A report on Ammonia and Amine

Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Amide formation
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Jabir ibn Hayyan
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Liquid ammonia bottle
Household ammonia
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.

Amines are formally derivatives of ammonia (NH3), wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a substituent such as an alkyl or aryl group (these may respectively be called alkylamines and arylamines; amines in which both types of substituent are attached to one nitrogen atom may be called alkylarylamines).

- Amine

Amines can be formed by the reaction of ammonia with alkyl halides or with alcohols.

- Ammonia
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+

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Daniel Rutherford, discoverer of nitrogen

Nitrogen

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Chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7.

Chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7.

Daniel Rutherford, discoverer of nitrogen
The shapes of the five orbitals occupied in nitrogen. The two colours show the phase or sign of the wave function in each region. From left to right: 1s, 2s (cutaway to show internal structure), 2px, 2py, 2pz.
Table of nuclides (Segrè chart) from carbon to fluorine (including nitrogen). Orange indicates proton emission (nuclides outside the proton drip line); pink for positron emission (inverse beta decay); black for stable nuclides; blue for electron emission (beta decay); and violet for neutron emission (nuclides outside the neutron drip line). Proton number increases going up the vertical axis and neutron number going to the right on the horizontal axis.
Molecular orbital diagram of dinitrogen molecule, N2. There are five bonding orbitals and two antibonding orbitals (marked with an asterisk; orbitals involving the inner 1s electrons not shown), giving a total bond order of three.
Solid nitrogen on the plains of Sputnik Planitia on Pluto next to water ice mountains
Structure of [Ru(NH3)5(N2)]2+ (pentaamine(dinitrogen)ruthenium(II)), the first dinitrogen complex to be discovered
Mesomeric structures of borazine, (–BH–NH–)3
Standard reduction potentials for nitrogen-containing species. Top diagram shows potentials at pH 0; bottom diagram shows potentials at pH 14.
Nitrogen trichloride
Nitrogen dioxide at −196 °C, 0 °C, 23 °C, 35 °C, and 50 °C. converts to colourless dinitrogen tetroxide at low temperatures, and reverts to  at higher temperatures.
Fuming nitric acid contaminated with yellow nitrogen dioxide
Schematic representation of the flow of nitrogen compounds through a land environment
A container vehicle carrying liquid nitrogen.

Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen.

Many organic functional groups involve a carbon–nitrogen bond, such as amides (RCONR2), amines (R3N), imines (RC(=NR)R), imides (RCO)2NR, azides (RN3), azo compounds (RN2R), cyanates and isocyanates (ROCN or RCNO), nitrates (RONO2), nitriles and isonitriles (RCN or RNC), nitrites (RONO), nitro compounds (RNO2), nitroso compounds (RNO), oximes (RCR=NOH), and pyridine derivatives.

Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride

Ammonium

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Positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula [NH4]+.

Positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula [NH4]+.

Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride
Formation of ammonium

It is formed by the protonation of ammonia (NH3).

Ammonium is also a general name for positively charged or protonated substituted amines and quaternary ammonium cations ([NR4]+), where one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic groups (indicated by R).

Dimethylamine

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Organic compound with the formula 2NH.

Organic compound with the formula 2NH.

This secondary amine is a colorless, flammable gas with an ammonia-like odor.

Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water

Hydrogen bond

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Primarily electrostatic force of attraction between a hydrogen (H) atom which is covalently bound to a more electronegative "donor" atom or group, and another electronegative atom bearing a lone pair of electrons—the hydrogen bond acceptor (Ac).

Primarily electrostatic force of attraction between a hydrogen (H) atom which is covalently bound to a more electronegative "donor" atom or group, and another electronegative atom bearing a lone pair of electrons—the hydrogen bond acceptor (Ac).

Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
AFM image of naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide molecules on silver-terminated silicon, interacting via hydrogen bonding, taken at 77  K. ("Hydrogen bonds" in the top image are exaggerated by artifacts of the imaging technique. )
An example of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in a self-assembled dimer complex. The hydrogen bonds are represented by dotted lines.
Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in acetylacetone helps stabilize the enol tautomer.
Examples of hydrogen bond donating (donors) and hydrogen bond accepting groups (acceptors)
Cyclic dimer of acetic acid; dashed green lines represent hydrogen bonds
Crystal structure of hexagonal ice. Gray dashed lines indicate hydrogen bonds
Structure of nickel bis(dimethylglyoximate), which features two linear hydrogen-bonds.
The structure of part of a DNA double helix
Hydrogen bonding between guanine and cytosine, one of two types of base pairs in DNA
Para-aramid structure
A strand of cellulose (conformation Iα), showing the hydrogen bonds (dashed) within and between cellulose molecules

For example, hydrogen fluoride—which has three lone pairs on the F atom but only one H atom—can form only two bonds; (ammonia has the opposite problem: three hydrogen atoms but only one lone pair).

The bonds occur between carbonyl and amine groups in the amide repeat unit.

Soaps are weak bases formed by the reaction of fatty acids with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.

Base (chemistry)

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In chemistry, there are three definitions in common use of the word base, known as Arrhenius bases, Brønsted bases, and Lewis bases.

In chemistry, there are three definitions in common use of the word base, known as Arrhenius bases, Brønsted bases, and Lewis bases.

Soaps are weak bases formed by the reaction of fatty acids with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.
Ammonia fumes from aqueous ammonium hydroxide (in test tube) reacting with hydrochloric acid (in beaker) to produce ammonium chloride (white smoke).
Sodium hydroxide
Barium hydroxide

However, there are also other Brønsted bases which accept protons, such as aqueous solutions of ammonia (NH3) or its organic derivatives (amines).

Monochloramine

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Chemical compound with the formula NH2Cl.

Chemical compound with the formula NH2Cl.

Together with dichloramine (NHCl2) and nitrogen trichloride (NCl3), it is one of the three chloramines of ammonia.

In swimming pools, chloramines are formed by the reaction of free chlorine with amine groups present in organic substances, mainly those biological in origin (e.g., urea in sweat and urine).

Lone pairs (shown as pairs of dots) in the Lewis structure of hydroxide

Lone pair

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Sometimes called an unshared pair or non-bonding pair.

Sometimes called an unshared pair or non-bonding pair.

Lone pairs (shown as pairs of dots) in the Lewis structure of hydroxide
Lone pairs in ammonia (A), water (B), and hydrogen chloride (C)
Tetrahedral structure of water
Lone pair trends in group 14 triple bonds
The symmetry-adapted and hybridized lone pairs of H2O

A single lone pair can be found with atoms in the nitrogen group, such as nitrogen in ammonia.

The effect is seen in certain amines, phosphines, sulfonium and oxonium ions, sulfoxides, and even carbanions.

Zinc, a typical metal, reacting with hydrochloric acid, a typical acid

Acid

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Molecule or ion capable of either donating a proton , known as a Brønsted–Lowry acid, or forming a covalent bond with an electron pair, known as a Lewis acid.

Molecule or ion capable of either donating a proton , known as a Brønsted–Lowry acid, or forming a covalent bond with an electron pair, known as a Lewis acid.

Zinc, a typical metal, reacting with hydrochloric acid, a typical acid
Svante Arrhenius
Acetic acid, a weak acid, donates a proton (hydrogen ion, highlighted in green) to water in an equilibrium reaction to give the acetate ion and the hydronium ion. Red: oxygen, black: carbon, white: hydrogen.
Hydrochloric acid (in beaker) reacting with ammonia fumes to produce ammonium chloride (white smoke).
This is an ideal titration curve for alanine, a diprotic amino acid. Point 2 is the first equivalent point where the amount of NaOH added equals the amount of alanine in the original solution.
Carbonated water (H2CO3 aqueous solution) is commonly added to soft drinks to make them effervesce.
Basic structure of an amino acid.
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a carboxylic acid

An example is boron trifluoride (BF3), whose boron atom has a vacant orbital that can form a covalent bond by sharing a lone pair of electrons on an atom in a base, for example the nitrogen atom in ammonia (NH3).

An α-amino acid has a central carbon (the α or alpha carbon) that is covalently bonded to a carboxyl group (thus they are carboxylic acids), an amino group, a hydrogen atom and a variable group.

Methylamine

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Organic compound with a formula of CH3NH2.

Organic compound with a formula of CH3NH2.

This colorless gas is a derivative of ammonia, but with one hydrogen atom being replaced by a methyl group.

It is the simplest primary amine.

Trimethylamine

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Organic compound with the formula N(CH3)3.

Organic compound with the formula N(CH3)3.

It is a colorless, hygroscopic, and flammable tertiary amine.

At higher concentrations it has an ammonia-like odor, and can cause necrosis of mucous membranes on contact.