Ambrose Burnside

Ambrose Burnside, circa 1880
Mrs. Burnside, Mary Richmond Bishop
General Ambrose Burnside.
Burnside (seated, center) and officers of the 1st Rhode Island at Camp Sprague, Rhode Island, 1861
Burnside Bridge at Antietam in 2005
Union General Ambrose Burnside, 1862
Engraving of General Burnside in full dress uniform
Petersburg Crater, 1865
Burnside's grave in Swan Point Cemetery, Providence, Rhode Island
Studio photograph of Gen. Ambrose Burnside taken sometime between 1860 and 1862. Photograph shows his unusual sideburns.
Equestrian monument in Burnside Park, Providence, Rhode Island.

American army officer and politician who became a senior Union general in the Civil War and three times Governor of Rhode Island, as well as being a successful inventor and industrialist.

- Ambrose Burnside

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IX Corps (Union Army)

Corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War that distinguished itself in combat in multiple theaters: the Carolinas, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi.

IX Corps badge
Union Army 1st Division Badge, IX Corps

Although the official order designating its number was not issued until July 22, 1862, the IX Corps organization dates from the expedition to North Carolina in February, 1862, under Ambrose E. Burnside and to the operations about Hilton Head, South Carolina, because the troops engaged in these movements were the only ones used in the formation of the corps.

Army of the Potomac

The principal Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.

Commanders of the Army of the Potomac at Culpeper, Virginia, 1863. From the left: Gouverneur K. Warren, William H. French, George G. Meade, Henry J. Hunt, Andrew A. Humphreys, George Sykes
The Army of the Potomac – Our Outlying Picket in the Woods, 1862
Grand Review of the Army of the Potomac, drawn by Thomas Nast, Harper's Weekly, October 10, 1863
Saint Patrick's Day celebration in the Army of the Potomac, depicting a steeplechase race among the Irish Brigade, March 17, 1863, by Edwin Forbes
Scouts and guides, Army of the Potomac, Mathew Brady
Headquarters of the 5th Corps, Army of the Potomac, at the home of Col. Avery near Petersburg, Virginia, June 1864. Photograph by Mathew Brady. From the Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress

The army was divided by Ambrose Burnside into three grand divisions of two corps each with a Reserve composed of two more.

Battle of Fredericksburg

Fought December 11–15, 1862, in and around Fredericksburg, Virginia, in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.

Battle of Fredericksburg by Kurz and Allison
Virginia, 1862
A piece of artillery forming part of "Longstreet's Line" on Marye's Heights during the Battle of Fredericksburg
Fredericksburg campaign, situation November 19, 1862 and movements since October 10
Skinkers Neck on the Rappanhannock below Fredericksburg, VA, 1862 sketch by Alfred Waud
Overview of the battle, December 13, 1862
Part of Franklin's "Left Grand Division" charges across the railroad
Attack on the Rebel Works, 1862 sketch by Alfred Waud
Sumner's assault, 1:00 p.m., December 13, 1862. The sequence of Union division attacks was French (II Corps), Hancock (II), Howard (II), and Sturgis (IX).
Hooker's assault, 3:30 p.m., December 13, 1862. The sequence of Union division attacks was Griffin (V Corps), Humphreys (V), and Getty (IX).
The Confederate troops behind the stone wall
The sunken road at Marye's Heights in 2010. Approximately 3,000 Georgians under Thomas R. R. Cobb were lined up in multiple ranks behind the stone wall, and another 3,000 were atop the slope behind it, along with their artillery.
Genl. Humphreys charging at the head of his division after sunset of Dec 13, 1862 sketch by Alfred Waud
Here is the only known instance in which the Union photographers succeeded in getting a near view of the Confederate troops. Mathew Brady's photo shows the other bank of Rappahannock after General Lee allowed Federal troops to collect bodies of fallen soldiers.
Civil War Trust President Jim Lighthizer at Slaughter Pen Farm
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Union Army pontoon boats mobilized for deployment
Model of a portion of the pontoon bridge built for the film Gods and Generals, displayed at the Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park
Pontoon bridges at Franklin's Crossing
Barksdale's Mississippi brigade fires at the Union engineers
Overview of the battle, December 13, 1862 (additional map 1)
Overview of the battle, December 13, 1862 (additional map 2)
Western view from Fredericksburg down Telegraph Road with Marye's Heights visible in the distant center
Marye's House upon Marye's Heights was the center of the Confederate position during the battle. Confederate troop encampments are visible to the right
Burnside's headquarters at Phillips House during the battle
Sumner's headquarters, Chatham Manor, on Stafford Heights; Burnside observed the battle primarily from this location
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The combat, between the Union Army of the Potomac commanded by Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia under Gen. Robert E. Lee, included futile frontal attacks by the Union army on December 13 against entrenched Confederate defenders along the Sunken Wall on the heights behind the city.

Eastern theater of the American Civil War

The eastern theater of the American Civil War consisted of the major military and naval operations in the states of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, the District of Columbia, and the coastal fortifications and seaports of North Carolina.

President Lincoln visiting the Army of the Potomac at the Antietam battlefield, September 1862. Photo by Alexander Gardner.
Valley Campaign: Kernstown to McDowell
Valley Campaign: Front Royal to Port Republic
Peninsula Campaign, map of events up to the Battle of Seven Pines
Northern Virginia Campaign, August 7–28, 1862
Maryland Campaign, actions September 3 to September 15, 1862
Overview of the Battle of Antietam
Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862
Overland Campaign, from the Wilderness to crossing the James River
Richmond-Petersburg theater, fall 1864
Grant's final Petersburg assaults and the start of Lee's retreat
June 26–27, 1862. Battles of Mechanicsville and Gaines's Mill
June 30, 1862. Battle of Glendale
July 1, 1862. Battle of Malvern Hill
May 1, 1863. Hooker loses his nerve
May 2. Jackson's flank attack
May 3. Lee's assaults against Chancellorsville
May 3. Battles of Second Fredericksburg and Salem Church
May 4–6. Union withdrawals
Initial movements in the campaign, through July 3; cavalry movements shown with dashed lines
Battle of Gettysburg, July 1, 1863
Battle of Gettysburg, July 2
Battle of Gettysburg, July 3
Retreat, July 5–14
Shenandoah Valley operations, May–July 1864
Shenandoah Valley operations, August–October 1864

President Abraham Lincoln sought a general to match Lee's boldness, appointing in turn Maj. Gens. Irvin McDowell, George B. McClellan, John Pope, Ambrose Burnside, Joseph Hooker, and George G. Meade to command his principal eastern armies.

Battle of Antietam

Battle of the American Civil War fought on September 17, 1862, between Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and Union Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac near Sharpsburg, Maryland and Antietam Creek.

The Battle of Antietam, by Kurz & Allison (1878), depicting the scene of action at Burnside's Bridge
Lincoln with McClellan and staff at the Grove Farm after the battle. Notable figures (from left) are 1. Col. Delos Sackett; 4. Gen. George W. Morell; 5. Alexander S. Webb, Chief of Staff, V Corps; 6. McClellan;. 8. Dr. Jonathan Letterman; 10. Lincoln; 11. Henry J. Hunt; 12. Fitz John Porter; 15. Andrew A. Humphreys; 16. Capt. George Armstrong Custer.
Battlefield of Antietam, situation September 15 to 16, 1862
Overview of the Battle of Antietam
Assaults by the I Corps, 5:30 to 7:30 a.m.
Dead Confederate soldiers from Starke's Louisiana Brigade, on the Hagerstown Turnpike, north of the Dunker Church. Photograph by Alexander Gardner.
Assaults by the XII Corps, 7:30 to 9:00 a.m.
The Dunker Church after September 17, 1862. Here, both Union and Confederate dead lie together on the field.
Assaults by the XII and II Corps, 9 a.m. to 1 p.m.
Sunken Road
The Bloody Lane in 2005
Confederate dead lie in the "Bloody Lane" after the Battle of Antietam, 1862.
Assaults by the IX Corps, 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.
Confederate dead gathered for burial after the battle. Photograph by Alexander Gardner.
Photograph by Alexander Gardner of Lincoln and McClellan near the Antietam battlefield, October 3, 1862
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{{center|Charge of the 51st New York and 51st Pennsylvania across Burnside's Bridge, by Edwin Forbes}}
{{center|Battle of Antietam by Kurz and Allison}}
{{center|Confederate guns on the hill above poured fire into the Union ranks at Burnside's bridge. Photo taken just after the Battle of Antietam, 1862.}}
Union positions below the Confederates at Burnside Bridge
Burnside Bridge in 2012
{{center|Confederate soldiers on the Antietam battlefield as they fell inside the fence on the Hagerstown road, September 1862 by Alexander Gardner}}
{{center|Harper's Weekly drawing of dead soldiers on Antietam battlefield, based on Gardner photograph}}
{{center|Confederate horses lay dead and artillery caissons destroyed on Antietam battlefield<ref>Site identified by Frassanito, pp. 168–70.</ref>}}
{{center|Dead on Antietam battlefield<ref>Site identified by Robert Kalasky, "Military Images" Volume XX, Number 6 May–June 1999, pp. 24–29.</ref>}}
{{center|Confederate dead at Bloody Lane, looking east from the north bank. Alexander Gardner photograph.}}
{{center|Confederate dead at Bloody Lane, looking northeast from the south bank. Alexander Gardner photograph.<ref>The Union soldiers looking on were likely members of the 130th Pennsylvania, who were assigned burial detail</ref>}}
{{center|"Confederate soldier who after being wounded had evidently dragged himself to a little ravine on the hillside where he died". Photograph by Alexander Gardner.}}
{{center|Federal burial party, by Alexander Gardner<ref>Site identified by Frassanito, pp. 144–47.</ref>}}
{{center|Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield}}
{{center|"A Lonely Grave"—Federal grave at Antietam, by Alexander Gardner<ref>Site identified by Frassanito, pp. 171–74.</ref>}}
{{center|Antietam Battlefield photograph, by Alexander Gardner<ref>Original description claimed "Battlefield of Antietam on the Day of the Battle" September 17, 1862; however, see Frassanito, pp. 70–73.</ref>}}
{{center|"Artillery Hell", by James Hope (Dunker Church at the far left)}}
{{center|"A Fateful Turn"—Late morning looking east toward the Roulette Farm", by James Hope}}
{{center|"The Aftermath at Bloody Lane", by James Hope}}
{{center|"Wasted Gallantry", by James Hope}}
{{center|"A Crucial Delay", by James Hope}}
{{center|The Lutheran Church just east of Sharpsburg marks the extent of the Union offensive during the Battle of Antietam, 1862.}}

In the afternoon, Union Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside's corps entered the action, capturing a stone bridge over Antietam Creek and advancing against the Confederate right.


Sideburns, sideboards, or side whiskers are facial hair grown on the sides of the face, extending from the hairline to run parallel to or beyond the ears.

Mathabar Singh Thapa, shown with sideburns of the style worn by Hindu Kshatriya military commanders in the Indian subcontinent.

The term sideburns is a 19th-century corruption of the original burnsides, named after American Civil War general Ambrose Burnside, a man known for his unusual facial hairstyle that connected thick sideburns by way of a moustache, but left the chin clean-shaven.

Battle of the Crater

Battle of the American Civil War, part of the siege of Petersburg.

Scene of the explosion July 30th 1864
Alfred R. Waud, artist
Contemporary sketch of Col. Pleasants supervising the placement of powder in the mine
National Park Service marker depicting details of the mine
Sketch of the explosion, as seen from the Union line
Battle of the Crater art from the Virginia Tech Bugle 1899 yearbook
Result of the 8,000 lb of powder explosion under the Salient, 1865
The Crater in 2004
Mine entrance in 2006
Interior of Mine entrance in 2015

After weeks of preparation, on July 30 Union forces exploded a mine in Major General Ambrose E. Burnside's IX Corps sector, blowing a gap in the Confederate defenses of Petersburg, Virginia.

Battle of South Mountain

Fought on September 14, 1862, as part of the Maryland campaign of the American Civil War.

The American Soldier, 1862, by H. Charles McBarron, showing U.S. soldiers attacking the Confederates at Turner's Gap in 1862
Fox's Gap at the battle of South Mountain, MD. Sunday, Sept. 14, 1862
Maryland Campaign: Battle of South Mountain, September 14, 1862
Northern field of battle
Confederate dead at Fox's Gap
Map of South Mountain Battlefield core and study areas by the American Battlefield Protection Program

Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside, the Right Wing, commanded the I Corps (Maj.

First Battle of Bull Run

The first major battle of the American Civil War.

First Battle of Bull Run.
Chromolithograph by Kurz & Allison, 1889
Virginia (1861)
Northeastern Virginia (1861)
Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott, General in Chief, USA
Cartoon map illustrating Gen. Winfield Scott's plan to crush the Confederacy, economically. It is sometimes called the "Anaconda plan".
Movements July 16–21, 1861
Situation July 18
Battlefield of Manassas
Situation morning, July 21
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U.S. cavalry at Sudley Spring Ford
An 1862 illustration of a Confederate officer forcing slaves to fire a cannon at U.S. forces at gunpoint. According to John Parker, a former slave, he was forced by his Confederate captors to fire a cannon at U.S. soldiers at the Battle of Bull Run.
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Attacks on Henry House Hill, 1–3 p.m
Union retreat, after 4 p.m.
Ruins of Judith Henry's house, "Spring Hill", after the battle
Postwar house on site of Judith Henry house in Manassas
Judith Henry grave
Capture of Ricketts' Battery, painting by Sidney E. King, National Park Service
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The National Jubilee of Peace building at Grant and Lee avenues in Manassas, Virginia, is draped with the U.S. flag for the 150th anniversary commemoration, held on July 21, 2011, of the First Battle of Bull Run.
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2nd Division of Col. David Hunter of two brigades. These were led by Cols. Andrew Porter and Ambrose E. Burnside;

Union Army

The land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states.

Flag of the United States from 1863 until 1865 (35 states/stars)
Union private infantry uniform
Recruiting poster for the 1st Battalion New York Mounted Rifles
General George B. McClellan with staff and dignitaries (from left to right): Gen. George W. Morell, Lt. Col. A.V. Colburn, Gen. McClellan, Lt. Col. N.B. Sweitzer, Prince de Joinville (son of King Louis Philippe of France), and on the very right – the prince's nephew, Count de Paris
The champions of the Union – 1861 lithograph by Currier & Ives
Officers of the 3rd Massachusetts Heavy Artillery Regiment, Washington, D.C. (1865)
Non-commissioned officers of the 93rd New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment
The 26th U.S. Colored Volunteer Infantry on parade, Camp William Penn, Pennsylvania, 1865
Twenty-year-old German immigrant John Haag of Company B, 26th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment (August 1862)
Portrait of an African American Union soldier at Benton Barracks
Kady Brownell, a vivandière from Rhode Island
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863

Army of the Ohio, the army operating primarily in Kentucky and later Tennessee and Georgia, commanded by Don Carlos Buell, Ambrose E. Burnside, John G. Foster, and John M. Schofield.