American Colonization Society

colonizationColonization SocietyColony of LiberiaAmerican ColonizationAmerican Emancipation SocietyAmerican Society for Colonizing the Free People of Color in the United StatesAmlovelonization Societyblack settlerscolonies in Africa for freed slavesLiberia
The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America, commonly known as the American Colonization Society (ACS), was a group established in 1816 by Robert Finley of New Jersey which supported the migration of free African Americans to the continent of Africa.wikipedia
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Robert Finley

Dr. Finley
The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America, commonly known as the American Colonization Society (ACS), was a group established in 1816 by Robert Finley of New Jersey which supported the migration of free African Americans to the continent of Africa.
He initiated the American Colonization Society, which later founded Liberia.

Liberia

🇱🇷Republic of LiberiaLBR
Disease was a major problem, with Liberian immigrants suffering the highest mortality rates in accurately recorded human history.
Liberia began as a settlement of the American Colonization Society (ACS), who believed black people would face better chances for freedom and prosperity in Africa than in the United States.

Maryland State Colonization Society

Maryland branch
The ACS was founded by groups otherwise opposed to each other on the issue of slavery, being a coalition made up mostly of evangelicals and Quakers who supported abolition of slavery and believed blacks would face better chances for freedom in Africa than in the United States, and some slaveholders (in the Maryland branch and elsewhere) who saw repatriation as a way to remove free blacks from slave societies and avoid slave rebellions.
The Maryland State Colonization Society was the Maryland branch of the American Colonization Society, an organization founded in 1816 with the purpose of returning free African Americans to what many Southerners considered greater freedom in Africa.

James Forten

sailmaker
The ACS met with immediate and continuing objections from such African-Americans as James Forten and David Walker, who wished to remain in the land of their birth, saw colonization as a racist strategy for protecting slavery and purging the U.S. of its black citizens, and preferred to fight for equal rights at home.
Beginning in 1817, he opposed the colonization movements, particularly that of the American Colonization Society.

Bushrod Washington

Justice WashingtonWashingtonGeorge Washington
Among the society's supporters were Charles Fenton Mercer, Henry Clay, John Randolph, Richard Bland Lee and Bushrod Washington.
Washington was also a co-founder and the president of the American Colonization Society, which intended to promote emigration of freed slaves and free blacks to Africa.

John Randolph of Roanoke

John RandolphCongressman John Randolph of RoanokeRandolph of Roanoke
Among the society's supporters were Charles Fenton Mercer, Henry Clay, John Randolph, Richard Bland Lee and Bushrod Washington.
With mixed feelings about slavery, he was one of the founders of the American Colonization Society in 1816, to send free blacks to a colony in Africa.

James Monroe

MonroePresident MonroePresident James Monroe
American presidents Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, and James Madison were among its supporters. Attendees included James Monroe, Bushrod Washington, Andrew Jackson, Francis Scott Key, and Daniel Webster, with Henry Clay presiding over the meeting.
Monroe supported the founding of colonies in Africa for freed slaves that would eventually form the nation of Liberia, whose capital, Monrovia, is named in his honor.

Liberian Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independencedeclares its independenceIndependence
The ACS had closely controlled the development of Liberia until its declaration of independence.
The Liberian Declaration of Independence is a document adopted by the Liberian Constitutional Convention on July 26, 1847, to announce that the Commonwealth of Liberia, a colony founded and controlled by the private American Colonization Society, was an independent state known as the Republic of Liberia.

David Walker (abolitionist)

David WalkerAppealDavid Walker's ''Appeal
The ACS met with immediate and continuing objections from such African-Americans as James Forten and David Walker, who wished to remain in the land of their birth, saw colonization as a racist strategy for protecting slavery and purging the U.S. of its black citizens, and preferred to fight for equal rights at home.
He specifically targeted groups such as the American Colonization Society, which sought to deport all free and freed blacks from the United States to a colony in Africa (this was how Liberia was established).

Abolitionism in the United States

abolitionistabolitionistsabolitionism
The ACS was founded by groups otherwise opposed to each other on the issue of slavery, being a coalition made up mostly of evangelicals and Quakers who supported abolition of slavery and believed blacks would face better chances for freedom in Africa than in the United States, and some slaveholders (in the Maryland branch and elsewhere) who saw repatriation as a way to remove free blacks from slave societies and avoid slave rebellions.
During the 1820s and 1830s the American Colonization Society (A.C.S.) was the primary vehicle for proposals to "return" black Americans to freedom in Africa, regardless of whether they were native-born in the United States.

Racism in the United States

racismracistracial discrimination
Free-born blacks, freedmen, and their descendants, encountered widespread discrimination in the US of the early 19th century.
During the 1820s and 1830s the American Colonization Society (A.C.S.) was the primary vehicle for proposals to return black Americans to greater freedom and equality in Africa, and in 1821 the A.C.S. established the colony of Liberia, assisting thousands of former African-American slaves and free black people (with legislated limits) to move there from the United States.

Colony

coloniescolonialcolonized
The society in 1821–1822 helped to found a colony on the Pepper Coast of West Africa, as a place for free-born or manumitted American blacks.
🇱🇷 Liberia a colony set up in 1821 by American private citizens for the migration of African American freedmen. Liberian Declaration of Independence from the American Colonization Society on July 26, 1847. It is the second oldest black republic in the world after Haiti.

Francis Scott Key

KeyF. Scott KeyF.S. Key
Attendees included James Monroe, Bushrod Washington, Andrew Jackson, Francis Scott Key, and Daniel Webster, with Henry Clay presiding over the meeting.
Referring to blacks as "a distinct and inferior race of people”, he was a leader of the American Colonization Society which sent freed slaves back to Africa.

Jehudi Ashmun

Jehudi Ashmun, an early leader of the ACS, took steps to lease, annex, or buy tribal lands along the coast and along major rivers leading inland in Africa in 1825 and 1826, where he intended to establish an American empire.
Jehudi Ashmun (April 21, 1794 – August 25, 1828) was an American religious leader and social reformer who became involved in the American Colonization Society.

Republic of Maryland

MarylandMaryland ColonyMaryland in Africa
Mississippi-in-Africa joined Liberia in 1847; the Republic of Maryland, established as a colony in the 1830s, remained independent until 1857 as its state society wanted to maintain a trade monopoly.
The larger American Colonization Society was founded in 1816; it supported the settlement of thousands of free African Americans to their colony based in Monrovia in West Africa, along the coast.

Robert F. Stockton

Robert StocktonCommodore StocktonStockton family
In 1821, Lt. Robert Stockton, Ashmun's predecessor, had pointed a pistol to the head of King Peter, which allowed Stockton to persuade King Peter to sell Cape Montserrado (or Mesurado) and to establish Monrovia.
Stockton along with Dr. Eli Ayers of the American Colonization Society negotiated a treaty that led to the founding of the state of Liberia.

Henry Clay

ClayClay, Henrylawyer and politician of the same name
Among the society's supporters were Charles Fenton Mercer, Henry Clay, John Randolph, Richard Bland Lee and Bushrod Washington.
In 1816, Clay helped establish the American Colonization Society, a group that wanted to establish a colony for free American blacks in Africa.

President of Liberia

PresidentLiberian Presidentcomplete list
In 1847, the legislature of Liberia declared itself an independent state, with J.J. Roberts elected as its first President.
Prior to the independence of Liberia in 1847, executive power in the Commonwealth of Liberia was held by the Governor of Liberia, who was appointed by the American Colonization Society.

James Madison

MadisonPresident MadisonPresident James Madison
American presidents Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, and James Madison were among its supporters.
His will left significant sums to the American Colonization Society, the University of Virginia, and Princeton, as well as $30,000 to his wife, Dolly.

Mississippi-in-Africa

Mississippi-in-Africa joined Liberia in 1847; the Republic of Maryland, established as a colony in the 1830s, remained independent until 1857 as its state society wanted to maintain a trade monopoly.
The American Colonization Society was founded in the United States in 1817 as a joint project by abolitionists and slaveholders to establish a colony for free American blacks in West Africa.

History of slavery

slave tradeslave traderslave trading
Following the American Revolutionary War, the institution of slavery and those bound within it grew, as slaves were naturally increasing; their total number reached four million slaves by the mid-19th century.
The American Colonization Society, the primary vehicle for returning black Americans to greater freedom in Africa, established the colony of Liberia in 1821–23, on the premise that former American slaves would have greater freedom and equality there.

Charles F. Mercer

Charles Fenton Mercer
Among the society's supporters were Charles Fenton Mercer, Henry Clay, John Randolph, Richard Bland Lee and Bushrod Washington.
He was one of the originators of the plan for establishing the Free State of Liberia, and in that context one of the founders of the American Colonization Society in 1816, dedicated to the problem he saw as the most pressing--how to rid the South and North of free blacks.

Abraham Lincoln

LincolnPresident LincolnPresident Abraham Lincoln
Early in his presidency, Abraham Lincoln tried repeatedly to arrange resettlement of the kind the ACS supported, but each arrangement failed.
His stance closely followed Henry Clay in supporting the American Colonization Society program of making the abolition of slavery practical by its advocation and helping the freed slaves to settle in Liberia in Africa.

Joseph Jenkins Roberts

President RobertsJ. J. RobertsJ.J. Roberts
In 1842, Joseph Jenkins Roberts became the first non-white governor of Liberia.
They had an infant child whom they took with them when they emigrated to Liberia, under the auspices of the American Colonization Society.

Paul Cuffee

PaulPaul Cuffe
Paul Cuffee (1759–1817) was a mixed-race, successful Quaker ship owner, and activist descended from Ashanti and Wampanoag parents.
Cuffe was persuaded by Reverends Samuel J. Mills and Robert Finley to help them with the plans of the American Colonization Society (ACS), formed for this purpose.