Amidah

Shemoneh 'EsrehShemoneh EsreiAl HaNissimtefillahChazan's repetition of the Amidaheighteen benedictionsElohei Avraham, Elohei Yitzchak ve Elohei Ya`aqovprayersrepetition of the `AmidaRepetition of the Amidah
The Amidah (, Tefilat HaAmidah, "The Standing Prayer"), also called the Shemoneh Esreh, is the central prayer of the Jewish liturgy.wikipedia
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Jewish prayer

servicesprayerprayer service
The Amidah (, Tefilat HaAmidah, "The Standing Prayer"), also called the Shemoneh Esreh, is the central prayer of the Jewish liturgy. The prescribed times for reciting the Amidah thus may come from the times of the public tamid ("eternal") sacrifices that took place in the Temples in Jerusalem.
However, the term tefillah as referenced in the Talmud refers specifically to the Shemoneh Esreh.

Siddur

prayer bookprayer bookssiddurim
This prayer, among others, is found in the siddur, the traditional Jewish prayer book.
A set of eighteen (currently nineteen) blessings called the Shemoneh Esreh or the Amidah (Hebrew, "standing [prayer]"), is traditionally ascribed to the Great Assembly in the time of Ezra, at the end of the Biblical period.

Mussaf

musaf
A fourth Amidah (called Mussaf) is recited on Shabbat, Rosh Chodesh, and Jewish festivals, after the morning Torah reading. The priestly blessing is said in the reader's repetition of the Shacharit Amidah, and at the Mussaf Amidah on Shabbat and Jewish Holidays. On the Shabbat, festivals (i.e., on Yom Tov and on Chol HaMoed), and on Rosh Chodesh, a fourth Amidah prayer is recited, entitled Mussaf ("additional").
Mussaf refers to both the full service (which includes the Amidah and all Jewish prayers that follow that are normally recited during Shacharit) and the Amidah itself that is recited for Mussaf.

Berakhot (tractate)

BerakhotBer.Berachot
The rules governing the composition and recital of the Amidah are discussed primarily in the Talmud, in Chapters 4–5 of Berakhot; in the Mishneh Torah, in chapters 4–5 of Hilkhot Tefilah; and in the Shulchan Aruch, Laws 89–127.
It primarily addresses the rules regarding the Shema (a section of the Torah recited as part of prayer), the Amidah (Silent "standing" prayer), Birkat Hamazon (Grace after Meals), Kiddush (Sanctification ceremony of Shabbat and holidays), Havdalah (ceremony that ends Shabbat and holidays) and other blessings and prayers.

Yom Kippur

Day of AtonementJewish Day of Atonementthe Day of Atonement
A fifth (called Neilah) is recited on Yom Kippur.
The first time in each service takes place during the personal recitation of the Amidah (standing, silent prayer), and the second time during the cantor's repetition of the Amidah (except during the preceding Mincha), in a public recitation.

Great Assembly

Great SynagogueMen of the Great AssemblyAnshei Knesset HaGedolah
To recite the Amidah is a mitzvah de-rabbanan for, according to legend, it was first composed by the Anshei Knesset HaGedolah.
Among the developments in Judaism that are attributed to them are the fixing of the Jewish Biblical canon, including the Book of Ezekiel, Daniel, Esther, and the Twelve Minor Prophets; the introduction of the Feast of Purim; and the institution of the prayer known as the "Shemoneh 'Esreh" as well as the synagogal prayers, rituals, and benedictions.

Torah reading

aliyahreading of the Torahaliyot
A fourth Amidah (called Mussaf) is recited on Shabbat, Rosh Chodesh, and Jewish festivals, after the morning Torah reading.
When the Torah is read in the morning, it comes after Tachanun or Hallel, or, if these are omitted, immediately after the Amidah.

Rosh Chodesh

new moonnew monthchanges in liturgy
A fourth Amidah (called Mussaf) is recited on Shabbat, Rosh Chodesh, and Jewish festivals, after the morning Torah reading. On the Shabbat, festivals (i.e., on Yom Tov and on Chol HaMoed), and on Rosh Chodesh, a fourth Amidah prayer is recited, entitled Mussaf ("additional").
During the evening service of Rosh Chodesh, a prayer Ya'a'le Ve-Yavo is added to the Avodah, the prayer for the restoration of the Temple and a segment of the Amidah.

Sim Shalom

23) Sim Shalom ("Grant Peace") - asks God for peace, goodness, blessings, kindness and compassion. Ashkenazim generally say a shorter version of this blessing at Minchah and Maariv, called Shalom Rav.
Sim Shalom ("Grant Peace") is a blessing that is recited at the end of the morning Amidah in the Ashkenazic tradition.

Birkat haMinim

birkatBirkat Ha-minim
15) Birkat HaMinim ("the sectarians, heretics") - asks God to destroy those in heretical sects (Minuth), who slander Jews and who act as informers against Jews.
It is the 12th of the Eighteen Benedictions or Amidah.

Shalom Rav

23) Sim Shalom ("Grant Peace") - asks God for peace, goodness, blessings, kindness and compassion. Ashkenazim generally say a shorter version of this blessing at Minchah and Maariv, called Shalom Rav.
Shalom Rav (שָׁלוֹם רָב; "Abundant Peace") is a blessing that is recited at the end of the evening Amidah in the Ashkenazic tradition.

Jewish holidays

Yom Tovholidaysholiday
A fourth Amidah (called Mussaf) is recited on Shabbat, Rosh Chodesh, and Jewish festivals, after the morning Torah reading. The priestly blessing is said in the reader's repetition of the Shacharit Amidah, and at the Mussaf Amidah on Shabbat and Jewish Holidays. On the Shabbat, festivals (i.e., on Yom Tov and on Chol HaMoed), and on Rosh Chodesh, a fourth Amidah prayer is recited, entitled Mussaf ("additional").
Abbreviation of the Amidah in the three regular daily services to eliminate requests for everyday needs

Third Temple

TempleJewish Templenew Temple
May it be your will, O my God and God of my fathers, that the Temple be rebuilt speedily in our days, and give us our portion in your Torah, and there we will worship you with reverence as in ancient days and former years.
Prayer for this is a formal part of the Jewish tradition of thrice daily Amidah prayer.

Shacharit

morning prayersmorning prayermorning
The priestly blessing is said in the reader's repetition of the Shacharit Amidah, and at the Mussaf Amidah on Shabbat and Jewish Holidays.
Essentially all agree that Pesukei dezimra, the Shema and its blessings, and the Amidah are major sections.

Gamaliel II

Gamaliel of YavneRabban GamalielRabban Gamaliel II of Yavneh
According to the Talmud, R. Gamaliel II undertook to codify uniformly the public service, directing Simeon ha-Pakoli to edit the blessings (probably in the order they had already acquired) and made it a duty, incumbent on every one, to recite the prayer three times daily. The Talmud indicates that when Rabbi Gamaliel II undertook to uniformly codify the public service and to regulate private devotion, he directed Samuel ha-Katan to write another paragraph inveighing against informers and heretics, which was inserted as the twelfth prayer in modern sequence, making the number of blessings nineteen.
Rabbi Gamaliel II directed Simeon ha-Pakoli to edit the Amidah and make it a duty, incumbent on every one, to recite the prayer three times daily.

Temple in Jerusalem

TempleJewish TempleJerusalem Temple
The prescribed times for reciting the Amidah thus may come from the times of the public tamid ("eternal") sacrifices that took place in the Temples in Jerusalem.
In addition, the Amidah prayer traditionally replaces the Temple's daily tamid and special-occasion Mussaf (additional) offerings (there are separate versions for the different types of sacrifices).

Priestly Blessing

priestly benedictionBirkat KohanimAaronic Blessing
The priestly blessing is said in the reader's repetition of the Shacharit Amidah, and at the Mussaf Amidah on Shabbat and Jewish Holidays.
Among Jews in Israel (except in Galilee), and among most Sephardic Jews worldwide, the ceremony is performed every day during the repetition of the Shacharit and Mussaf Amidah.

Kedushah

kedushaQedushaKeddusha
5) *During the chazzan's repetition, a longer version of the blessing called Kedusha is chanted responsively. The Kedusha is further expanded on Shabbat and Festivals.
The Kedushah is traditionally the third section of all Amidah recitations.

Shmuel ha-Katan

Samuel ha-Katan
The Talmud indicates that when Rabbi Gamaliel II undertook to uniformly codify the public service and to regulate private devotion, he directed Samuel ha-Katan to write another paragraph inveighing against informers and heretics, which was inserted as the twelfth prayer in modern sequence, making the number of blessings nineteen.
Particularly, he wrote the Birkat HaMinim benediction, the 19th blessing in the silent prayer said three times daily, the Amidah.

Judaism

JewishJewsJew
Mainstream Ashkenazi Orthodox Judaism also adds the following prayer to the conclusion of every Amidah:
At the heart of each service is the Amidah or Shemoneh Esrei.

Jewish eschatology

World To ComeeschatologicalOlam HaBa
17) Boneh Yerushalayim ("Builder of Jerusalem") - asks God to rebuild Jerusalem and to restore the Kingdom of David.
Conservative Judaism both affirms belief in the world beyond (as referenced in the Amidah and Maimonides' Thirteen Precepts of Faith) while recognizing that human understanding is limited and we cannot know exactly what the world beyond consists of.

Chol HaMoed

Chol HaMoed Pesachintermediate daysChol Ha'Moed
On the Shabbat, festivals (i.e., on Yom Tov and on Chol HaMoed), and on Rosh Chodesh, a fourth Amidah prayer is recited, entitled Mussaf ("additional").
Ya'aleh v'Yavo is added to the Amidah and Birkat HaMazon on these days.

Book of Life

bookThe Book of Life
These lines invoke God's mercy and pray for inscription in the Book of Life.
According to the Talmud it is open on Rosh Hashanah, as is its analog for the wicked, the Book of the Dead. For this reason extra mention is made for the Book of Life during Amidah recitations during the Days of Awe, the ten days between Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish new year, and Yom Kippur, the day of atonement (the two High Holidays, particularly in the prayer Unetaneh Tokef).

Minyan

minyanimprayer quorumcommunity
In Orthodox and Conservative (Masorti) public worship, the Amidah is first prayed silently by the congregation; it is then repeated aloud by the chazzan (reader), except for the evening Amidah or when a minyan is not present.
Public worship, which consists of the additional readings of Kaddish, Barechu, Kedusha and the Repetition of the Amidah. The treatise Soferim, written in Babylonia in the seventh century, contains a passage (10:7) often interpreted as asserting that in Land of Israel at that time seven men were allowed to hold public services. Correctly interpreted it refers to the repeating of "Kaddish" and "Barechu" at the synagogue for the benefit of late comers, and declares that in Israel such a repetition is permitted only when seven (according to others, when six) men are present who have not yet heard these responsive readings.

Purim

Purim KatanShushan PurimPurim Festival
On Hanukkah and Purim, the weekday Amidot are recited, but a special paragraph is inserted into the blessing of Hoda'ah.
Reciting additions, known as Al HaNissim, to the daily prayers and the grace after meals