Second Battle of Bull Run, fought Augt. 29th 1862, 1860s lithograph by Currier and Ives
Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Antebellum portrait of Longstreet
Northeastern Virginia (1862)
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Sketch of Longstreet as a Confederate
Second Bull Run Campaign, August 17–30, 1862 (Additional map).
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
August 30, 4 p.m.: Start of Longstreet's attack
Battlefield of Manassas (right side)
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
Longstreet circa 1862
Action at Brawner's Farm, August 28
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
A map of the Battle of Fredericksburg
August 29, 10 a.m.: Sigel's attack
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
Longstreet at Gettysburg c. undefined 1900
August 29, 12 noon: Longstreet arrives, Porter stalls
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
Gettysburg, July 2
August 29, 3 p.m.: Grover's attack
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Pickett's Charge, July 3
August 29, 5–7 p.m., Kearny's attack, Hood vs. Hatch
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
Longstreet's Left Wing assaults, mid-day September 20
Stonewall Jackson's cannons on Henry House Hill
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Carte de Visite portrait of Longstreet
August 30, 3 p.m., Porter's attack
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
James Longstreet after the war
August 30, 4 p.m.: Start of Longstreet's attack
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
James Longstreet after the war
August 30, 4:30 p.m.: Union defense of Chinn Ridge
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
James Longstreet in later life (1896), affecting the sideburns of his opponent at Fredericksburg and Knoxville
August 30, 5 p.m.: Final Confederate attacks, beginning of the Union retreat
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
Longstreet's grave
Bridge crossed by the Union troops retreating to Centreville
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Equestrian statue of General Longstreet on his horse Hero in Pitzer Woods at Gettysburg National Military Park
Soldiers stand next to a completely destroyed Henry House in 1862
Robert E. Lee
Map of events during the Peninsula campaign to the Battle of Seven Pines Confederate
Union
Union troops retreat after the battle
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
Longstreet's attack in the Battle of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864, shortly before he was wounded Confederate
Union
<center>Maj. Gen.
George B. McClellan
<center>Maj. Gen.
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
<center>Maj. Gen.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
<center>Maj. Gen.
Pickett's Charge
<center>Maj. Gen.
Ulysses S. Grant
<center>Maj. Gen.
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
<center>Maj. Gen.
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
<center>Gen.
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
<center>Maj. Gen.
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
<center>Maj. Gen.
New Orleans captured
<center>Maj. Gen.
William Tecumseh Sherman
<center>Soldiers stand next to a completely destroyed Henry House in 1862</center>
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
<center>Virginia, Bull Run. Ruins of Stone Bridge, 1862</center>
Philip Sheridan
<center>A group of men stand near the Manassas Railroad Junction railroad tracks in 1862 with a train in the background</center>
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
<center>A group of men near Manassas Railroad Junction in 1862</center>
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
<center>A group of men near Manassas Railroad Junction in 1862</center>
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
<center>Men sit near the Manassas Junction railroad in 1862</center>
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
<center>Picking up debris of trains after Pope's retreat</center>
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.
<center>Bull Run, Va. Dedication of the battle monument; Judge Abram B. Olin of the District of Columbia Supreme Court, who delivered the address, stands by the rail.</center>
Slave states that seceded before April 15, 1861 Slave states that seceded after April 15, 1861 Union states that permitted slavery (border states) Union states that banned slavery
Territories
Battle map drafted by Sneden, Robert Knox, with notes on Union and Confederate strengths, casualties, done in pen and ink and water color
US Secession map. The Union vs. the Confederacy.
Union states
Union territories not permitting slavery
Border Union states, permitting slavery (One of these states, West Virginia was created in 1863)
Confederate states
Union territories that permitted slavery (claimed by Confederacy) at the start of the war, but where slavery was outlawed by the U.S. in 1862
Northern Virginia Campaign, August 7–28, 1862 Confederate
Union
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Abolition of slavery in the various states of the United States over time:Abolition of slavery during or shortly after the American Revolution
The Northwest Ordinance, 1787
Gradual emancipation in New York (starting 1799, completed 1827) and New Jersey (starting 1804, completed by Thirteenth Amendment, 1865)
The Missouri Compromise, 1821
Effective abolition of slavery by Mexican or joint US/British authority
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1861
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1862
Emancipation Proclamation as originally issued, January 1, 1863
Subsequent operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863
Abolition of slavery by state action during the Civil War
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1864
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865
Thirteenth Amendment to the US constitution, December 18, 1865
Territory incorporated into the US after the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment
Oath to defend the Constitution of the United States and, among other promises, to "abide by and faithfully support all acts of Congress passed during the . . . rebellion having reference to slaves . . . ," signed by former Confederate officer Samuel M. Kennard on June 27, 1865

James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse".

- James Longstreet

The Second Battle of Bull Run or Battle of Second Manassas was fought August 28–30, 1862, in Prince William County, Virginia, as part of the American Civil War.

- Second Battle of Bull Run

Following a wide-ranging flanking march, Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson captured the Union supply depot at Manassas Junction, threatening Pope's line of communications with Washington, D.C. Withdrawing a few miles to the northwest, Jackson took up strong concealed defensive positions on Stony Ridge and awaited the arrival of the wing of Lee's army commanded by Maj. Gen. James Longstreet.

- Second Battle of Bull Run

Longstreet led a devastating counterattack that routed the Union army at Second Bull Run in August.

- James Longstreet

General Lee and top subordinates James Longstreet and Stonewall Jackson defeated McClellan in the Seven Days Battles and forced his retreat.

- American Civil War

The Northern Virginia Campaign, which included the Second Battle of Bull Run, ended in yet another victory for the South.

- American Civil War

13 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Lee in March 1864

Robert E. Lee

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Lee in March 1864
Lee at age 31 in 1838, as a Lieutenant of Engineers in the U.S. Army
Robert E. Lee, around age 38, and his son William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, around age 8, c.1845
Robert E. Lee around age 43, when he was a brevet lieutenant-colonel of engineers, c. 1850
Lee in uniform, 1863
Lee mounted on Traveller (September 1866)
Battle of Gettysburg, by Thure de Thulstrup
Lee with son Custis (left) and aide Walter H. Taylor (right) by Brady, April 16, 1865
Lee in 1869 (photo by Levin C. Handy)
General Lee and his Confederate officers in their first meeting since Appomattox, August 1869.
Oath of amnesty submitted by Robert E. Lee in 1865
Robert E. Lee, oil on canvas, Edward Calledon Bruce, 1865. Virginia Historical Society
Robert Edward Lee in art at the Battle of Chancellorsville in a stained glass window of the Washington National Cathedral
Facade view of Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee Memorial — at Arlington National Cemetery, in Virginia, pictured in 2006
Unveiling of the Equestrian Statue of Robert E. Lee, May 29, 1890, Richmond, Virginia
The removal of Lee's statue from a monument in New Orleans
Stained glass of Lee's life in the National Cathedral
Robert E. Lee, National Statuary Hall, Washington, D.C. Edward Virginius Valentine, sculptor, 1909
Robert E Lee, Virginia Monument, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Frederick William Sievers, sculptor, 1917
Robert E. Lee Monument by Mercié, Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia, 1890
Statue of Lee at the Confederate War Memorial, Dallas, 1896
Statue of Lee in Murray, Kentucky
University Chapel on the campus of Washington and Lee University

Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was a Confederate general who served the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War, during which he was appointed the overall commander of the Confederate States Army.

Lee then overcame Union forces under John Pope at the Second Battle of Bull Run in August.

Lee built up a collection of talented subordinates, most notably James Longstreet, Stonewall Jackson, and J. E. B. Stuart, who along with Lee were critical to the Confederacy's battlefield success.

General Jackson at Winchester, Virginia 1862

Stonewall Jackson

9 links

General Jackson at Winchester, Virginia 1862
Jackson's Mill
First lieutenant Thomas J. Jackson sometime after West Point graduation in the late 1840s
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Stonewall Jackson
Stonewall Jackson in 1855
House owned by Stonewall Jackson in Lexington
The Colonel Lewis T. Moore house, which served as the Winchester Headquarters of Lt. Gen. T. J. "Stonewall" Jackson (photo 2007)
General Jackson by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau
Historical marker marking the end of Gen. Stonewall Jackson's pursuit of the Federals after the Battle of McDowell, May 12, 1862
Jackson and Little Sorrel, painting by David Bendann
Montage of Thomas J. Jackson and staff
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The plantation office building where Stonewall Jackson died in Guinea Station, Virginia
In 1864 Jackson was memorialized on the Confederate $500 banknote.
Prayer in "Stonewall" Jackson's camp, 1866
A portrait of Stonewall Jackson (1864, J. W. King) in the National Portrait Gallery
General Lee's Last Visit to Stonewall Jackson's Grave, painting by Louis Eckhardt, 1872
The Stonewall Brigade, Dedicated to the Memory of Stonewall Jackson, the Immortal Southern Hero, and His Brave Veterans, Sheet music, 1863
Confederate Loan from March 2, 1863, Vignette with Jackson
Stonewall Jackson with the flag of the Confederate States in art in a stained glass window of the Washington National Cathedral
Davis, Lee, and Jackson on Stone Mountain
The Thomas Jonathan Jackson sculpture in downtown Charlottesville, Virginia
Statue of Gen. "Stonewall" Jackson in downtown Clarksburg, West Virginia
Bust of Jackson at the Washington-Wilkes Historical Museum
Stonewall Jackson statue in Richmond, Virginia being removed on July 1, 2020

Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (January 21, 1824 – May 10, 1863) served as a Confederate general (1861–1863) during the American Civil War, and became one of the best-known Confederate commanders, after Robert E. Lee.

In the Northern Virginia Campaign that summer, Jackson's troops captured and destroyed an important supply depot for General John Pope's Army of Virginia, and then withstood repeated assaults from Pope's troops at the Second Battle of Bull Run.

The reputations of Lee's corps commanders are often described as Stonewall Jackson representing the audacious, offensive part of Lee's army, whereas his counterpart, James Longstreet, more typically advocated and executed defensive strategies and tactics.

Union General George B. McClellan and Confederate General Robert E. Lee, the principal commanders of the campaign

Maryland campaign

6 links

Union General George B. McClellan and Confederate General Robert E. Lee, the principal commanders of the campaign
Northern Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania (1861-1865)
Southern Virginia, (1861-1865)
Confederate troops marching south on N Market Street, Frederick, Maryland, during the Civil War
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Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg), September 17, 1862
Confederate dead at Antietam
<center>Maj. Gen.
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Maryland campaign, actions September 3–15, 1862
Confederate
Union

The Maryland campaign (or Antietam campaign) occurred September 4–20, 1862, during the American Civil War.

Lee then conducted the northern Virginia campaign in which he outmaneuvered and defeated Maj. Gen. John Pope and his Army of Virginia, most significantly at the Second Battle of Bull Run (Second Manassas).

The First Corps, under Maj. Gen. James Longstreet, consisted of the divisions of Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws, Maj. Gen. Richard H. Anderson, Brig. Gen. David R. Jones, Brig. Gen. John G. Walker, Brig. Gen. John Bell Hood, and an independent brigade under Brig. Gen. Nathan G. "Shanks" Evans.

Northern Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, 1861–1865

Battle of Gettysburg

6 links

Northern Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, 1861–1865
The Gettysburg Campaign, 1863
The Battlefield of Gettysburg, 1863
This 1863 oval-shaped map depicts the Gettysburg Battlefield during July 1–3, 1863, showing troop and artillery positions and movements, relief hachures, drainage, roads, railroads, and houses with the names of residents at the time of the Battle of Gettysburg.
This November 1862 Harper's Magazine illustration shows Confiderate Army troops escorting captured African American civilians south into slavery. En route to Gettysburg, the Army of Northern Virginia kidnapped approximately 40 black civilians and sent them south into slavery.
Overview map of the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg
Marker commemorating the first shot fired at the Battle of Gettysburg at 7:30 am on July 1, 1863 by Lt. Marcellus Jones
Robert E. Lee's plan for July 2, 1863, the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg
Overview map of the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 2, 1863
Union Army breastworks on Culp's Hill, 1863
Overview map of the third day of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 3, 1863
The high water mark on Cemetery Ridge with the 72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Monument commemorating the 72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment at right and the Copse of Trees to the left, August 2005
"The Harvest of Death": Union dead on the battlefield at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, photographed July 5 or July 6, 1863, by Timothy H. O'Sullivan
John L. Burns, veteran of the War of 1812, civilian who fought at the Battle of Gettysburg with Union troops, standing with bayoneted musket. Mathew Brady's National Photographic Portrait Galleries, photographer. From the Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress
Gettysburg Campaign (July 5 – July 14, 1863)
On November 19, 1863, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address, considered one of the best-known speeches in American history. A crowd of citizens and soldiers surround Lincoln (with a red arrow pointing to his location in photo)
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Gettysburg National Cemetery, July 2003
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The 1936 Battle of Gettysburg half dollar
Gettysburg Centennial Commemorative issue of 1963
Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3) with cavalry movements shown with dashed lines Confederate
Union

The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War.

Following the death of Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, Lee reorganized his two large corps into three new corps, commanded by Lieutenant General James Longstreet (First Corps), Lieutenant General Richard S. Ewell (Second), and Lieutenant General A.P. Hill (Third); both Ewell and Hill, who had formerly reported to Jackson as division commanders, were new to this level of responsibility.

Prior to Gettysburg, Robert E. Lee had established a reputation as an almost invincible general, achieving stunning victories against superior numbers—although usually at the cost of high casualties to his army—during the Seven Days, the Northern Virginia Campaign (including the Second Battle of Bull Run), Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville.

George B. McClellan and Robert E. Lee, respective commanders of the Union and Confederate armies in the Seven Days

Seven Days Battles

6 links

George B. McClellan and Robert E. Lee, respective commanders of the Union and Confederate armies in the Seven Days
Seven Days Battles: map of events (left side)
Map of Southeastern Virginia
Map of Southeastern Virginia (additional map)
Seven Days Battles, June 26&ndash;27, 1862
Seven Days Battles, June 30, 1862
Seven Days Battles, July 1, 1862
<center>Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Philip St. George Cooke</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Stonewall Jackson</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. James Longstreet</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Benjamin Huger</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes</center>
Map of events during the Peninsula campaign to the Battle of Seven Pines
Confederate
Union

The Seven Days Battles were a series of seven battles over seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia, during the American Civil War.

Maj. Gen. James Longstreet's division consisted of the brigades of Brig. Gens. James L. Kemper, Richard H. Anderson, George E. Pickett, Cadmus M. Wilcox, Roger A. Pryor, and Winfield Scott Featherston. Longstreet also had operational command over Hill's Light Division.

Despite heavy casualties, which the less-populated South could ill afford, and clumsy tactical performances by Lee and his generals, Confederate morale skyrocketed, and Lee was emboldened to continue his aggressive strategy through the Second Battle of Bull Run and the Maryland Campaign.

George B. McClellan and Joseph E. Johnston, respective commanders of the Union and Confederate armies in the Peninsula campaign

Peninsula campaign

6 links

George B. McClellan and Joseph E. Johnston, respective commanders of the Union and Confederate armies in the Peninsula campaign
Peninsula campaign, map of Southeastern Virginia
Peninsula campaign, map of Southeastern Virginia (additional map)
Federal Battery # 4 with 13 in seacoast mortars, Model 1861, during the siege of Yorktown, Virginia, 1862
Movements and battles in the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, up through the start of the Battle of Seven Pines
Siege of Yorktown
Engagement Near Hanover Court-House, Virginia
The Chickahominy - Sumner's Upper Bridge: 1862 watercolor by William McIlvaine
Battle of Seven Pines
Brig. Gen. Thomas Francis Meagher at the Battle of Fair Oaks, June 1, 1862
Seven Days Battles: map of events (left side)
<center>Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill</center>
<center>Lt. Gen. James Longstreet</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin</center>

The Peninsula campaign (also known as the Peninsular campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March to July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater.

Center Wing, Maj. Gen. James Longstreet commanding: brigades of Brig. Gens. A. P. Hill, Richard H. Anderson, George E. Pickett, Cadmus M. Wilcox, Raleigh E. Colston, and Roger A. Pryor

Lincoln later ordered the army to return to the Washington, D.C., area to support Maj. Gen. John Pope's army in the northern Virginia campaign and the Second Battle of Bull Run.

Battleflag made from wool, 1863

Army of Northern Virginia

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Battleflag made from wool, 1863
Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard
Gen. J. E. Johnston
Gustavus Woodson Smith
General Robert E. Lee, commander of the Army of Northern Virginia
Battleflag made out of silk from November 1861
Battleflag made of wool, 1862
Organization of the Army of Northern Virginia at the time of the Battle of Fredericksburg (December 1862)
Organization of the Army of Northern Virginia at the time of the Battle of the Wilderness (May 5–7, 1864)
Montage of Robert E. Lee and his staff.<ref>starting at left center going up-left to right: 1) Lt.Col. W.H. Taylor; 2) Lt.Col. R.G. Cole; 3) Lt.Col. C.S. Venable; 4)Brig Gen W.H. Stevens; 5) Lt.Col. Charles Marshall; 6) Lt.Col. J.L. Conley; 7) Lt.Col. B.G. Baldwin; 8) Surgeon Lafayette Guild; 9) Maj H. Young; 10) Brig Gen W.H. Pendelton; 11) Lt.Col. W. E. Peyton; 12) Major Giles B. Coke.</ref>
Montage of Thomas J. Jackson and staff.
James Longstreet
A. P. Hill
Richard H Anderson
Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart [Cavalry Corps]
Wade Hampton [Cavalry Corps]

The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.

Center Wing – commanded by Maj. Gen. James Longstreet

The Army's losses before and following the Battle of Second Manassas needed to be replaced before the Maryland Campaign could commence.

John Bell Hood

5 links

Hood's birthplace
Confederate general John Bell Hood
Map of the Franklin-Nashville Campaign
Confederate
Union

John Bell Hood (June 1 or June 29, 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War.

He led a division under James Longstreet in the campaigns of 1862–63.

At Second Bull Run, Hood spearheaded the assault on the Union left flank that forced them to retreat from the field.

Brig. Gen. John Pope

John Pope (military officer)

4 links

Brig. Gen. John Pope
Major General John Pope

John Pope (March 16, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War.

He had a brief stint in the Western Theater, but he is best known for his defeat at the Second Battle of Bull Run (Second Manassas) in the East.

At Second Bull Run, he concentrated his attention on attacking Jackson while the other Confederate corps led by Maj. Gen. James Longstreet attacked his flank and routed his army.

Jubal Early

5 links

Early's childhood home in northeastern Franklin County
Confederate General Jubal A. Early
General Early, disguised as a farmer, while escaping to Mexico, 1865
Early in his elder years
A plaque praising Early in Rocky Mount, Virginia

Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a Virginia lawyer and politician who became a Confederate general during the American Civil War.

As general, Early led Confederate troops in most of the major battles in the Eastern Theater, including the Seven Days Battles, Second Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and numerous battles in the Shenandoah Valley.

Despite Lee's avowed desire for reconciliation with his former West Point colleagues who remained with the Union and with Northerners more generally, Early became an outspoken and vehement critic of Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, particularly criticizing his actions at the Battle of Gettysburg, and also taking issue with him and other former Confederates who after the war worked with Republicans and African Americans.