The "Dictator" siege mortar at Petersburg. In the foreground, the figure on the right is Brig. Gen. Henry J. Hunt, chief of artillery of the Army of the Potomac.
Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. 1860-1865
Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, respectively, opposing commanders in the Overland Campaign
Fredericksburg, Virginia; May 1863. Soldiers in the trenches. Trench warfare would appear again more infamously in World War I
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
A one-story Creole plantation home
Sheridan's Richmond Raid, including the Battles of Yellow Tavern and Meadow Bridge
A portion of the 4th USCT Infantry
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
Pierre G. T. Beauregard as a young man, painting by Richard Clague
Union staff meeting at Massaponax Baptist Church on May 21, 1864. Grant has his back to the smaller tree with Charles Anderson Dana to his left, while Meade is seated at the far left.
Siege of Petersburg, assaults on June 15–18
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
U.S. Army Major P.G.T. Beauregard
Movements in the Overland Campaign, May 27–29, 1864, following the Battle of North Anna
Siege of Petersburg, movements against the railroads and A.P. Hill's counterattack, June 21–22
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
The Battle of Churubusco, August 20, 1847
Movement to Totopotomoy, May 25–28, 1864, following the Battle of North Anna
Wilson–Kautz Raid, June 22 – July 1
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
The Battle of Chapultepec, 13 September, 1847
Battle of Haw's Shop
"Dictator" siege mortar on the U.S. Military Railroad at Petersburg
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
The 1861 George Peter Alexander Healy portrait of Beauregard in the National Portrait Gallery, Washington
Movements in the Overland Campaign, May 29, and actions May 30, 1864
First Battle of Deep Bottom, July 27–29
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Confederate General P. Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Battle of Totopotomoy Creek, May 30, 1864
Siege of Petersburg, Battle of the Crater, July 30
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
The Battle of Fort Sumter, April 12–13, 1861
Maj. Gen. William F. "Baldy" Smith
Sketch of the explosion seen from the Union line.
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
The Battle of First Manassas, July 21, 1861
Positions of the armies on the afternoon of June 1, 1864
Second Battle of Deep Bottom, August 14–20
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
Start of the First Battle of Bull Run
Cold Harbor, June 1
Siege of Petersburg, capture of the Weldon Railroad, August 18–19
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
The Battle of Shiloh, April 6–7, 1862
Cold Harbor, June 3
Siege of Petersburg, actions on October 27
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
Map of the Battle of Shiloh, afternoon of April 6, 1862, after Beauregard took command
Cold Harbor, Virginia. African Americans collecting bones of soldiers killed in the battle. Photo by John Reekie, April 1865.
Siege of Petersburg, actions preceding Five Forks
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
A Confederate ironclad
Pontoon bridge across the James River
Grant's final assaults and Lee's retreat (start of the Appomattox Campaign)
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
A Confederate submarine, Dec. 6, 1863
Crossing the James River, 12–16 June 1864.
<center>Lt. Gen.
Robert E. Lee
The Battle of Cold Harbor, May 31 – June 12, 1864
Routes of Federal and Confederate cavalry to Trevilian Station, June 7–10, 1864
<center>Maj. Gen.
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
Beauregard's defense of Petersburg, Federal assaults of June 15–18
Sheridan's return to the Army of the Potomac from his Trevilian Station raid
<center>Maj. Gen.
George B. McClellan
The Battle of Nashville, December 15–16, 1864
Actions in the Wilderness, May 5, 1864.
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Beauregard, later in life
5 a.m., May 6. Hancock attacks Hill on the Plank Road
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
Beauregard revolutionized New Orleans with his cable cars
6–10 a.m., May 6. Longstreet counterattacks
<center>Lt. Gen.
Pickett's Charge
Beauregard, civil rights advocate
11 a.m., May 6. Longstreet attacks Hancock's flank from the railroad bed
<center>Lt. Gen.
Ulysses S. Grant
The White League, a Democratic white supremacist paramilitary terrorist organization
2 p.m. until dark, May 6.
<center>Lt. Gen.
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
The White League barricading a New Orleans road
Movements on May 7, 1864; cavalry actions inset
<center>Lt. Gen.
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
The first African-American and Republican governor of Louisiana, Pinckney Pinchback of Georgia
Positions and movements on the Union flanks, May 9
<center>Brig. Gen. James H. Wilson</center>
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
The Battle of Liberty Place, September 14, 1874
Grant attacks, May 10
<center>Brig. Gen. August Kautz</center>
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
Caesar Antoine, a Louisiana Creole and Republican lieutenant governor of Louisiana
Grant's grand assault, May 12
Fascine Trench Breastworks, Petersburg, Va. – NARA – 524792. Although identified as Confederate Trenches this is actually Union Fort Sedgwick aka "Fort Hell" which was opposite Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damnation"<ref>Civil War talk Forum</ref>
New Orleans captured
New Orleans in the 1870's
Reorienting the lines, May 13–16
Union Army 9th Corps attacking Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damanation" sketch by Alfred Ward.
William Tecumseh Sherman
General P.G.T. Beauregard Equestrian Statue in New Orleans (2008) by sculptor Alexander Doyle
Movements, May 17, final Union attacks, May 18
Confederate artilleryman killed during the final Union assault against the trenches at Petersburg. Photo by Thomas C. Roche, April 3, 1865.<ref>Frassanito, p. 360.</ref><ref>See website Petersburg Project on location of Many of the Roche photographs at Petersburg April 1865</ref> Although prints of this picture list it as being taken at Ft Mahone, historians at the "Petersburg Project" believe it was taken at Confederate Battery 25<ref>Dead Artilleryman comments Petersburg Project</ref>
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
The Battle of Shiloh, April 6–7, 1862
Actions on May 23: Hancock attacks "Henagan's Redoubt", A.P. Hill attempts to repulse Warren's beachhead
Smoke is still rising from the ruins of Richmond, Virginia after surrendering on April 3, 1865 following the Union victory at the siege of Petersburg. Union cavalry mounts with carbines visible are hitched in the foreground.
Philip Sheridan
A Creole home in New Orleans, 1870
Actions on May 24: Ledlie attacks Ox Ford, Hancock attempts to advance against the eastern leg of the inverted "V"
Richmond–Petersburg Theater, fall 1864
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Stalemate: Union and Confederate positions May 25–26
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
Rodes's attack
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Ramseur's attack
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
Actions on June 11
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.
Actions on June 12
Slave states that seceded before April 15, 1861 Slave states that seceded after April 15, 1861 Union states that permitted slavery (border states) Union states that banned slavery
Key to operational maps.
US Secession map. The Union vs. the Confederacy.
Union states
Union territories not permitting slavery
Border Union states, permitting slavery (One of these states, West Virginia was created in 1863)
Confederate states
Union territories that permitted slavery (claimed by Confederacy) at the start of the war, but where slavery was outlawed by the U.S. in 1862
Map 1:
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Map 2:
Abolition of slavery in the various states of the United States over time:Abolition of slavery during or shortly after the American Revolution
The Northwest Ordinance, 1787
Gradual emancipation in New York (starting 1799, completed 1827) and New Jersey (starting 1804, completed by Thirteenth Amendment, 1865)
The Missouri Compromise, 1821
Effective abolition of slavery by Mexican or joint US/British authority
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1861
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1862
Emancipation Proclamation as originally issued, January 1, 1863
Subsequent operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863
Abolition of slavery by state action during the Civil War
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1864
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865
Thirteenth Amendment to the US constitution, December 18, 1865
Territory incorporated into the US after the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment
Map 3:
Oath to defend the Constitution of the United States and, among other promises, to "abide by and faithfully support all acts of Congress passed during the . . . rebellion having reference to slaves . . . ," signed by former Confederate officer Samuel M. Kennard on June 27, 1865
Map 4:
Map 5:
Map 6:
Map 7:
Map 8:
Map 9:
Map 10:
Map 11:
Map 12:
Overland Campaign, from the Wilderness to crossing the James River
Start of the Overland Campaign, May 4, 1864: Movement into the Wilderness.
Attacks on the Laurel Hill line, May 8
The Overland Campaign from the Wilderness to the North Anna River, May 5–26, 1864

The Richmond–Petersburg campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 9, 1864, to March 25, 1865, during the American Civil War.

- Siege of Petersburg

Pierre Gustave Toutant-Beauregard (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893) was a Confederate general officer of Louisiana Creole descent who started the American Civil War by leading the attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861.

- P. G. T. Beauregard

The Overland Campaign, also known as Grant's Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War.

- Overland Campaign

The resulting siege of Petersburg (June 1864 – March 1865) led to the eventual surrender of Lee's army in April 1865 and the effective end of the Civil War.

- Overland Campaign

Butler's Army of the James bogged down against inferior forces under Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard before Richmond in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign.

- Siege of Petersburg

On May 4, Grant and Meade's Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River and entered the area known as the Wilderness of Spotsylvania, beginning the six-week Overland Campaign.

- Siege of Petersburg

The last significant battles raged around the ten-month Siege of Petersburg, gateway to the Confederate capital of Richmond.

- American Civil War

As Grant moved south against Lee in the Overland Campaign, Union Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler launched the surprise Bermuda Hundred Campaign with landings up the James River.

- P. G. T. Beauregard

Beauregard continued commanding the defenses of Petersburg in the early days of the siege, but with the loss of the Weldon Railroad in the Battle of Globe Tavern (August 18–21), he was criticized for not attacking more forcefully and he became dissatisfied with the command arrangements under Lee.

- P. G. T. Beauregard

An April 9 Confederate cabinet meeting resulted in President Davis's ordering General P. G. T. Beauregard to take the Fort before supplies could reach it.

- American Civil War

Lee requested that General P.G.T. Beauregard send him reinforcements from his 12,000-man army, sitting relatively idle as they bottled up Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler's army at Bermuda Hundred.

- Overland Campaign

Grant's army set out on the Overland Campaign intending to draw Lee into a defense of Richmond, where they would attempt to pin down and destroy the Confederate army.

- American Civil War
The "Dictator" siege mortar at Petersburg. In the foreground, the figure on the right is Brig. Gen. Henry J. Hunt, chief of artillery of the Army of the Potomac.

5 related topics with Alpha


Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880

Ulysses S. Grant

4 links

American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880
Grant's birthplace, Point Pleasant, Ohio
Grant c. undefined 1845–1847
Battle of Monterrey Published 1847
Chinook Indian Plank House Published 1845
Grant believed Pacific Northwest Indians were a peaceful people and not a threat to settlers.
"Hardscrabble" Published 1891
The farm home Grant built in Missouri for his family. His wife Julia called the home an "unattractive cabin".
Brigadier General Grant photographed at Cairo, Illinois, September 1861 (Published 1911)
21st Illinois regiment monument in the Viniard Field, Chickamauga
Grant's successful gamble: Porter's gunboats night ran the Confederate gauntlet at Vicksburg on the Mississippi River.
Published 1863
The Battle of Jackson, fought on May 14, 1863, was part of the Vicksburg Campaign.
Published 1863
Union troops swarm Missionary Ridge and defeat Bragg's army. Published 1886
Commanding General Grant at the Battle of Cold Harbor, June 1864
Grant (center left) next to Lincoln with General Sherman (far left) and Admiral Porter (right) – The Peacemakers by Healy, 1868
Defeated by Grant, Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House
Ulysses S. Grant by Balling (1865)
Grant–Colfax Republican Ticket
Published 1868
Inauguration of President U.S. Grant, Capitol building steps.
March 4, 1869
Anthony Comstock Grant's vigorous prosecutor of abortionists and pornographers.
Amos T. Akerman, appointed Attorney General by Grant, who vigorously prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan
Image of mobs rioting entitled "The Louisiana Outrage". White Leaguers at Liberty Place attacked the integrated police force and state militia, New Orleans, September 1874.
Published October 1874
Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell aided Grant to defeat the Gold Ring.
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish and Grant successfully settled the Alabama Claims by treaty and arbitration.
Wharf of Santo Domingo City
Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
American Captain Frye and his crew were executed by Spanish authority.
King Kalākaua of Hawaii meets President Grant at the White House on his state visit, 1874.
Published January 2, 1875
Ely Samuel Parker
Grant appointed Parker the first Native American (Seneca) Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
Great Sioux War
Published 1889
Cartoon by Thomas Nast on Grant's opponents in the reelection campaign
Grant is congratulated for vetoing the "inflation bill" in 1874.
Cartoonist Thomas Nast praises Grant for rejecting demands by Pennsylvania politicians to suspend civil service rules.
Harper's Weekly
cartoon on Bristow's Whiskey Ring investigation
Grant and Bismarck in 1878
Cartoonist Joseph Keppler lampooned Grant and his associates. Grant's prosecutions of the Whiskey Ring and the Klan were ignored.
Puck, 1880
Official White House portrait of President Grant by Henry Ulke, 1875
Commanding General Grant
Constant Mayer's portrait of 1866
Grant National Memorial, known as "Grant's Tomb", largest mausoleum in North America

As Commanding General, he led the Union Army to victory in the American Civil War in 1865 and thereafter briefly served as Secretary of War.

For thirteen months, Grant fought Robert E. Lee during the high-casualty Overland Campaign and at Petersburg.

On the morning of April 6, 1862, Grant's troops were taken by surprise when the Confederates, led by Generals Albert Sidney Johnston and P. G. T. Beauregard, struck first "like an Alpine avalanche" near Shiloh church, attacking five divisions of Grant's army and forcing a confused retreat toward the Tennessee River.

Battle of Cold Harbor by Kurz and Allison, 1888

Battle of Cold Harbor

3 links

Battle of Cold Harbor by Kurz and Allison, 1888
Map of Southeastern Virginia
Union marches and operations in Central Virginia (1864-65)
Movements in the Overland Campaign, May 29, and actions May 30, 1864
Opposing commanders: Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, USA, at Cold Harbor, photographed by Edgar Guy Fawx in 1864; Gen. Robert E. Lee, CSA, photographed by Mathew Brady in 1865
The Burnett Inn at Old Cold Harbor (by Timothy H. O'Sullivan, June 4, 1864)
Positions of the armies on the afternoon of June 1, 1864
Cold Harbor, June 1
Makeshift Confederate breastworks at the extreme left of their line
Earthworks photographed after the battle
7th New York Heavy Artillery (serving as infantry) preparing to leave the trenches and charge the Confederate line, sketched by Alfred Waud
"Unburied Dead on Battlefield" by John Reekie; issued as Stero #914 being taken on the 1862 Battlefield of Gaines Mills aka First Cold Harbor April 1865; taken near the Adams Farm where 7th New York artillery was stationed June 1864 see Civil war Talk.
Cold Harbor, June 3
Union Coehorn mortars in action, drawn by Alfred Waud
Overland Campaign, from the Wilderness to crossing the James River

The Battle of Cold Harbor was fought during the American Civil War near Mechanicsville, Virginia, from May 31 to June 12, 1864, with the most significant fighting occurring on June 3.

It was one of the final battles of Union Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign, and is remembered as one of American history's bloodiest, most lopsided battles.

In the final stage, Lee entrenched his army within besieged Petersburg before finally retreating westward across Virginia.

Confederate President Jefferson Davis directed Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard to send the division of Maj. Gen. Robert F. Hoke, over 7,000 men, from below the James River.

Federal earthworks at Bermuda Hundred

Bermuda Hundred campaign

3 links

Federal earthworks at Bermuda Hundred
During the Civil War, the Confederacy was generally able to keep the Union troops west of the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad, with the main exception being the Bermuda Hundred campaign of 1864.

The Bermuda Hundred campaign was a series of battles fought at the town of Bermuda Hundred, outside Richmond, Virginia, during May 1864 in the American Civil War.

Union Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler, commanding the Army of the James, threatened Richmond from the east but was stopped by forces under Confederate Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard.

Grant and Meade attacked Lee's Army of Northern Virginia directly in the Overland Campaign.

Butler's forces were eventually used in the Siege of Petersburg.

Western Theater Overview (1861&ndash;1865)

Western theater of the American Civil War

2 links

Western Theater Overview (1861&ndash;1865)
Western Theater map at The Photographic History of the Civil War
From Belmont (November 1861) to Shiloh (April 1862)
From Corinth (May 1862) to Perryville (October 1862)
Operations against Vicksburg and Grant's Bayou Operations
Grant's operations against Vicksburg
From Vicksburg (December 1862 &ndash; July 1863) to Chickamauga (September 1863)
Tullahoma Campaign
Battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, Chattanooga Campaign
Map of the Atlanta Campaign
Franklin-Nashville Campaign
Sherman's March to the Sea
Carolinas Campaign

The Western Theater of the American Civil War encompassed major military operations in the states of Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina, Kentucky, South Carolina and Tennessee, as well as Louisiana east of the Mississippi River.

General P.G.T. Beauregard had arrived from the East to report to Johnston in February, and he commanded all Confederate forces between the Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers, which effectively divided the unity of command so that Johnston controlled only a small force at Murfreesboro, Tennessee.

Most of the initiatives failed: Butler became bogged down in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign; Sigel was quickly defeated in the valley; Banks became occupied in the ill-fated Red River Campaign; Meade and Grant experienced many setbacks and much bloodshed in the Overland Campaign before finally settling down to a siege of Petersburg.

Jubal Early

2 links

Early's childhood home in northeastern Franklin County
Confederate General Jubal A. Early
General Early, disguised as a farmer, while escaping to Mexico, 1865
Early in his elder years
A plaque praising Early in Rocky Mount, Virginia

Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a Virginia lawyer and politician who became a Confederate general during the American Civil War.

Other future generals whose time at West Point also overlapped with Early's included P.G.T. Beauregard, Richard Ewell, Edward "Allegheny" Johnson, Irwin McDowell and George Meade.

Thus Early commanded the Confederacy's last invasion of the North, secured much-needed funds and supplies for the Confederacy and drawing off Union troops from the siege of Petersburg.

In one letter to Early, Lee requested information about enemy strengths from May 1864 to April 1865, the war's last year, in which his army fought against Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant (the Overland Campaign and the Siege of Petersburg).