Portrait by Brady-Handy studio, c. 1865–1880
Second Battle of Bull Run, fought Augt. 29th 1862, 1860s lithograph by Currier and Ives
Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Portrait by Brady-Handy studio, c. 1865–1880
Northeastern Virginia (1862)
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Major General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks of General Staff U.S. Volunteers Infantry Regiment in uniform, with his wife, Mary Theodosia Palmer Banks. From the Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress
Second Bull Run Campaign, August 17–30, 1862 (Additional map).
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
Banks in 1852, portrait by Southworth and Hawes
Battlefield of Manassas (right side)
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
John Albion Andrew (portrait by Darius Cobb) succeeded Banks as governor.
Action at Brawner's Farm, August 28
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
The champions of the Union, lithograph by Currier & Ives, 1861. Banks is among the frontmost standing figures, just left of the central seated figure, General Winfield Scott.
August 29, 10 a.m.: Sigel's attack
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
Banks' headquarters in Winchester, Virginia, during the Civil War
August 29, 12 noon: Longstreet arrives, Porter stalls
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
Banks in his military uniform, c. 1861 (portrait by Mathew Brady)
August 29, 3 p.m.: Grover's attack
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Colonel Short's Villa in New Orleans Garden District was the residence of Major General Nathaniel P. Banks, U.S. Commander, Department of the Gulf
August 29, 5–7 p.m., Kearny's attack, Hood vs. Hatch
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
1860s map showing the Siege of Port Hudson
Stonewall Jackson's cannons on Henry House Hill
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Confederate General Richard Taylor opposed Banks in Louisiana.
August 30, 3 p.m., Porter's attack
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
General Edward Canby succeeded Banks in Louisiana.
August 30, 4 p.m.: Start of Longstreet's attack
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
Statue of Banks by Henry Hudson Kitson in Waltham, Massachusetts
August 30, 4:30 p.m.: Union defense of Chinn Ridge
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
August 30, 5 p.m.: Final Confederate attacks, beginning of the Union retreat
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
Bridge crossed by the Union troops retreating to Centreville
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Soldiers stand next to a completely destroyed Henry House in 1862
Robert E. Lee
Union troops retreat after the battle
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
<center>Maj. Gen.
George B. McClellan
<center>Maj. Gen.
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
<center>Maj. Gen.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
<center>Maj. Gen.
Pickett's Charge
<center>Maj. Gen.
Ulysses S. Grant
<center>Maj. Gen.
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
<center>Maj. Gen.
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
<center>Maj. Gen.
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
<center>Maj. Gen.
New Orleans captured
<center>Maj. Gen.
William Tecumseh Sherman
<center>Soldiers stand next to a completely destroyed Henry House in 1862</center>
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
<center>Virginia, Bull Run. Ruins of Stone Bridge, 1862</center>
Philip Sheridan
<center>A group of men stand near the Manassas Railroad Junction railroad tracks in 1862 with a train in the background</center>
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
<center>A group of men near Manassas Railroad Junction in 1862</center>
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
<center>A group of men near Manassas Railroad Junction in 1862</center>
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
<center>Men sit near the Manassas Junction railroad in 1862</center>
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
<center>Picking up debris of trains after Pope's retreat</center>
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.
<center>Bull Run, Va. Dedication of the battle monument; Judge Abram B. Olin of the District of Columbia Supreme Court, who delivered the address, stands by the rail.</center>
Slave states that seceded before April 15, 1861 Slave states that seceded after April 15, 1861 Union states that permitted slavery (border states) Union states that banned slavery
Battle map drafted by Sneden, Robert Knox, with notes on Union and Confederate strengths, casualties, done in pen and ink and water color
US Secession map. The Union vs. the Confederacy.
Union states
Union territories not permitting slavery
Border Union states, permitting slavery (One of these states, West Virginia was created in 1863)
Confederate states
Union territories that permitted slavery (claimed by Confederacy) at the start of the war, but where slavery was outlawed by the U.S. in 1862
Northern Virginia Campaign, August 7–28, 1862 Confederate
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Abolition of slavery in the various states of the United States over time:Abolition of slavery during or shortly after the American Revolution
The Northwest Ordinance, 1787
Gradual emancipation in New York (starting 1799, completed 1827) and New Jersey (starting 1804, completed by Thirteenth Amendment, 1865)
The Missouri Compromise, 1821
Effective abolition of slavery by Mexican or joint US/British authority
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1861
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1862
Emancipation Proclamation as originally issued, January 1, 1863
Subsequent operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863
Abolition of slavery by state action during the Civil War
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1864
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865
Thirteenth Amendment to the US constitution, December 18, 1865
Territory incorporated into the US after the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment
Oath to defend the Constitution of the United States and, among other promises, to "abide by and faithfully support all acts of Congress passed during the . . . rebellion having reference to slaves . . . ," signed by former Confederate officer Samuel M. Kennard on June 27, 1865

Nathaniel Prentice (or Prentiss) Banks (January 30, 1816 – September 1, 1894) was an American politician from Massachusetts and a Union general during the Civil War.

- Nathaniel P. Banks

The Second Battle of Bull Run or Battle of Second Manassas was fought August 28–30, 1862, in Prince William County, Virginia, as part of the American Civil War.

- Second Battle of Bull Run

The II Corps, under Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks

- Second Battle of Bull Run

During the Second Battle of Bull Run, Banks was stationed with his corps at Bristoe Station and did not participate in the battle.

- Nathaniel P. Banks

Employing audacity and rapid, unpredictable movements on interior lines, Jackson's 17,000 men marched 646 miles (1,040 km) in 48 days and won several minor battles as they successfully engaged three Union armies (52,000 men), including those of Nathaniel P. Banks and John C. Fremont, preventing them from reinforcing the Union offensive against Richmond.

- American Civil War

The Northern Virginia Campaign, which included the Second Battle of Bull Run, ended in yet another victory for the South.

- American Civil War
Portrait by Brady-Handy studio, c. 1865–1880

5 related topics with Alpha


Brig. Gen. John Pope

John Pope (military officer)

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Brig. Gen. John Pope
Major General John Pope

John Pope (March 16, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War.

He had a brief stint in the Western Theater, but he is best known for his defeat at the Second Battle of Bull Run (Second Manassas) in the East.

Lee, sensing that Pope was indecisive, split his smaller (55,000-man) army, sending Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson with 24,000 men as a diversion to Cedar Mountain, where Jackson defeated Pope's subordinate, Nathaniel Banks.

General Jackson at Winchester, Virginia 1862

Stonewall Jackson

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General Jackson at Winchester, Virginia 1862
Jackson's Mill
First lieutenant Thomas J. Jackson sometime after West Point graduation in the late 1840s
Stonewall Jackson
Stonewall Jackson in 1855
House owned by Stonewall Jackson in Lexington
The Colonel Lewis T. Moore house, which served as the Winchester Headquarters of Lt. Gen. T. J. "Stonewall" Jackson (photo 2007)
General Jackson by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau
Historical marker marking the end of Gen. Stonewall Jackson's pursuit of the Federals after the Battle of McDowell, May 12, 1862
Jackson and Little Sorrel, painting by David Bendann
Montage of Thomas J. Jackson and staff
The plantation office building where Stonewall Jackson died in Guinea Station, Virginia
In 1864 Jackson was memorialized on the Confederate $500 banknote.
Prayer in "Stonewall" Jackson's camp, 1866
A portrait of Stonewall Jackson (1864, J. W. King) in the National Portrait Gallery
General Lee's Last Visit to Stonewall Jackson's Grave, painting by Louis Eckhardt, 1872
The Stonewall Brigade, Dedicated to the Memory of Stonewall Jackson, the Immortal Southern Hero, and His Brave Veterans, Sheet music, 1863
Confederate Loan from March 2, 1863, Vignette with Jackson
Stonewall Jackson with the flag of the Confederate States in art in a stained glass window of the Washington National Cathedral
Davis, Lee, and Jackson on Stone Mountain
The Thomas Jonathan Jackson sculpture in downtown Charlottesville, Virginia
Statue of Gen. "Stonewall" Jackson in downtown Clarksburg, West Virginia
Bust of Jackson at the Washington-Wilkes Historical Museum
Stonewall Jackson statue in Richmond, Virginia being removed on July 1, 2020

Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (January 21, 1824 – May 10, 1863) served as a Confederate general (1861–1863) during the American Civil War, and became one of the best-known Confederate commanders, after Robert E. Lee.

In the Northern Virginia Campaign that summer, Jackson's troops captured and destroyed an important supply depot for General John Pope's Army of Virginia, and then withstood repeated assaults from Pope's troops at the Second Battle of Bull Run.

Gen. Irvin McDowell's large corps was poised to hit Richmond from the north, and Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks's army threatened the Shenandoah Valley.

Portrait by Alexander Gardner, November 1863

Abraham Lincoln

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American lawyer and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865.

American lawyer and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865.

Portrait by Alexander Gardner, November 1863
The farm site where Lincoln grew up in Spencer County, Indiana
Lincoln's home in Springfield, Illinois
Lincoln in his late 30s as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. Photo taken by one of Lincoln's law students around 1846.
Lincoln in 1857
Lincoln in 1858, the year of his debates with Stephen Douglas over slavery
A portrait of Dred Scott, petitioner in Dred Scott v. Sandford
Abraham Lincoln (1860) by Mathew Brady, taken the day of the Cooper Union speech
A Timothy Cole wood engraving taken from a May 20, 1860, ambrotype of Lincoln, two days following his nomination for president
Headlines on the day of Lincoln's inauguration portended hostilities with the Confederacy, Fort Sumter being attacked less than six weeks later.
March 1861 inaugural at the Capitol building. The dome above the rotunda was still under construction.
Lincoln with officers after the Battle of Antietam. Notable figures (from left) are 1. Col. Delos Sackett; 4. Gen. George W. Morell; 5. Alexander S. Webb, Chief of Staff, V Corps; 6. McClellan;. 8. Dr. Jonathan Letterman; 10. Lincoln; 11. Henry J. Hunt; 12. Fitz John Porter; 15. Andrew A. Humphreys; 16. Capt. George Armstrong Custer.
Running the Machine: An 1864 political cartoon satirizing Lincoln's administration – featuring William Fessenden, Edwin Stanton, William Seward, Gideon Welles, Lincoln, and others
Lincoln and McClellan
Lincoln, absent his usual top hat, is highlighted at Gettysburg.
An electoral landslide for Lincoln (in red) in the 1864 election; southern states (brown) and territories (gray) not in play
A poster of the 1864 election campaign with Lincoln as the candidate for president and Andrew Johnson as the candidate for vice president
Lincoln's second inaugural address in 1865 at the almost completed Capitol building
A political cartoon of Vice President Andrew Johnson (a former tailor) and Lincoln, 1865, entitled The 'Rail Splitter' At Work Repairing the Union. The caption reads (Johnson): "Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever." (Lincoln): "A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended."
Shown in the presidential booth of Ford's Theatre, from left to right, are assassin John Wilkes Booth, Abraham Lincoln, Mary Todd Lincoln, Clara Harris, and Henry Rathbone.
Funeral of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln, painting by George Peter Alexander Healy in 1869
Lincoln in February 1865, two months before his death
Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
The Lincoln cent, an American coin portraying Lincoln
Lincoln's image carved into the stone of Mount Rushmore|alt=See caption
Abraham Lincoln, a 1909 bronze statue by Adolph Weinman, sits before a historic church in Hodgenville, Kentucky.|alt=See caption
The Lincoln memorial postage stamp of 1866 was issued by the U.S. Post Office exactly one year after Lincoln's death.
Painting of Abraham Lincoln for the U.S. Capitol, by Ned Bittinger

Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War and succeeded in preserving the Union, abolishing slavery, bolstering the federal government, and modernizing the U.S. economy.

But Pope was then soundly defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run in the summer of 1862, forcing the Army of the Potomac back to defend Washington.

In Louisiana, Lincoln ordered General Nathaniel P. Banks to promote a plan that would reestablish statehood when 10 percent of the voters agreed, and only if the reconstructed states abolished slavery.

Gen. Pope's headquarters during the battle of Cedar Mountain

Army of Virginia

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Gen. Pope's headquarters during the battle of Cedar Mountain

The Army of Virginia was organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War.

The Army of Virginia was constituted on June 26, 1862, by General Orders Number 103, from four existing departments operating around Virginia: Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont's Mountain Department, Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell's Department of the Rappahannock, Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks's Department of the Shenandoah, and Brig. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis's brigade from the Military District of Washington.

The entire army was soundly defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run by Jackson, Longstreet, and Lee, and withdrew to the defensive lines of Washington, D.C. On September 12, 1862, the units of the Army of Virginia were merged into the Army of the Potomac and the Army of Virginia was never reconstituted.

Halleck in uniform, c. 1865

Henry Halleck

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Senior United States Army officer, scholar, and lawyer.

Senior United States Army officer, scholar, and lawyer.

Halleck in uniform, c. 1865
Elizabeth Hamilton
Gen. Halleck in The champions of the Union, lithograph by Currier & Ives, 1861
General Henry Wager Halleck
Halleck (standing, fifth from left) was present at the death of Abraham Lincoln
Burial site at Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York

Early in the American Civil War, Halleck was a senior Union Army commander in the Western Theater.

A telling example of his lack of control was during the Northern Virginia Campaign of 1862, when Halleck was unable to motivate McClellan to reinforce Pope in a timely manner, contributing to the Union defeat at the Second Battle of Bull Run.

However, the 1864 Red River Campaign, a doomed attempt to occupy Eastern Texas, had been advocated by Halleck, over the objections of Nathaniel P. Banks, who commanded the operation.