The "Dictator" siege mortar at Petersburg. In the foreground, the figure on the right is Brig. Gen. Henry J. Hunt, chief of artillery of the Army of the Potomac.
Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Fredericksburg, Virginia; May 1863. Soldiers in the trenches. Trench warfare would appear again more infamously in World War I
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Antebellum portrait of Longstreet
A portion of the 4th USCT Infantry
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
Sketch of Longstreet as a Confederate
Siege of Petersburg, assaults on June 15–18
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
August 30, 4 p.m.: Start of Longstreet's attack
Siege of Petersburg, movements against the railroads and A.P. Hill's counterattack, June 21–22
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
Longstreet circa 1862
Wilson–Kautz Raid, June 22 – July 1
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
A map of the Battle of Fredericksburg
"Dictator" siege mortar on the U.S. Military Railroad at Petersburg
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
Longstreet at Gettysburg c. undefined 1900
First Battle of Deep Bottom, July 27–29
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Gettysburg, July 2
Siege of Petersburg, Battle of the Crater, July 30
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
Pickett's Charge, July 3
Sketch of the explosion seen from the Union line.
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Longstreet's Left Wing assaults, mid-day September 20
Second Battle of Deep Bottom, August 14–20
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
Carte de Visite portrait of Longstreet
Siege of Petersburg, capture of the Weldon Railroad, August 18–19
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
James Longstreet after the war
Siege of Petersburg, actions on October 27
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
James Longstreet after the war
Siege of Petersburg, actions preceding Five Forks
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
James Longstreet in later life (1896), affecting the sideburns of his opponent at Fredericksburg and Knoxville
Grant's final assaults and Lee's retreat (start of the Appomattox Campaign)
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Longstreet's grave
<center>Lt. Gen.
Robert E. Lee
Equestrian statue of General Longstreet on his horse Hero in Pitzer Woods at Gettysburg National Military Park
<center>Maj. Gen.
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
Map of events during the Peninsula campaign to the Battle of Seven Pines Confederate
Union
<center>Maj. Gen.
George B. McClellan
Longstreet's attack in the Battle of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864, shortly before he was wounded Confederate
Union
<center>Gen.
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
<center>Gen.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
<center>Lt. Gen.
Pickett's Charge
<center>Lt. Gen.
Ulysses S. Grant
<center>Lt. Gen.
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
<center>Lt. Gen.
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
<center>Brig. Gen. James H. Wilson</center>
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
<center>Brig. Gen. August Kautz</center>
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
Fascine Trench Breastworks, Petersburg, Va. – NARA – 524792. Although identified as Confederate Trenches this is actually Union Fort Sedgwick aka "Fort Hell" which was opposite Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damnation"<ref>Civil War talk Forum</ref>
New Orleans captured
Union Army 9th Corps attacking Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damanation" sketch by Alfred Ward.
William Tecumseh Sherman
Confederate artilleryman killed during the final Union assault against the trenches at Petersburg. Photo by Thomas C. Roche, April 3, 1865.<ref>Frassanito, p. 360.</ref><ref>See website Petersburg Project on location of Many of the Roche photographs at Petersburg April 1865</ref> Although prints of this picture list it as being taken at Ft Mahone, historians at the "Petersburg Project" believe it was taken at Confederate Battery 25<ref>Dead Artilleryman comments Petersburg Project</ref>
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
Smoke is still rising from the ruins of Richmond, Virginia after surrendering on April 3, 1865 following the Union victory at the siege of Petersburg. Union cavalry mounts with carbines visible are hitched in the foreground.
Philip Sheridan
Richmond–Petersburg Theater, fall 1864
Confederate
Union
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.
Slave states that seceded before April 15, 1861 Slave states that seceded after April 15, 1861 Union states that permitted slavery (border states) Union states that banned slavery
Territories
US Secession map. The Union vs. the Confederacy.
Union states
Union territories not permitting slavery
Border Union states, permitting slavery (One of these states, West Virginia was created in 1863)
Confederate states
Union territories that permitted slavery (claimed by Confederacy) at the start of the war, but where slavery was outlawed by the U.S. in 1862
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Abolition of slavery in the various states of the United States over time:Abolition of slavery during or shortly after the American Revolution
The Northwest Ordinance, 1787
Gradual emancipation in New York (starting 1799, completed 1827) and New Jersey (starting 1804, completed by Thirteenth Amendment, 1865)
The Missouri Compromise, 1821
Effective abolition of slavery by Mexican or joint US/British authority
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1861
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1862
Emancipation Proclamation as originally issued, January 1, 1863
Subsequent operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863
Abolition of slavery by state action during the Civil War
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1864
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865
Thirteenth Amendment to the US constitution, December 18, 1865
Territory incorporated into the US after the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment
Oath to defend the Constitution of the United States and, among other promises, to "abide by and faithfully support all acts of Congress passed during the . . . rebellion having reference to slaves . . . ," signed by former Confederate officer Samuel M. Kennard on June 27, 1865

The Richmond–Petersburg campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 9, 1864, to March 25, 1865, during the American Civil War.

- Siege of Petersburg

James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse".

- James Longstreet

He later returned to the field, serving under Lee in the Siege of Petersburg and the Appomattox campaign.

- James Longstreet

The last significant battles raged around the ten-month Siege of Petersburg, gateway to the Confederate capital of Richmond.

- American Civil War

First Corps, under Lt. Gen. Richard H. Anderson, including the divisions of Maj. Gens. George E. Pickett, Charles W. Field, and Joseph B. Kershaw. Lt. Gen. James Longstreet returned from medical leave and resumed command of the corps on October 19. Anderson was given command of the new Fourth Corps, which included the division of Maj. Gen. Bushrod R. Johnson.

- Siege of Petersburg

General Lee and top subordinates James Longstreet and Stonewall Jackson defeated McClellan in the Seven Days Battles and forced his retreat.

- American Civil War
The "Dictator" siege mortar at Petersburg. In the foreground, the figure on the right is Brig. Gen. Henry J. Hunt, chief of artillery of the Army of the Potomac.

8 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Lee in March 1864

Robert E. Lee

6 links

Lee in March 1864
Lee at age 31 in 1838, as a Lieutenant of Engineers in the U.S. Army
Robert E. Lee, around age 38, and his son William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, around age 8, c.1845
Robert E. Lee around age 43, when he was a brevet lieutenant-colonel of engineers, c. 1850
Lee in uniform, 1863
Lee mounted on Traveller (September 1866)
Battle of Gettysburg, by Thure de Thulstrup
Lee with son Custis (left) and aide Walter H. Taylor (right) by Brady, April 16, 1865
Lee in 1869 (photo by Levin C. Handy)
General Lee and his Confederate officers in their first meeting since Appomattox, August 1869.
Oath of amnesty submitted by Robert E. Lee in 1865
Robert E. Lee, oil on canvas, Edward Calledon Bruce, 1865. Virginia Historical Society
Robert Edward Lee in art at the Battle of Chancellorsville in a stained glass window of the Washington National Cathedral
Facade view of Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee Memorial — at Arlington National Cemetery, in Virginia, pictured in 2006
Unveiling of the Equestrian Statue of Robert E. Lee, May 29, 1890, Richmond, Virginia
The removal of Lee's statue from a monument in New Orleans
Stained glass of Lee's life in the National Cathedral
Robert E. Lee, National Statuary Hall, Washington, D.C. Edward Virginius Valentine, sculptor, 1909
Robert E Lee, Virginia Monument, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Frederick William Sievers, sculptor, 1917
Robert E. Lee Monument by Mercié, Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia, 1890
Statue of Lee at the Confederate War Memorial, Dallas, 1896
Statue of Lee in Murray, Kentucky
University Chapel on the campus of Washington and Lee University

Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was a Confederate general who served the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War, during which he was appointed the overall commander of the Confederate States Army.

Grant engaged Lee's army in bloody but inconclusive battles at the Wilderness and Spotsylvania before the lengthy Siege of Petersburg, which was followed in April 1865 by the capture of Richmond and the destruction of most of Lee's army, which he finally surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House.

Lee built up a collection of talented subordinates, most notably James Longstreet, Stonewall Jackson, and J. E. B. Stuart, who along with Lee were critical to the Confederacy's battlefield success.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880

Ulysses S. Grant

6 links

American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880
Grant's birthplace, Point Pleasant, Ohio
Grant c. undefined 1845–1847
Battle of Monterrey Published 1847
Chinook Indian Plank House Published 1845
Grant believed Pacific Northwest Indians were a peaceful people and not a threat to settlers.
"Hardscrabble" Published 1891
The farm home Grant built in Missouri for his family. His wife Julia called the home an "unattractive cabin".
Brigadier General Grant photographed at Cairo, Illinois, September 1861 (Published 1911)
21st Illinois regiment monument in the Viniard Field, Chickamauga
Grant's successful gamble: Porter's gunboats night ran the Confederate gauntlet at Vicksburg on the Mississippi River.
Published 1863
The Battle of Jackson, fought on May 14, 1863, was part of the Vicksburg Campaign.
Published 1863
Union troops swarm Missionary Ridge and defeat Bragg's army. Published 1886
Commanding General Grant at the Battle of Cold Harbor, June 1864
Grant (center left) next to Lincoln with General Sherman (far left) and Admiral Porter (right) – The Peacemakers by Healy, 1868
Defeated by Grant, Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House
Ulysses S. Grant by Balling (1865)
Grant–Colfax Republican Ticket
Published 1868
220px
Inauguration of President U.S. Grant, Capitol building steps.
March 4, 1869
Anthony Comstock Grant's vigorous prosecutor of abortionists and pornographers.
Amos T. Akerman, appointed Attorney General by Grant, who vigorously prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan
Image of mobs rioting entitled "The Louisiana Outrage". White Leaguers at Liberty Place attacked the integrated police force and state militia, New Orleans, September 1874.
Published October 1874
Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell aided Grant to defeat the Gold Ring.
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish and Grant successfully settled the Alabama Claims by treaty and arbitration.
Wharf of Santo Domingo City
Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
American Captain Frye and his crew were executed by Spanish authority.
King Kalākaua of Hawaii meets President Grant at the White House on his state visit, 1874.
Published January 2, 1875
Ely Samuel Parker
Grant appointed Parker the first Native American (Seneca) Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
Great Sioux War
Published 1889
Cartoon by Thomas Nast on Grant's opponents in the reelection campaign
Grant is congratulated for vetoing the "inflation bill" in 1874.
Cartoonist Thomas Nast praises Grant for rejecting demands by Pennsylvania politicians to suspend civil service rules.
Harper's Weekly
cartoon on Bristow's Whiskey Ring investigation
Grant and Bismarck in 1878
Cartoonist Joseph Keppler lampooned Grant and his associates. Grant's prosecutions of the Whiskey Ring and the Klan were ignored.
Puck, 1880
Official White House portrait of President Grant by Henry Ulke, 1875
Commanding General Grant
Constant Mayer's portrait of 1866
Grant National Memorial, known as "Grant's Tomb", largest mausoleum in North America

As Commanding General, he led the Union Army to victory in the American Civil War in 1865 and thereafter briefly served as Secretary of War.

For thirteen months, Grant fought Robert E. Lee during the high-casualty Overland Campaign and at Petersburg.

Quiet by nature, Grant established a few intimate friends among fellow cadets, including Frederick Tracy Dent and James Longstreet.

Ambrose Burnside, circa 1880

Ambrose Burnside

4 links

Ambrose Burnside, circa 1880
Mrs. Burnside, Mary Richmond Bishop
General Ambrose Burnside.
Burnside (seated, center) and officers of the 1st Rhode Island at Camp Sprague, Rhode Island, 1861
Burnside Bridge at Antietam in 2005
Union General Ambrose Burnside, 1862
Engraving of General Burnside in full dress uniform
Petersburg Crater, 1865
Burnside's grave in Swan Point Cemetery, Providence, Rhode Island
Studio photograph of Gen. Ambrose Burnside taken sometime between 1860 and 1862. Photograph shows his unusual sideburns.
Equestrian monument in Burnside Park, Providence, Rhode Island.

Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American army officer and politician who became a senior Union general in the Civil War and three times Governor of Rhode Island, as well as being a successful inventor and industrialist.

Union Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans was defeated at the Battle of Chickamauga, and Burnside was pursued by Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, against whose troops he had battled at Marye's Heights.

After North Anna and Cold Harbor, he took his place in the siege lines at Petersburg.

Jubal Early

4 links

Early's childhood home in northeastern Franklin County
Confederate General Jubal A. Early
General Early, disguised as a farmer, while escaping to Mexico, 1865
Early in his elder years
A plaque praising Early in Rocky Mount, Virginia

Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a Virginia lawyer and politician who became a Confederate general during the American Civil War.

Thus Early commanded the Confederacy's last invasion of the North, secured much-needed funds and supplies for the Confederacy and drawing off Union troops from the siege of Petersburg.

Despite Lee's avowed desire for reconciliation with his former West Point colleagues who remained with the Union and with Northerners more generally, Early became an outspoken and vehement critic of Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, particularly criticizing his actions at the Battle of Gettysburg, and also taking issue with him and other former Confederates who after the war worked with Republicans and African Americans.

Battle of Spottsylvania, Thure de Thulstrup

Battle of Spotsylvania Court House

4 links

Battle of Spottsylvania, Thure de Thulstrup
Map of Southeastern Virginia.
Union marches and operations in Central Virginia (1864-65).
Spotsylvania Courthouse, 1864
Attacks on the Laurel Hill line, May 8
<center>Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick, VI Corps</center>
Positions and movements on the Union flanks, May 9
Grant attacks, May 10
Grant attacks, May 10 (additional map).
Upton's brigade attacks
Grant's grand assault, May 12
Grant's grand assault, May 12 (additional map)
"The Battle of Spottsylvania" by Kurz & Allison
The Bloody Angle site
<center>Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, Army of the Potomac</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock, II Corps</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren, V Corps</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, IX Corps</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan, Cavalry Corps</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Richard H. Anderson, First Corps</center>
<center>Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell, Second Corps</center>
<center>Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill, Third Corps</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, Cavalry Corps</center>
This unidentified, dead Confederate soldier of Ewell's Corps was killed during their attack at Alsop's farm. He was wounded in both the right knee and left shoulder, and probably died from loss of blood.
Confederate killed in Ewell's attack May 19, 1864, on the Alsop farm. This photograph was taken just to the right and in front of the preceding photograph.
Confederate dead of General Ewell's Corps who attacked the Union lines on May 19 lined up for burial at the Alsop Farm.
Movements on May 7, 1864; cavalry actions inset
Confederate
Union

The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, sometimes more simply referred to as the Battle of Spotsylvania (or the 19th-century spelling Spottsylvania), was the second major battle in Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Maj. Gen. George G. Meade's 1864 Overland Campaign of the American Civil War.

He also ordered Maj. Gen. Richard H. Anderson, who had replaced Lt. Gen. James Longstreet in command of the First Corps following that officer's wounding on May 6, to move out along that road.

The armies then faced each other for nine months in the Siege of Petersburg.

Confederate States of America

3 links

Unrecognized breakaway republic in North America that existed from February 8, 1861, to May 9, 1865.

Unrecognized breakaway republic in North America that existed from February 8, 1861, to May 9, 1865.

style=padding-left: 0.6em; text-align: left;
Map of the division of the states in the American Civil War (1861–1865). Blue indicates the northern Union states; light blue represents five Union slave states (border states) that primarily stayed in Union control. Red represents southern seceded states in rebellion, also known as the Confederate States of America. Uncolored areas were U.S. territories, with the exception of the Indian Territory (later Oklahoma).
Evolution of the Confederate States, December 20, 1860 – July 15, 1870
Alexander H. Stephens, Confederate Vice President; author of the 'Cornerstone Speech'
The inauguration of Jefferson Davis in Montgomery, Alabama
Elias Boudinot, Cherokee secessionist, Rep. Indian Territory
William T. Sutherlin mansion, Danville, Virginia, temporary residence of Jefferson Davis and dubbed "Last Capitol of the Confederacy"
Map of the county secession votes of 1860–1861 in Appalachia within the ARC definition. Virginia and Tennessee show the public votes, while the other states show the vote by county delegates to the conventions.
The Seal, symbols of an independent agricultural Confederacy surrounding an equestrian Washington, sword encased
Recruitment poster: "Do not wait to be drafted". Under half re-enlisted.
Unionists throughout the Confederate States resisted the 1862 conscription
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy from 1861 to 1865
Davis's cabinet in 1861, Montgomery, Alabama
Front row, left to right: Judah P. Benjamin, Stephen Mallory, Alexander H. Stephens, Jefferson Davis, John Henninger Reagan, and Robert Toombs
Back row, standing left to right: Christopher Memminger and LeRoy Pope Walker
Illustration printed in Harper's Weekly
Provisional Congress, Montgomery, Alabama
surviving Confederate mail
238x238px
Main railroads of Confederacy, 1861; colors show the different gauges (track width); the top railroad shown in the upper right is the Baltimore and Ohio, which was at all times a Union railroad
Passers-by abusing the bodies of Union supporters near Knoxville, Tennessee. The two were hanged by Confederate authorities near the railroad tracks so passing train passengers could see them.
269x269px
Richmond bread riot, 1863
Confederate memorial tombstone at Natchez City Cemetery in Natchez, Mississippi
This Confederate Flag pattern is the one most often thought of as the Confederate Flag today; it was one of many used by the Confederate armed forces. Variations of this design served as the Battle Flag of the Armies of Northern Virginia and Tennessee, and as the Confederate Naval Jack.
615x615px
A Home on the Mississippi, Currier and Ives, 1871
St. John's Episcopal Church, Montgomery. The Secession Convention of Southern Churches was held here in 1861.
Major-General John C. Breckinridge, Secretary of War (1865)
General Robert E. Lee, General in Chief (1865)
William L. Yancey, {{small|Alabama Fire-Eater, "The Orator of Secession"}}
William Henry Gist, {{small|Governor of South Carolina, called the Secessionist Convention}}
CSA Naval Jack
{{small|Battle Flag – square}}
Gen. Gabriel J. Rains, {{small|Conscription Bureau chief, April 1862 – May 1863}}
Gen. Gideon J. Pillow, {{small|military recruiter under Bragg, then J.E. Johnston<ref>Coulter, The Confederates States of America, p. 324.</ref>}}
Joseph E. Brown, governor of Georgia
Pendleton Murrah, governor of Texas
Jesse J. Finley
Henry R. Jackson
Asa Biggs
Andrew Magrath
John H. Reagan
Jefferson Davis, 5 cent
Andrew Jackson
George Washington
Potters House, Atlanta Ga
Downtown Charleston SC
Navy Yard, Norfolk Va
Rail bridge, Petersburg Va
1st National Flag
2nd National Flag
3rd National Flag
Battle Flag

The Confederacy comprised U.S. states that declared secession and warred against the United States (the Union) during the American Civil War.

Union offensives continued with Sherman's March to the Sea to take Savannah and Grant's Wilderness Campaign to encircle Richmond and besiege Lee's army at Petersburg.

James Longstreet (South Carolina) – Lieutenant-General

A print showing Ulysses S. Grant, Commanding General of the Union Army, accepting Confederate General in Chief Robert E. Lee's surrender on April 9, 1865

Battle of Appomattox Court House

2 links

A print showing Ulysses S. Grant, Commanding General of the Union Army, accepting Confederate General in Chief Robert E. Lee's surrender on April 9, 1865
Lee's retreat and Grant's pursuit in the final Appomattox Campaign, April 2–9, 1865
Flag used by the Confederacy to surrender
Union soldiers at the courthouse in April 1865
Parlor of the (reconstructed) McLean House, the site of Confederate General Robert E. Lee's surrender. Lee sat at the marble-topped table on the left, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant at the table on the right
The reconstructed McLean House (brick house on right)
Full Page of Albany Journal, 10 Apr 1865
U.S. Postage Stamp, 1965 issue, commemorating the centennial anniversary of the Confederate surrender at Appomattox Court House

The Battle of Appomattox Court House, fought in Appomattox County, Virginia, on the morning of April 9, 1865, was one of the last battles of the American Civil War (1861–1865).

Lee, having abandoned the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia after the nine-and-a-half-month Siege of Petersburg and Richmond, retreated west, hoping to join his army with the remaining Confederate forces in North Carolina, the Army of Tennessee under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston.

Ord's troops began advancing against Gordon's corps while the Union II Corps began moving against Lt. Gen. James Longstreet's corps to the northeast.

Western Theater Overview (1861&ndash;1865)

Western theater of the American Civil War

1 links

Western Theater Overview (1861&ndash;1865)
Western Theater map at The Photographic History of the Civil War
From Belmont (November 1861) to Shiloh (April 1862)
From Corinth (May 1862) to Perryville (October 1862)
Operations against Vicksburg and Grant's Bayou Operations
Grant's operations against Vicksburg
From Vicksburg (December 1862 &ndash; July 1863) to Chickamauga (September 1863)
Tullahoma Campaign
Battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, Chattanooga Campaign
Map of the Atlanta Campaign
Franklin-Nashville Campaign
Sherman's March to the Sea
Carolinas Campaign

The Western Theater of the American Civil War encompassed major military operations in the states of Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina, Kentucky, South Carolina and Tennessee, as well as Louisiana east of the Mississippi River.

The Confederate high command reinforced Bragg with a division from Mississippi as well as a corps previously of the Army of Northern Virginia commanded by James Longstreet.

Most of the initiatives failed: Butler became bogged down in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign; Sigel was quickly defeated in the valley; Banks became occupied in the ill-fated Red River Campaign; Meade and Grant experienced many setbacks and much bloodshed in the Overland Campaign before finally settling down to a siege of Petersburg.