American Civil War

Civil WarU.S. Civil WarUnited States Civil Warthe Civil WarwarUS Civil WarCivil War EraThe American Civil WarCivilCivil War-era
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North (the Union) and the South (the Confederacy).wikipedia
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Union (American Civil War)

UnionUnionistNorth
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North (the Union) and the South (the Confederacy).
During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States of America and specifically to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states and four border states.

Origins of the American Civil War

American Civil WarCivil WarPrior to the outbreak
The Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people.
Historians debating the origins of the American Civil War focus on the reasons why seven Southern states declared their secession from the United States (the Union), why they united to form the Confederate States of America (simply known as the "Confederacy"), and why the North refused to let them go.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North (the Union) and the South (the Confederacy).
During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the abolition of slavery in the United States.

Southern United States

SouthSouthernAmerican South
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North (the Union) and the South (the Confederacy).
The South does not fully match the geographic south of the United States but is commonly defined as including the states that fought for the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War.

Slavery in the United States

slaveryslavesslave
The Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people.
Until the Civil War, most presidents and Supreme Court justices owned people bound in slavery.

South Carolina

SCState of South CarolinaS.C.
War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell (Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%), or with sizable minorities for those unionists (Alabama with 46%, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, and South Carolina, which cast Electoral College votes without a popular vote for president).
After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868.

Confederate States of America

ConfederateConfederacyConfederate States
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North (the Union) and the South (the Confederacy). War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States.
Convinced that the institution of slavery was threatened by the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U.S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories, the Confederacy declared its secession in rebellion to the United States, with the loyal states becoming known as the Union during the ensuing American Civil War.

Robert E. Lee

LeeGeneral Robert E. LeeGeneral Lee
The war effectively ended April 9, 1865, when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House.
He commanded the Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War from 1862 until its surrender in 1865.

Ex parte Merryman

court orderEx parte Merryman" decisionintervention
The two remaining 'slave' states, Delaware and Maryland, were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed due to intervention by federal troops.
9487), is a well-known and controversial U.S. federal court case that arose out of the American Civil War.

Battle of Appomattox Court House

AppomattoxAppomattox Court HouseBattle of Appomattox Courthouse
The war effectively ended April 9, 1865, when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House.
The Battle of Appomattox Court House, fought in Appomattox County, Virginia, on the morning of April 9, 1865, was one of the last battles of the American Civil War (1861–1865).

Battle of Fort Sumter

Fort Sumterbombardment of Fort Sumterattack on Fort Sumter
War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States.
The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12–13, 1861) was the bombardment of Fort Sumter near Charleston, South Carolina by the South Carolina militia (the Confederate Army did not yet exist), and the return gunfire and subsequent surrender by the United States Army, that started the American Civil War.

Reconstruction era

ReconstructionpostbellumCongressional Reconstruction
During the Reconstruction era that followed the war, national unity was slowly restored, the national government expanded its power, and civil and political rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation.
The term has two applications: the first applies to the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the American Civil War; the second, to the attempted transformation of the 11 former Confederate states from 1863 to 1877, as directed by Congress.

Habeas Corpus Suspension Act (1863)

Habeas Corpus Suspension ActHabeas Corpus Suspension Act 1863Habeas Corpus Suspension Act of 1863
The two remaining 'slave' states, Delaware and Maryland, were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed due to intervention by federal troops.
The Habeas Corpus Suspension, (1863), entitled An Act relating to Habeas Corpus, and regulating Judicial Proceedings in Certain Cases, was an Act of Congress that authorized the president of the United States to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus in response to the American Civil War and provided for the release of political prisoners.

Conclusion of the American Civil War

closing dayssurrenderconclusion of hostilities in 1865
The war effectively ended April 9, 1865, when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House.
The fighting of the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War between Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant’s Army of the Potomac and Lee's Army of Northern Virginia was reported considerably more often in the newspapers than the battles of the Western Theater.

Bibliography of the American Civil War

Bibliography of Naval history of the American Civil WarAmerican Civil War bibliographyCivil War history
The war is one of the most studied and written about episodes in U.S. history.
The American Civil War bibliography comprises books that deal in large part with the American Civil War.

Virginia

Commonwealth of VirginiaVAState of Virginia
The three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia.
In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, and Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union; that led to the creation of West Virginia.

Tennessee

TNState of TennesseeTenn.
The three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia.
Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.

History of the United States

American historyU.S. historyUnited States history
The war is one of the most studied and written about episodes in U.S. history.
Its attack of Fort Sumter against the Union forces there in 1861 started the Civil War.

Reconstruction Amendments

Constitutional Amendments13th, 14th and 15th amendmentsAmendments
During the Reconstruction era that followed the war, national unity was slowly restored, the national government expanded its power, and civil and political rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation.
The Reconstruction Amendments are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution, adopted between 1865 and 1870, the five years immediately following the Civil War.

Western Theater of the American Civil War

Western TheaterWesternWest
While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862.
The Western Theater of the American Civil War encompassed major military operations in the states of Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina, Kentucky, South Carolina and Tennessee, as well as Louisiana east of the Mississippi River.

Eastern Theater of the American Civil War

Eastern TheaterEasternEast
While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862.
The Eastern Theater of the American Civil War consists of the major military and naval operations in the states of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, the District of Columbia, and the coastal fortifications and seaports of North Carolina.

Alabama

ALState of AlabamaAlabamian
Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell (Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%), or with sizable minorities for those unionists (Alabama with 46%, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, and South Carolina, which cast Electoral College votes without a popular vote for president).
From the American Civil War until World War II, Alabama, like many states in the southern U.S., suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture.

Georgia (U.S. state)

GeorgiaGAState of Georgia
Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell (Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%), or with sizable minorities for those unionists (Alabama with 46%, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, and South Carolina, which cast Electoral College votes without a popular vote for president).
Following the Civil War, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870.

Florida

FLState of FloridaFloridian
Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell (Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%), or with sizable minorities for those unionists (Alabama with 46%, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, and South Carolina, which cast Electoral College votes without a popular vote for president).
It was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, and racial segregation after the American Civil War.

King Cotton

cottoncotton is kingcotton industry
The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
"King Cotton" is a slogan which summarized the strategy used before the American Civil War (of 1861–1865) by pro-secessionists in the southern states (the future Confederate States of America) to claim the feasibility of secession and to prove there was no need to fear a war with the northern states.