MHz) and higher.
The 70-centimeter or 440 MHz band is a portion of the UHF radio spectrum internationally allocated to amateur radio and amateur satellite use.

Amateur radio satellite

OSCARamateur satelliteAmateur-satellite service
The amateur radio service (amateur service and amateur-satellite service) is established by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) through the Radio Regulations.
These satellites use amateur radio frequency allocations to facilitate communication between amateur radio stations.