American Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary WarRevolutionaryAmericanAmerican independenceAmerican Revolutionary WarAmerican War of IndependencerebellionRevolutionary periodthe American Revolution
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.wikipedia
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American Revolutionary War

Revolutionary WarAmerican RevolutionAmerican War of Independence
They defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) in alliance with France and others.
After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies.

Thirteen Colonies

American coloniescoloniescolonial
The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 may also have played a role in the separation of the Thirteen Colonies from England, as colonists wanted to continue migrating west to lands awarded by the Crown for their wartime service.
Grievances with the British government led to the American Revolution, in which the colonies collaborated in forming the Continental Congress.

No taxation without representation

taxation without representationwithout representationa lack of colonial representation
Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765.
"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1700s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.

Gaspee Affair

Gaspee'' AffairGaspée'' AffairGaspee
Protests steadily escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773, during which Patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea. In June 1772, American patriots, including John Brown, burned a British warship that had been vigorously enforcing unpopular trade regulations in what became known as the Gaspee Affair.
The Gaspee Affair was a significant event in the lead-up to the American Revolution.

Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations

Rhode IslandColony of Rhode IslandRhode Island Colony
Protests steadily escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773, during which Patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea.
It was an English colony from 1636 until the American Revolution in 1776, when it became the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations (commonly known simply as Rhode Island).

Colonial history of the United States

colonialcolonial Americacolonial period
Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765.
From 1696 until the end of the American Revolution, colonial affairs were the responsibility of the Board of Trade in partnership with the relevant secretaries of state, which changed from the Secretary of State for the Southern Department to the Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1768.

First Continental Congress

FirstContinental Congress1st Continental Congress
In late 1774, the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Great Britain; other colonists preferred to remain aligned to the Crown and were known as Loyalists or Tories.
The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from twelve of the Thirteen Colonies who met from September 5 to October 26, 1774, at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, early in the American Revolution.

Provincial Congress

Provincial CongressesConfederate Provisional CongressNew Hampshire Provincial Congress
Each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, and from there they built a Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington.
"Provincial Congress" can refer to one of several extra-legal legislative bodies established in some of the Thirteen Colonies early in the American Revolution.

Republicanism in the United States

republicanismrepublicanAmerican republicanism
The Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, and they proclaimed that all men are created equal.
Modern republicanism is a guiding political philosophy of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its founding.

Charleston, South Carolina

CharlestonCharleston, SCCharles Town
The war turned to the American South where the British under the leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilians to take effective control of the territory.
Charleston adopted its present spelling with its incorporation as a city in 1783 at the close of the Revolutionary War.

Boston Tea Party

The Boston Tea PartyTea PartyBoston
Protests steadily escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773, during which Patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea.
The British government responded harshly and the episode escalated into the American Revolution.

Rights of Englishmen

rights as Englishmensuch rightsEnglish liberties
The Continental Congress determined King George's rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists' rights as Englishmen, and they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2, 1776.
Belief in these rights subsequently became a widely-accepted justification for the American Revolution.

George Washington

WashingtonGeneral WashingtonPresident Washington
Each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, and from there they built a Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington.
For his manifold leadership during the American Revolution, he has been called the "Father of His Country".

Liberalism in the United States

liberalliberalsliberalism
The Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, and they proclaimed that all men are created equal.
From the time of the American Revolution to the present day, America has extended liberty to ever broader classes of people.

Sons of Liberty

Son of LibertyAmerican modelBoston Whigs
The Sons of Liberty were formed in 1765.
However, the name was applied to other local separatist groups during the years preceding the American Revolution.

Thomas Hutchinson (governor)

Thomas HutchinsonHutchinsonGovernor Hutchinson
In Boston, the Sons of Liberty burned the records of the vice admiralty court and looted the home of chief justice Thomas Hutchinson.
Thomas Hutchinson (9 September 1711 – 3 June 1780) was a businessman, historian, and a prominent Loyalist politician of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the years before the American Revolution.

Benjamin Franklin

FranklinBen FranklinFranklin, Benjamin
Benjamin Franklin testified in Parliament in 1766 that Americans already contributed heavily to the defense of the Empire.
His efforts proved vital for the American Revolution in securing shipments of crucial munitions from France.

Continental Army

ContinentalContinentalsAmerican
Each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, and from there they built a Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington.
The Continental Army of 1777–80 evolved out of several critical reforms and political decisions that came about when it became apparent that the British were sending massive forces to put an end to the American Revolution. The Continental Congress passed the "Eighty-eight Battalion Resolve", ordering each state to contribute one-battalion regiments in proportion to their population, and Washington subsequently received authority to raise an additional 16 battalions. Enlistment terms extended to three years or to "the length of the war" to avoid the year-end crises that depleted forces (including the notable near-collapse of the army at the end of 1776, which could have ended the war in a Continental, or American, loss by forfeit).

John Hancock

Governor HancockJohn Hancock IIIfirst signer
Meanwhile, a riot broke out in Boston in June 1768 over the seizure of the sloop Liberty, owned by John Hancock, for alleged smuggling.
John Hancock ( – October 8, 1793) was an American merchant, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution.

Seven Years' War

French and Indian WarSeven Year WarThird Silesian or Seven Years' War
Historians typically begin their histories of the American Revolution with the British coalition victory in the Seven Years' War in 1763.
The war restructured not only the European political order, but also affected events all around the world, paving the way for the beginning of later British world supremacy in the 19th century, the rise of Prussia in Germany (eventually replacing Austria as the leading German State), the beginning of tensions in British North America, as well as a clear sign of France's eventual turmoil.

Samuel Adams

Sam AdamsSamuelAdams
This temporarily resolved the crisis, and the boycott of British goods largely ceased, with only the more radical patriots such as Samuel Adams continuing to agitate.
He was a politician in colonial Massachusetts, a leader of the movement that became the American Revolution, and one of the architects of the principles of American republicanism that shaped the political culture of the United States.

Patriot (American Revolution)

PatriotPatriotsWhig
In June 1772, American patriots, including John Brown, burned a British warship that had been vigorously enforcing unpopular trade regulations in what became known as the Gaspee Affair.
Patriots (also known as Revolutionaries, Continentals, Rebels, or American Whigs) were those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rejected British rule during the American Revolution and declared the United States of America as an independent nation in July 1776.

James Otis Jr.

James Otishis son James Jr.
Americans such as James Otis maintained that the Americans were not in fact virtually represented.
James Otis Jr. (February 5, 1725 – May 23, 1783) was a lawyer, political activist, pamphleteer, and legislator in Boston, a member of the Massachusetts provincial assembly, and an early advocate of the Patriot views against British policy which led to the American Revolution.

Sugar Act

tax on sugar1764 Sugar ActCertain Duties in the British Colonies and Plantations in America, etc. Act 1763
Parliament also passed the Sugar Act, imposing customs duties on a number of articles.
These incidents increased the colonists' concerns about the intent of the British Parliament and helped the growing movement that became the American Revolution.

Royal Proclamation of 1763

Royal ProclamationProclamation of 1763Proclamation Line
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 may also have played a role in the separation of the Thirteen Colonies from England, as colonists wanted to continue migrating west to lands awarded by the Crown for their wartime service.
This anger was a foreshadowing of the discontent that would later arise during the American Revolution.