Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
The "Dictator" siege mortar at Petersburg. In the foreground, the figure on the right is Brig. Gen. Henry J. Hunt, chief of artillery of the Army of the Potomac.
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Fredericksburg, Virginia; May 1863. Soldiers in the trenches. Trench warfare would appear again more infamously in World War I
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
A portion of the 4th USCT Infantry
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
Siege of Petersburg, assaults on June 15–18
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
Siege of Petersburg, movements against the railroads and A.P. Hill's counterattack, June 21–22
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
Wilson–Kautz Raid, June 22 – July 1
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
"Dictator" siege mortar on the U.S. Military Railroad at Petersburg
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
First Battle of Deep Bottom, July 27–29
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
Siege of Petersburg, Battle of the Crater, July 30
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Sketch of the explosion seen from the Union line.
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
Second Battle of Deep Bottom, August 14–20
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
Siege of Petersburg, capture of the Weldon Railroad, August 18–19
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
Siege of Petersburg, actions on October 27
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
Siege of Petersburg, actions preceding Five Forks
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Grant's final assaults and Lee's retreat (start of the Appomattox Campaign)
Robert E. Lee
<center>Lt. Gen.
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
<center>Maj. Gen.
George B. McClellan
<center>Maj. Gen.
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
Pickett's Charge
<center>Lt. Gen.
Ulysses S. Grant
<center>Lt. Gen.
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
<center>Lt. Gen.
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
<center>Lt. Gen.
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
<center>Brig. Gen. James H. Wilson</center>
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
<center>Brig. Gen. August Kautz</center>
New Orleans captured
Fascine Trench Breastworks, Petersburg, Va. – NARA – 524792. Although identified as Confederate Trenches this is actually Union Fort Sedgwick aka "Fort Hell" which was opposite Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damnation"<ref>Civil War talk Forum</ref>
William Tecumseh Sherman
Union Army 9th Corps attacking Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damanation" sketch by Alfred Ward.
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
Confederate artilleryman killed during the final Union assault against the trenches at Petersburg. Photo by Thomas C. Roche, April 3, 1865.<ref>Frassanito, p. 360.</ref><ref>See website Petersburg Project on location of Many of the Roche photographs at Petersburg April 1865</ref> Although prints of this picture list it as being taken at Ft Mahone, historians at the "Petersburg Project" believe it was taken at Confederate Battery 25<ref>Dead Artilleryman comments Petersburg Project</ref>
Philip Sheridan
Smoke is still rising from the ruins of Richmond, Virginia after surrendering on April 3, 1865 following the Union victory at the siege of Petersburg. Union cavalry mounts with carbines visible are hitched in the foreground.
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Richmond–Petersburg Theater, fall 1864
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.
Slave states that seceded before April 15, 1861 Slave states that seceded after April 15, 1861 Union states that permitted slavery (border states) Union states that banned slavery
US Secession map. The Union vs. the Confederacy.
Union states
Union territories not permitting slavery
Border Union states, permitting slavery (One of these states, West Virginia was created in 1863)
Confederate states
Union territories that permitted slavery (claimed by Confederacy) at the start of the war, but where slavery was outlawed by the U.S. in 1862
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Abolition of slavery in the various states of the United States over time:Abolition of slavery during or shortly after the American Revolution
The Northwest Ordinance, 1787
Gradual emancipation in New York (starting 1799, completed 1827) and New Jersey (starting 1804, completed by Thirteenth Amendment, 1865)
The Missouri Compromise, 1821
Effective abolition of slavery by Mexican or joint US/British authority
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1861
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1862
Emancipation Proclamation as originally issued, January 1, 1863
Subsequent operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863
Abolition of slavery by state action during the Civil War
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1864
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865
Thirteenth Amendment to the US constitution, December 18, 1865
Territory incorporated into the US after the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment
Oath to defend the Constitution of the United States and, among other promises, to "abide by and faithfully support all acts of Congress passed during the . . . rebellion having reference to slaves . . . ," signed by former Confederate officer Samuel M. Kennard on June 27, 1865

The Richmond–Petersburg campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 9, 1864, to March 25, 1865, during the American Civil War.

- Siege of Petersburg

The last significant battles raged around the ten-month Siege of Petersburg, gateway to the Confederate capital of Richmond.

- American Civil War
Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin

22 related topics with Alpha


Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. 1860-1865

P. G. T. Beauregard

7 links

Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. 1860-1865
A one-story Creole plantation home
Pierre G. T. Beauregard as a young man, painting by Richard Clague
U.S. Army Major P.G.T. Beauregard
The Battle of Churubusco, August 20, 1847
The Battle of Chapultepec, 13 September, 1847
The 1861 George Peter Alexander Healy portrait of Beauregard in the National Portrait Gallery, Washington
Confederate General P. Gustave Toutant Beauregard
The Battle of Fort Sumter, April 12–13, 1861
The Battle of First Manassas, July 21, 1861
Start of the First Battle of Bull Run
The Battle of Shiloh, April 6–7, 1862
Map of the Battle of Shiloh, afternoon of April 6, 1862, after Beauregard took command
A Confederate ironclad
A Confederate submarine, Dec. 6, 1863
The Battle of Cold Harbor, May 31 – June 12, 1864
Beauregard's defense of Petersburg, Federal assaults of June 15–18
The Battle of Nashville, December 15–16, 1864
Beauregard, later in life
Beauregard revolutionized New Orleans with his cable cars
Beauregard, civil rights advocate
The White League, a Democratic white supremacist paramilitary terrorist organization
The White League barricading a New Orleans road
The first African-American and Republican governor of Louisiana, Pinckney Pinchback of Georgia
The Battle of Liberty Place, September 14, 1874
Caesar Antoine, a Louisiana Creole and Republican lieutenant governor of Louisiana
New Orleans in the 1870's
General P.G.T. Beauregard Equestrian Statue in New Orleans (2008) by sculptor Alexander Doyle
The Battle of Shiloh, April 6–7, 1862
A Creole home in New Orleans, 1870

Pierre Gustave Toutant-Beauregard (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893) was a Confederate general officer of Louisiana Creole descent who started the American Civil War by leading the attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861.

Beauregard continued commanding the defenses of Petersburg in the early days of the siege, but with the loss of the Weldon Railroad in the Battle of Globe Tavern (August 18–21), he was criticized for not attacking more forcefully and he became dissatisfied with the command arrangements under Lee.

Battle of Spottsylvania, Thure de Thulstrup

Battle of Spotsylvania Court House

8 links

Battle of Spottsylvania, Thure de Thulstrup
Map of Southeastern Virginia.
Union marches and operations in Central Virginia (1864-65).
Spotsylvania Courthouse, 1864
Attacks on the Laurel Hill line, May 8
<center>Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick, VI Corps</center>
Positions and movements on the Union flanks, May 9
Grant attacks, May 10
Grant attacks, May 10 (additional map).
Upton's brigade attacks
Grant's grand assault, May 12
Grant's grand assault, May 12 (additional map)
"The Battle of Spottsylvania" by Kurz & Allison
The Bloody Angle site
<center>Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, Army of the Potomac</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock, II Corps</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren, V Corps</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, IX Corps</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan, Cavalry Corps</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Richard H. Anderson, First Corps</center>
<center>Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell, Second Corps</center>
<center>Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill, Third Corps</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, Cavalry Corps</center>
This unidentified, dead Confederate soldier of Ewell's Corps was killed during their attack at Alsop's farm. He was wounded in both the right knee and left shoulder, and probably died from loss of blood.
Confederate killed in Ewell's attack May 19, 1864, on the Alsop farm. This photograph was taken just to the right and in front of the preceding photograph.
Confederate dead of General Ewell's Corps who attacked the Union lines on May 19 lined up for burial at the Alsop Farm.
Movements on May 7, 1864; cavalry actions inset

The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, sometimes more simply referred to as the Battle of Spotsylvania (or the 19th-century spelling Spottsylvania), was the second major battle in Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Maj. Gen. George G. Meade's 1864 Overland Campaign of the American Civil War.

The armies then faced each other for nine months in the Siege of Petersburg.

Confederate States of America

6 links

Unrecognized breakaway republic in North America that existed from February 8, 1861, to May 9, 1865.

Unrecognized breakaway republic in North America that existed from February 8, 1861, to May 9, 1865.

style=padding-left: 0.6em; text-align: left;
Map of the division of the states in the American Civil War (1861–1865). Blue indicates the northern Union states; light blue represents five Union slave states (border states) that primarily stayed in Union control. Red represents southern seceded states in rebellion, also known as the Confederate States of America. Uncolored areas were U.S. territories, with the exception of the Indian Territory (later Oklahoma).
Evolution of the Confederate States, December 20, 1860 – July 15, 1870
Alexander H. Stephens, Confederate Vice President; author of the 'Cornerstone Speech'
The inauguration of Jefferson Davis in Montgomery, Alabama
Elias Boudinot, Cherokee secessionist, Rep. Indian Territory
William T. Sutherlin mansion, Danville, Virginia, temporary residence of Jefferson Davis and dubbed "Last Capitol of the Confederacy"
Map of the county secession votes of 1860–1861 in Appalachia within the ARC definition. Virginia and Tennessee show the public votes, while the other states show the vote by county delegates to the conventions.
The Seal, symbols of an independent agricultural Confederacy surrounding an equestrian Washington, sword encased
Recruitment poster: "Do not wait to be drafted". Under half re-enlisted.
Unionists throughout the Confederate States resisted the 1862 conscription
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy from 1861 to 1865
Davis's cabinet in 1861, Montgomery, Alabama
Front row, left to right: Judah P. Benjamin, Stephen Mallory, Alexander H. Stephens, Jefferson Davis, John Henninger Reagan, and Robert Toombs
Back row, standing left to right: Christopher Memminger and LeRoy Pope Walker
Illustration printed in Harper's Weekly
Provisional Congress, Montgomery, Alabama
surviving Confederate mail
Main railroads of Confederacy, 1861; colors show the different gauges (track width); the top railroad shown in the upper right is the Baltimore and Ohio, which was at all times a Union railroad
Passers-by abusing the bodies of Union supporters near Knoxville, Tennessee. The two were hanged by Confederate authorities near the railroad tracks so passing train passengers could see them.
Richmond bread riot, 1863
Confederate memorial tombstone at Natchez City Cemetery in Natchez, Mississippi
This Confederate Flag pattern is the one most often thought of as the Confederate Flag today; it was one of many used by the Confederate armed forces. Variations of this design served as the Battle Flag of the Armies of Northern Virginia and Tennessee, and as the Confederate Naval Jack.
A Home on the Mississippi, Currier and Ives, 1871
St. John's Episcopal Church, Montgomery. The Secession Convention of Southern Churches was held here in 1861.
Major-General John C. Breckinridge, Secretary of War (1865)
General Robert E. Lee, General in Chief (1865)
William L. Yancey, {{small|Alabama Fire-Eater, "The Orator of Secession"}}
William Henry Gist, {{small|Governor of South Carolina, called the Secessionist Convention}}
CSA Naval Jack
{{small|Battle Flag – square}}
Gen. Gabriel J. Rains, {{small|Conscription Bureau chief, April 1862 – May 1863}}
Gen. Gideon J. Pillow, {{small|military recruiter under Bragg, then J.E. Johnston<ref>Coulter, The Confederates States of America, p. 324.</ref>}}
Joseph E. Brown, governor of Georgia
Pendleton Murrah, governor of Texas
Jesse J. Finley
Henry R. Jackson
Asa Biggs
Andrew Magrath
John H. Reagan
Jefferson Davis, 5 cent
Andrew Jackson
George Washington
Potters House, Atlanta Ga
Downtown Charleston SC
Navy Yard, Norfolk Va
Rail bridge, Petersburg Va
1st National Flag
2nd National Flag
3rd National Flag
Battle Flag

The Confederacy comprised U.S. states that declared secession and warred against the United States (the Union) during the American Civil War.

Union offensives continued with Sherman's March to the Sea to take Savannah and Grant's Wilderness Campaign to encircle Richmond and besiege Lee's army at Petersburg.

Western Theater Overview (1861&ndash;1865)

Western theater of the American Civil War

6 links

Western Theater Overview (1861&ndash;1865)
Western Theater map at The Photographic History of the Civil War
From Belmont (November 1861) to Shiloh (April 1862)
From Corinth (May 1862) to Perryville (October 1862)
Operations against Vicksburg and Grant's Bayou Operations
Grant's operations against Vicksburg
From Vicksburg (December 1862 &ndash; July 1863) to Chickamauga (September 1863)
Tullahoma Campaign
Battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, Chattanooga Campaign
Map of the Atlanta Campaign
Franklin-Nashville Campaign
Sherman's March to the Sea
Carolinas Campaign

The Western Theater of the American Civil War encompassed major military operations in the states of Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina, Kentucky, South Carolina and Tennessee, as well as Louisiana east of the Mississippi River.

Most of the initiatives failed: Butler became bogged down in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign; Sigel was quickly defeated in the valley; Banks became occupied in the ill-fated Red River Campaign; Meade and Grant experienced many setbacks and much bloodshed in the Overland Campaign before finally settling down to a siege of Petersburg.

Federal earthworks at Bermuda Hundred

Bermuda Hundred campaign

5 links

Federal earthworks at Bermuda Hundred
During the Civil War, the Confederacy was generally able to keep the Union troops west of the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad, with the main exception being the Bermuda Hundred campaign of 1864.

The Bermuda Hundred campaign was a series of battles fought at the town of Bermuda Hundred, outside Richmond, Virginia, during May 1864 in the American Civil War.

Butler's forces were eventually used in the Siege of Petersburg.


2 links

State in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern regions of the United States, between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.

State in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern regions of the United States, between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.

The story of Pocahontas was romanticized by later artists, in part because of her association with the First Families of Virginia.
Williamsburg was Virginia's capital from 1699 to 1780.
1851 painting of Patrick Henry's speech before the House of Burgesses on the Virginia Resolves against the Stamp Act of 1765
Richmond was the capital of the Confederacy from 1861 to 1865, when it was partially burned by them prior to its recapture by Union forces.
Many World War I-era warships were built in Newport News, including the USS Virginia.
Protests in 2020 were focused on the Confederate monuments in the state.
Virginia is shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains, the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed, and the parallel 36°30′ north.
Great Falls is on the fall line of the Potomac River, and its rocks date to the late Precambrian.
Oak trees in particular produce a haze of isoprene, which helps gives the Blue Ridge Mountains their signature color.
White-tailed deer are also known as Virginia deer, and up to seven thousand live in Shenandoah National Park.
Population density of Virginia counties and cities in 2020
New citizens attend a naturalization ceremony in Northern Virginia, where 25% of residents are foreign-born, almost twice the overall state average
Since 1927, Arlington National Cemetery has hosted an annual nondenominational sunrise service every Easter.
Virginia counties and cities by median household income (2010)
The Department of Defense is headquartered in Arlington at the Pentagon, the world's largest office building.
Ocean tourism is an important sector of Virginia Beach's economy.
Rockingham County accounts for twenty percent of Virginia's agricultural sales.
Colonial Virginian culture, language, and style are reenacted in Williamsburg.
Americana Roots Folk Rock band The Steel Wheels play at the Jefferson Theater in Charlottesville
The annual Pony Penning features more than two hundred wild ponies swimming across the Assateague Channel into Chincoteague.
USA Today, the nation's most circulated newspaper, has its headquarters in McLean.
Virginia's public schools serve over a million students at over 2,200 schools.
The University of Virginia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, guarantees full tuition scholarships to all in-state students from families earning up to $80,000.
Patients are screened for COVID-19 outside Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, the Navy's oldest continuously operating hospital.
The Silver Line extension of the Washington Metro system opened in Tysons Corner in 2014.
The Virginia State Capitol, designed by Thomas Jefferson and Charles-Louis Clérisseau, is home to the Virginia General Assembly.
Unlike the federal system, justices of the Virginia Supreme Court have term limits and a mandatory retirement age, and select their own Chief Justice.
Mirroring Virginia's political transition, the annual Shad Planking event in Wakefield has evolved from a vestige of the Byrd era into a regular stop for many state campaigns.
Republicans gained seven seats (red) in the 2021 General Assembly elections.
Mark Warner and Tim Kaine, Virginia's two U.S. Senators, are both former governors.
The annual Monument Avenue 10K in Richmond has become one of the ten largest timed races in the U.S.
Mike Scott and Joe Harris of the Virginia Cavaliers battle Cadarian Raines of the Virginia Tech Hokies for a rebound at Cassell Coliseum
The state slogan, "Virginia is for Lovers", has been used since 1969 and is featured on the state's welcome signs.

During the American Civil War, Virginia was split when the state government in Richmond joined the Confederacy, but many of the state's northwestern counties wanted to remain with the Union, helping form the state of West Virginia in 1863.

After the capture of Richmond that month, the state capital was briefly moved to Lynchburg, while the Confederate leadership fled to Danville.

Sheridan's charge at Five Forks
(lithograph published c.1886)

Battle of Five Forks

2 links

Sheridan's charge at Five Forks
(lithograph published c.1886)
Major General Fitzhugh Lee
Actions at Petersburg before and during the Battle of Five Forks
Major General George Pickett
Major General W. H. F. "Rooney" Lee
Brigadier General (Brevet Major General) George Armstrong Custer
Major General Philip Sheridan
Colonel Thomas T. Munford
Brigadier General Romeyn B. Ayres
Major General Gouverneur K. Warren
Brigadier General Edgar Gregory
Brigadier General Charles Griffin
National Park Service markers for the Battle of Five Forks, looking south
Artillery position, from which General Lee observed the final Federal attack

The Battle of Five Forks was fought on April 1, 1865, southwest of Petersburg, Virginia, around the road junction of Five Forks, Dinwiddie County, at the end of the Siege of Petersburg, near the conclusion of the American Civil War.

Shenandoah Valley operations, May&ndash;July 1864

Valley campaigns of 1864

2 links

Shenandoah Valley operations, May&ndash;July 1864
The ruins of the Virginia Military Institute after Hunter's Raid in 1864.
Shenandoah Valley operations, August&ndash;October 1864
Sheridan's final charge at Winchester

The Valley campaigns of 1864 began as operations initiated by Union Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant and resulting battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia during the American Civil War from May to October 1864.

After his missions of neutralizing Early and suppressing the Valley's military-related economy, Sheridan returned to assist Grant at Petersburg.

Jim Lighthizer at Slaughter Pen Farm

American Battlefield Trust

3 links

Jim Lighthizer at Slaughter Pen Farm
CWPT Preserved Land at Chancellorsville
A billboard drawing attention to the proposed casino at Gettysburg
Volunteers help clean up the battlefields on Park Day

The American Battlefield Trust is a charitable organization (501(c)(3)) whose primary focus is in the preservation of battlefields of the American Civil War, the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 through acquisition of battlefield land.

Virginia: Aldie, Appomattox Courthouse, Appomattox Station, Ball's Bluff, Brandy Station, Bristoe Station, Buckland Mills, Cedar Creek, Cedar Mountain, Chancellorsville, Cold Harbor, Cool Spring, Cross Keys, First Deep Bottom, Second Deep Bottom, First Kernstown, Fisher's Hill, Five Forks, Fort Harrison, Fredericksburg, Gaines's Mill, Glendale, Hatcher's Run, High Bridge, J.E.B. Stuart's Birthplace, Kelly's Ford, Lee's Mill, Malvern Hill, Manassas, McDowell, Middleburg, Mine Run, New Market, New Market Heights, North Anna, Petersburg (A.P. Hill death site), Petersburg (Peebles' Farm), Petersburg (The Breakthrough), Port Republic, Rappahannock Station, Ream's Station, Sailor's Creek, Saltville, Second Winchester, Spotsylvania Courthouse, Stafford Civil War Park, Third Winchester, Thoroughfare Gap, Tom's Brook, Totopotomoy Creek, Trevilian Station, Upperville, Ware Bottom Church, White Oak Road, Wilderness, Williamsburg

German soldiers of the 11th Reserve Hussar Regiment fighting from a trench, on the Western Front, 1916

Trench warfare

0 links

Type of land warfare using occupied lines largely comprising military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.

Type of land warfare using occupied lines largely comprising military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.

German soldiers of the 11th Reserve Hussar Regiment fighting from a trench, on the Western Front, 1916
Lines of Torres Vedras
Trenches at the Siege of Vicksburg 1863
German forward detachments guarding the entrance to a trench line in front of Arras in 1915
Trenches of the 11th Cheshire Regiment at Ovillers-la-Boisselle, on the Somme, July 1916. One sentry keeps watch while the others sleep. Photo by Ernest Brooks
1st Lancashire Fusiliers, in communication trench near Beaumont Hamel, Somme, 1916. Photo by Ernest Brooks
French trench in northeastern France
Trench construction diagram from a 1914 British infantry manual
Indian infantry digging trenches, Fauquissart, France, 9 August 1915.
Soldiers training in trench warfare, with well-defined fire bays connected by offset traverse trenches, with zigzag communication trenches leading to the rear area
Breastwork "trench", Armentières, 1916
Australian light horseman using a periscope rifle, Gallipoli 1915
Aerial view of opposing trench lines between Loos and Hulluch, July 1917. German trenches at the right and bottom, British at the top-left.
American soldiers struggle to pass multiple lines of barbed wire
Soldiers in a trench on the Ortler, at an elevation of 3850 m (1917).
British Mills bomb N°23 Mk II, with rod for launch by rifle
Various trench weapons used by British and Canadian soldiers in WWI on display at the Canadian War Museum
French soldiers with a Sauterelle bomb-throwing crossbow, c. 1915
Vickers machine gun
German soldier with MP 18, 1918
Loading a 15 in howitzer
French soldiers operating a compressed-air trench mortar of 86-millimetre calibre
German trenches in Vimy
French troopers using a periscope, 1915
Distribution of pinard (ration wine) in a French trench in winter, considered important for morale
"Studying French in the Trenches", The Literary Digest, October 20, 1917
Hot shower-bath establishment installed by a French engineer, November 1914
Front Line Anzac
A barber in a French trench
A German machine gun position just after its capture by New Zealand soldiers, with a dead German among the debris, Grevillers, 24 August 1918, Hundred Days Offensive
Stretcher bearers, Passchendaele, August 1917
Dead German soldiers lie in the rubble of a trench destroyed by mine explosion, Messines Ridge, 1917
German Stoßtruppen (stormtroopers) rising from trenches to attack
Explosion of a mine seen from a French position. 1916
Australian infantry wearing WWI gas masks, Ypres, September 1917
This British Mark IV tank displays a "tadpole tail" extension for crossing especially wide trenches, an experiment that was not successful
Failure of a tank to cross an anti-tank trench
Side view diagram of a gun in a retractable turret, in block 3 in Ouvrage Schoenenbourg of the Maginot Line
Soldiers of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force in a trench in Montese during the Italian Campaign of World War II, 1944
A British trench mortar post in North Africa, 1940
Soviet soldiers running through the ruins of Stalingrad, 1942
Iranian Troops in forward trenches during the Iran–Iraq War
Ukrainian soldier in the trenches during the War in Donbass
Afghan and U.S. soldiers provide security while standing behind a blast wall made from HESCO bastions at Zhari district, Kandahar Province, Afghanistan, 2012
British (upper) and German (lower) front line trenches, 1916

Union and Confederate armies employed field works and extensive trench systems in the American Civil War (1861–1865) — most notably in the sieges of Vicksburg (1863) and Petersburg (1864–1865), the latter of which saw the first use by the Union Army of the rapid-fire Gatling gun, the important precursor to modern-day machine guns.