The "Dictator" siege mortar at Petersburg. In the foreground, the figure on the right is Brig. Gen. Henry J. Hunt, chief of artillery of the Army of the Potomac.
Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, respectively, opposing commanders in the Overland Campaign
Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880
Western Theater Overview (1861–1865)
Fredericksburg, Virginia; May 1863. Soldiers in the trenches. Trench warfare would appear again more infamously in World War I
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Sheridan's Richmond Raid, including the Battles of Yellow Tavern and Meadow Bridge
Grant's birthplace, Point Pleasant, Ohio
Western Theater map at The Photographic History of the Civil War
A portion of the 4th USCT Infantry
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
Union staff meeting at Massaponax Baptist Church on May 21, 1864. Grant has his back to the smaller tree with Charles Anderson Dana to his left, while Meade is seated at the far left.
Grant c. undefined 1845–1847
From Belmont (November 1861) to Shiloh (April 1862)
Siege of Petersburg, assaults on June 15–18
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
Movements in the Overland Campaign, May 27–29, 1864, following the Battle of North Anna
Battle of Monterrey Published 1847
From Corinth (May 1862) to Perryville (October 1862)
Siege of Petersburg, movements against the railroads and A.P. Hill's counterattack, June 21–22
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
Movement to Totopotomoy, May 25–28, 1864, following the Battle of North Anna
Chinook Indian Plank House Published 1845
Grant believed Pacific Northwest Indians were a peaceful people and not a threat to settlers.
Operations against Vicksburg and Grant's Bayou Operations
Wilson–Kautz Raid, June 22 – July 1
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
Battle of Haw's Shop
"Hardscrabble" Published 1891
The farm home Grant built in Missouri for his family. His wife Julia called the home an "unattractive cabin".
Grant's operations against Vicksburg
"Dictator" siege mortar on the U.S. Military Railroad at Petersburg
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
Movements in the Overland Campaign, May 29, and actions May 30, 1864
Brigadier General Grant photographed at Cairo, Illinois, September 1861 (Published 1911)
From Vicksburg (December 1862 – July 1863) to Chickamauga (September 1863)
First Battle of Deep Bottom, July 27–29
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Battle of Totopotomoy Creek, May 30, 1864
21st Illinois regiment monument in the Viniard Field, Chickamauga
Tullahoma Campaign
Siege of Petersburg, Battle of the Crater, July 30
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
Maj. Gen. William F. "Baldy" Smith
Grant's successful gamble: Porter's gunboats night ran the Confederate gauntlet at Vicksburg on the Mississippi River.
Published 1863
Battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, Chattanooga Campaign
Sketch of the explosion seen from the Union line.
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Positions of the armies on the afternoon of June 1, 1864
The Battle of Jackson, fought on May 14, 1863, was part of the Vicksburg Campaign.
Published 1863
Map of the Atlanta Campaign
Second Battle of Deep Bottom, August 14–20
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
Cold Harbor, June 1
Union troops swarm Missionary Ridge and defeat Bragg's army. Published 1886
Franklin-Nashville Campaign
Siege of Petersburg, capture of the Weldon Railroad, August 18–19
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
Cold Harbor, June 3
Commanding General Grant at the Battle of Cold Harbor, June 1864
Sherman's March to the Sea
Siege of Petersburg, actions on October 27
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
Cold Harbor, Virginia. African Americans collecting bones of soldiers killed in the battle. Photo by John Reekie, April 1865.
Grant (center left) next to Lincoln with General Sherman (far left) and Admiral Porter (right) – The Peacemakers by Healy, 1868
Carolinas Campaign
Siege of Petersburg, actions preceding Five Forks
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
Pontoon bridge across the James River
Defeated by Grant, Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House
Grant's final assaults and Lee's retreat (start of the Appomattox Campaign)
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Crossing the James River, 12–16 June 1864.
Ulysses S. Grant by Balling (1865)
<center>Lt. Gen.
Robert E. Lee
Routes of Federal and Confederate cavalry to Trevilian Station, June 7–10, 1864
Grant–Colfax Republican Ticket
Published 1868
<center>Maj. Gen.
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
Sheridan's return to the Army of the Potomac from his Trevilian Station raid
<center>Maj. Gen.
George B. McClellan
Actions in the Wilderness, May 5, 1864.
Inauguration of President U.S. Grant, Capitol building steps.
March 4, 1869
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
5 a.m., May 6. Hancock attacks Hill on the Plank Road
Anthony Comstock Grant's vigorous prosecutor of abortionists and pornographers.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
6–10 a.m., May 6. Longstreet counterattacks
Amos T. Akerman, appointed Attorney General by Grant, who vigorously prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan
<center>Lt. Gen.
Pickett's Charge
11 a.m., May 6. Longstreet attacks Hancock's flank from the railroad bed
Image of mobs rioting entitled "The Louisiana Outrage". White Leaguers at Liberty Place attacked the integrated police force and state militia, New Orleans, September 1874.
Published October 1874
<center>Lt. Gen.
Ulysses S. Grant
2 p.m. until dark, May 6.
Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell aided Grant to defeat the Gold Ring.
<center>Lt. Gen.
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
Movements on May 7, 1864; cavalry actions inset
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish and Grant successfully settled the Alabama Claims by treaty and arbitration.
<center>Lt. Gen.
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
Positions and movements on the Union flanks, May 9
Wharf of Santo Domingo City
Dominican Republic
<center>Brig. Gen. James H. Wilson</center>
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
Grant attacks, May 10
Dominican Republic
<center>Brig. Gen. August Kautz</center>
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
Grant's grand assault, May 12
American Captain Frye and his crew were executed by Spanish authority.
Fascine Trench Breastworks, Petersburg, Va. – NARA – 524792. Although identified as Confederate Trenches this is actually Union Fort Sedgwick aka "Fort Hell" which was opposite Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damnation"<ref>Civil War talk Forum</ref>
New Orleans captured
Reorienting the lines, May 13–16
King Kalākaua of Hawaii meets President Grant at the White House on his state visit, 1874.
Published January 2, 1875
Union Army 9th Corps attacking Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damanation" sketch by Alfred Ward.
William Tecumseh Sherman
Movements, May 17, final Union attacks, May 18
Ely Samuel Parker
Grant appointed Parker the first Native American (Seneca) Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Confederate artilleryman killed during the final Union assault against the trenches at Petersburg. Photo by Thomas C. Roche, April 3, 1865.<ref>Frassanito, p. 360.</ref><ref>See website Petersburg Project on location of Many of the Roche photographs at Petersburg April 1865</ref> Although prints of this picture list it as being taken at Ft Mahone, historians at the "Petersburg Project" believe it was taken at Confederate Battery 25<ref>Dead Artilleryman comments Petersburg Project</ref>
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
Actions on May 23: Hancock attacks "Henagan's Redoubt", A.P. Hill attempts to repulse Warren's beachhead
Battle of the Little Big Horn
Great Sioux War
Published 1889
Smoke is still rising from the ruins of Richmond, Virginia after surrendering on April 3, 1865 following the Union victory at the siege of Petersburg. Union cavalry mounts with carbines visible are hitched in the foreground.
Philip Sheridan
Actions on May 24: Ledlie attacks Ox Ford, Hancock attempts to advance against the eastern leg of the inverted "V"
Cartoon by Thomas Nast on Grant's opponents in the reelection campaign
Richmond–Petersburg Theater, fall 1864
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Stalemate: Union and Confederate positions May 25–26
Grant is congratulated for vetoing the "inflation bill" in 1874.
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
Rodes's attack
Cartoonist Thomas Nast praises Grant for rejecting demands by Pennsylvania politicians to suspend civil service rules.
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Ramseur's attack
Harper's Weekly
cartoon on Bristow's Whiskey Ring investigation
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
Actions on June 11
Grant and Bismarck in 1878
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.
Actions on June 12
Cartoonist Joseph Keppler lampooned Grant and his associates. Grant's prosecutions of the Whiskey Ring and the Klan were ignored.
Puck, 1880
Slave states that seceded before April 15, 1861 Slave states that seceded after April 15, 1861 Union states that permitted slavery (border states) Union states that banned slavery
Key to operational maps.
Official White House portrait of President Grant by Henry Ulke, 1875
US Secession map. The Union vs. the Confederacy.
Union states
Union territories not permitting slavery
Border Union states, permitting slavery (One of these states, West Virginia was created in 1863)
Confederate states
Union territories that permitted slavery (claimed by Confederacy) at the start of the war, but where slavery was outlawed by the U.S. in 1862
Map 1:
Commanding General Grant
Constant Mayer's portrait of 1866
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Map 2:
Grant National Memorial, known as "Grant's Tomb", largest mausoleum in North America
Abolition of slavery in the various states of the United States over time:Abolition of slavery during or shortly after the American Revolution
The Northwest Ordinance, 1787
Gradual emancipation in New York (starting 1799, completed 1827) and New Jersey (starting 1804, completed by Thirteenth Amendment, 1865)
The Missouri Compromise, 1821
Effective abolition of slavery by Mexican or joint US/British authority
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1861
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1862
Emancipation Proclamation as originally issued, January 1, 1863
Subsequent operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863
Abolition of slavery by state action during the Civil War
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1864
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865
Thirteenth Amendment to the US constitution, December 18, 1865
Territory incorporated into the US after the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment
Map 3:
Oath to defend the Constitution of the United States and, among other promises, to "abide by and faithfully support all acts of Congress passed during the . . . rebellion having reference to slaves . . . ," signed by former Confederate officer Samuel M. Kennard on June 27, 1865
Map 4:
Map 5:
Map 6:
Map 7:
Map 8:
Map 9:
Map 10:
Map 11:
Map 12:
Overland Campaign, from the Wilderness to crossing the James River
Start of the Overland Campaign, May 4, 1864: Movement into the Wilderness.
Attacks on the Laurel Hill line, May 8
The Overland Campaign from the Wilderness to the North Anna River, May 5–26, 1864

The Richmond–Petersburg campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 9, 1864, to March 25, 1865, during the American Civil War.

- Siege of Petersburg

The Overland Campaign, also known as Grant's Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War.

- Overland Campaign

The Western Theater of the American Civil War encompassed major military operations in the states of Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina, Kentucky, South Carolina and Tennessee, as well as Louisiana east of the Mississippi River.

- Western theater of the American Civil War

Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, general-in-chief of all Union armies, directed the actions of the Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, and other forces against Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia.

- Overland Campaign

As Commanding General, he led the Union Army to victory in the American Civil War in 1865 and thereafter briefly served as Secretary of War.

- Ulysses S. Grant

The campaign consisted of nine months of trench warfare in which Union forces commanded by Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant assaulted Petersburg unsuccessfully and then constructed trench lines that eventually extended over 30 mi from the eastern outskirts of Richmond, Virginia, to around the eastern and southern outskirts of Petersburg.

- Siege of Petersburg

He joined the Union Army after the American Civil War broke out in 1861 and rose to prominence after winning several early Union victories on the Western Theater.

- Ulysses S. Grant

Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's Army of the Tennessee had early successes in Kentucky and western Tennessee in 1861 and 1862, capturing the important strategic locations of forts Henry and Donelson.

- Western theater of the American Civil War

For thirteen months, Grant fought Robert E. Lee during the high-casualty Overland Campaign and at Petersburg.

- Ulysses S. Grant

Grant put Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman in immediate command of all forces in the West and moved his own headquarters to be with the Army of the Potomac (still commanded by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade) in Virginia, where he intended to maneuver Lee's army to a decisive battle; his secondary objective was to capture Richmond (the capital of the Confederacy), but Grant knew that the latter would happen automatically once the former was accomplished.

- Siege of Petersburg

During 1861–1862 in the war's Western Theater, the Union made significant permanent gains—though in the war's Eastern Theater the conflict was inconclusive.

- American Civil War

The resulting siege of Petersburg (June 1864 – March 1865) led to the eventual surrender of Lee's army in April 1865 and the effective end of the Civil War.

- Overland Campaign

In March 1864, Grant was summoned from the Western Theater, promoted to lieutenant general, and given command of all Union armies.

- Overland Campaign

On May 4, Grant and Meade's Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River and entered the area known as the Wilderness of Spotsylvania, beginning the six-week Overland Campaign.

- Siege of Petersburg

Western successes led to General Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864.

- American Civil War

The last significant battles raged around the ten-month Siege of Petersburg, gateway to the Confederate capital of Richmond.

- American Civil War

Most of the initiatives failed: Butler became bogged down in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign; Sigel was quickly defeated in the valley; Banks became occupied in the ill-fated Red River Campaign; Meade and Grant experienced many setbacks and much bloodshed in the Overland Campaign before finally settling down to a siege of Petersburg.

- Western theater of the American Civil War

Grant's army set out on the Overland Campaign intending to draw Lee into a defense of Richmond, where they would attempt to pin down and destroy the Confederate army.

- American Civil War
The "Dictator" siege mortar at Petersburg. In the foreground, the figure on the right is Brig. Gen. Henry J. Hunt, chief of artillery of the Army of the Potomac.

3 related topics with Alpha


Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. 1860-1865

P. G. T. Beauregard

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Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. 1860-1865
A one-story Creole plantation home
Pierre G. T. Beauregard as a young man, painting by Richard Clague
U.S. Army Major P.G.T. Beauregard
The Battle of Churubusco, August 20, 1847
The Battle of Chapultepec, 13 September, 1847
The 1861 George Peter Alexander Healy portrait of Beauregard in the National Portrait Gallery, Washington
Confederate General P. Gustave Toutant Beauregard
The Battle of Fort Sumter, April 12–13, 1861
The Battle of First Manassas, July 21, 1861
Start of the First Battle of Bull Run
The Battle of Shiloh, April 6–7, 1862
Map of the Battle of Shiloh, afternoon of April 6, 1862, after Beauregard took command
A Confederate ironclad
A Confederate submarine, Dec. 6, 1863
The Battle of Cold Harbor, May 31 – June 12, 1864
Beauregard's defense of Petersburg, Federal assaults of June 15–18
The Battle of Nashville, December 15–16, 1864
Beauregard, later in life
Beauregard revolutionized New Orleans with his cable cars
Beauregard, civil rights advocate
The White League, a Democratic white supremacist paramilitary terrorist organization
The White League barricading a New Orleans road
The first African-American and Republican governor of Louisiana, Pinckney Pinchback of Georgia
The Battle of Liberty Place, September 14, 1874
Caesar Antoine, a Louisiana Creole and Republican lieutenant governor of Louisiana
New Orleans in the 1870's
General P.G.T. Beauregard Equestrian Statue in New Orleans (2008) by sculptor Alexander Doyle
The Battle of Shiloh, April 6–7, 1862
A Creole home in New Orleans, 1870

Pierre Gustave Toutant-Beauregard (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893) was a Confederate general officer of Louisiana Creole descent who started the American Civil War by leading the attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861.

Beauregard held several key commands in the Western Theater, including control of armies at the Battle of Shiloh in Tennessee, and the Siege of Corinth in northern Mississippi, both in 1862.

The two generals planned the concentration of Confederate forces to oppose the advance of Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant before he could combine his army with that of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell in a thrust up the Tennessee River toward Corinth, Mississippi.

As Grant moved south against Lee in the Overland Campaign, Union Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler launched the surprise Bermuda Hundred Campaign with landings up the James River.

Beauregard continued commanding the defenses of Petersburg in the early days of the siege, but with the loss of the Weldon Railroad in the Battle of Globe Tavern (August 18–21), he was criticized for not attacking more forcefully and he became dissatisfied with the command arrangements under Lee.

Federal earthworks at Bermuda Hundred

Bermuda Hundred campaign

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Federal earthworks at Bermuda Hundred
During the Civil War, the Confederacy was generally able to keep the Union troops west of the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad, with the main exception being the Bermuda Hundred campaign of 1864.

The Bermuda Hundred campaign was a series of battles fought at the town of Bermuda Hundred, outside Richmond, Virginia, during May 1864 in the American Civil War.

In March 1864, Ulysses S. Grant was summoned from the Western Theater, promoted to lieutenant general, and given command of all Union armies.

Grant and Meade attacked Lee's Army of Northern Virginia directly in the Overland Campaign.

Butler's forces were eventually used in the Siege of Petersburg.

Meade, portrait by Mathew Brady

George Meade

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Meade, portrait by Mathew Brady
Meade photographed by Mathew Brady or Levin C. Handy
General Meade's horse, Old Baldy
Commanders of the Army of the Potomac, Gouverneur K. Warren, William H. French, George G. Meade, Henry J. Hunt, Andrew A. Humphreys, and George Sykes in September 1863
General Meade's headquarters, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Engraving by James E. Kelly of George G. Meade and the Council of War at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863
General Meade's headquarters, Culpeper, Virginia
Horse artillery headquarters in Brandy Station, Virginia, February 1864. Meade stands at the far right with Generals John Sedgwick and Alfred Torbert, along with staff officers.
Generals George G. Meade, Andrew A. Humphreys and staff in Culpeper, Virginia outside Meade's headquarters, 1863
General Meade and other generals of Army of the Potomac in Washington, D.C., June 1865
General George G. Meade and staff in Washington, D.C. in June 1865
George Meade tombstone in Laurel Hill Cemetery
George Gordon Meade Memorial, sculpted by Charles Grafly, located in front of the E. Barrett Prettyman Federal Courthouse in Washington, D.C.
General Meade lived at 1836 Delancey Place, Philadelphia, and died in the house, 1872, according to the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission marker in front.
A monument to Meade by sculptor Henry Kirke Bush-Brown, on the Gettysburg Battlefield, located close to the point where Pickett's Charge was repulsed.
Equestrian statue in Philadelphia, designed by Alexander Milne Calder, located in Fairmount Park, which Meade was the commissioner of following the war.

George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 – November 6, 1872) was a United States Army officer and civil engineer best known for decisively defeating Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg in the American Civil War.

In 1864–65, Meade continued to command the Army of the Potomac through the Overland Campaign, the Richmond–Petersburg Campaign, and the Appomattox Campaign, but he was overshadowed by the direct supervision of the general-in-chief, Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, who accompanied him throughout these campaigns.

Meade was additionally frustrated by the manner in which Grant sometimes gave preferable treatment to subordinates that he had brought with him from the Western Theater.