Amlaíb Cuarán

A coin minted at York in the early 940s, the obverse (left) face shows a triquetra and the legend ANLAF CVNVNCC (King Anlaf, the Old English form of Amlaíb /Óláfr), the reverse (right) face shows a banner, perhaps the Raven banner and the name of the moneyer, as FARMAN MONETA[rius]
Scandinavian settlements in 10th century Ireland
A second style of penny from York from Amlaíb's time, moneyer Æthelfrith, the obverse shows a bird, presumed to be a Raven, the reverse a cross.

Amlaíb mac Sitric (d.

- Amlaíb Cuarán
A coin minted at York in the early 940s, the obverse (left) face shows a triquetra and the legend ANLAF CVNVNCC (King Anlaf, the Old English form of Amlaíb /Óláfr), the reverse (right) face shows a banner, perhaps the Raven banner and the name of the moneyer, as FARMAN MONETA[rius]

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Iona Abbey

Abbey located on the island of Iona, just off the Isle of Mull on the West Coast of Scotland.

Abbey located on the island of Iona, just off the Isle of Mull on the West Coast of Scotland.

Iona Abbey
Panoramic view
Book of Kells: This page (folio 292r) contains the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John
View of the Abbey remains in the late 19th century, showing the Church and claustral buildings as roofless ruins.
The cloisters of Iona Abbey.
The medieval church
Engraving of the ruined abbey church in 1761

However, Iona Abbey was probably not deserted as its continued importance is shown by the death there in 980 of Amlaíb Cuarán, a retired King of Dublin.

Iona shown within Argyll and Bute##Iona shown on a map of Great Britain and Ireland

Iona

Small island in the Inner Hebrides, off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland.

Small island in the Inner Hebrides, off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland.

Iona shown within Argyll and Bute##Iona shown on a map of Great Britain and Ireland
The Bay at the Back of the Ocean
The Book of Kells – Gospel of John
Panoramic view
Enlargement, showing the location of the abbey and monasteries
Iona Marble Quarry
Baile Mòr viewed from the Sound of Iona
alt=Rocky landscape with sea and islands in background|Cathedral Rock, Iona, Samuel Peploe (1920), Aberdeen Art Gallery
alt=Grassy foreground leading to beach, cliffs and sea|Lunga from Iona, Francis Cadell, Aberdeen Art Gallery
alt=Seascape with waves crashing against coastal rocks|Stormy Weather, Iona, Samuel Peploe (ca.1929), Aberdeen Art Gallery
St Martin's Cross (from the 9th century)
Iona Nunnery
Abbey cloisters
Looking towards St. Columba's Bay
Jetty at Baile Mòr

The Norse Rex plurimarum insularum Amlaíb Cuarán died in 980 or 981 whilst in "religious retirement" on Iona.

Tamworth, Staffordshire

Market town and borough in Staffordshire, England, 14 mi north-east of Birmingham and on the West Coast Main Line.

Market town and borough in Staffordshire, England, 14 mi north-east of Birmingham and on the West Coast Main Line.

Coin depicting the head of King Offa
Tamworth Castle
Statue of The Right Honourable Sir Robert Peel
The A5 (Thomas Guy Way) passing through Tamworth, looking south from Glascote
MHV Reliant Scimitar GTE 01
Tamworth town centre seen from the castle
A map of Tamworth and Fazeley
Logo of Tamworth Borough Council
St Editha's Church
Phil Bates & Electric Light Orchestra
Tamworth railway station
Reliant Blue Plaque
Sir Robert Peel
John Rawlet, 1687
Clem Clempson, 2010
Emma Slater, 2013
Marc Albrighton, 2012

This however proved fruitless, as following Æthelstan's death in 939, Tamworth was again plundered and devastated by Viking invaders led by Sitric's son Olaf (later called Amlaíb Cuarán).

Only known type of coin of Olaf Tryggvason, in four known specimens. Imitation of the Crux-type coin of Æthelred the Unready.

Olaf Tryggvason

King of Norway from 995 to 1000.

King of Norway from 995 to 1000.

Only known type of coin of Olaf Tryggvason, in four known specimens. Imitation of the Crux-type coin of Æthelred the Unready.
Statue of Olaf in the city plaza of Trondheim. Between the king's legs lies the head of the slave Tormod Kark, Haakon Jarl's murderer.

In 988, Olaf sailed to England, because a thing had been called by Queen Gyda, sister of Olaf Cuaran, King of Dublin.

Northumbria around 700 AD

Northumbria

Early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdom in what is now Northern England and south-east Scotland.

Early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdom in what is now Northern England and south-east Scotland.

Northumbria around 700 AD
England in 878. The independent rump of the former Kingdom of Northumbria (yellow) was to the north of the Danelaw (pink).
Page from the Lindisfarne Gospels, c. 700, featuring zoomorphic knot-work.
The colophon to the Gospel of Matthew from the Durham Gospel Fragment, featuring non-zoomorphic interlace patterns.
The Book of Kells, (folio 292r), c. 800, showing the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John
Sword pommel from the Bedale Hoard, inlaid with gold foil.
Gosforth Cross, view from the north west
Silver sceatta of Aldfrith of Northumbria (686–705). OBVERSE: +AldFRIdUS, pellet-in-annulet; REVERSE: Lion with forked tail standing left.
Copper alloy styca of King Osberht (YORYM 2001 3265) obverse

He was nominally the ruler of Northumbria from 946, as he succeeded Eadmund, but had to deal with the threat of independent Viking kingdoms under Amlaíb Cuarán and Eric Bloodaxe.

Skuldelev II, a Viking warship built in the Norse–Gaelic community of Dublin (c. undefined 1042)

Uí Ímair

Royal Norse-Gael dynasty which ruled much of the Irish Sea region, the Kingdom of Dublin, the western coast of Scotland, including the Hebrides and some part of Northern England, from the mid 9th century.

Royal Norse-Gael dynasty which ruled much of the Irish Sea region, the Kingdom of Dublin, the western coast of Scotland, including the Hebrides and some part of Northern England, from the mid 9th century.

Skuldelev II, a Viking warship built in the Norse–Gaelic community of Dublin (c. undefined 1042)

Amlaíb Cuarán (died 981)

One of the earliest depictions of Brian on the 1723 publication of Dermot O'Connor's translation of Foras Feasa ar Éirinn.

Brian Boru

Irish king who ended the domination of the High Kingship of Ireland by the Uí Néill and probably ended Viking invasion/domination of Ireland.

Irish king who ended the domination of the High Kingship of Ireland by the Uí Néill and probably ended Viking invasion/domination of Ireland.

One of the earliest depictions of Brian on the 1723 publication of Dermot O'Connor's translation of Foras Feasa ar Éirinn.
Banner reputedly used by Brian of which the Clare GAA colours are based.
Oil painting of Battle of Clontarf by Hugh Frazer 1826
Brian on the Morning of Clontarf
Plaque at Brian Boru's burial place in St. Patrick's Cathedral, (COI), Armagh
Sculpture outside Chapel Royal.
Donough O'Brien, 4th Earl of Thomond

Brian's war against Máel Mórda and Sigtrygg was to be inextricably connected with his complicated marital relations, in particular his marriage to Gormlaith, Máel Mórda's sister and Sigtrygg's mother, who had been in turn the wife of Amlaíb Cuarán, king of Dublin and York, then of Máel Sechnaill, and finally of Brian himself.

The Lia Fáil (Stone of Destiny) atop the Hill of Tara, with the Mound of the Hostages in the background

Hill of Tara

Hill and ancient ceremonial and burial site near Skryne in County Meath, Ireland.

Hill and ancient ceremonial and burial site near Skryne in County Meath, Ireland.

The Lia Fáil (Stone of Destiny) atop the Hill of Tara, with the Mound of the Hostages in the background
Layout of the Hill of Tara
The "Mound of the Hostages"
Area known as "Banqueting Hall"
Kingdom of Mide (c. 900 AD)
A banner protesting against the proposed motorway, 2007
Hill of Tara, Lia Fáil and surrounding landscape
High Cross
Church
Summit
Aerial photograph

In the Annals of Inisfallen (AI980.4) is a description of the Battle of Tara between Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill and the son of Amlaíb Cuarán

"Havelok presents Goldborough to the English people", a 1905 illustration by Henry Justice Ford

Havelok the Dane

Thirteenth-century Middle English romance considered to be part of the Matter of England.

Thirteenth-century Middle English romance considered to be part of the Matter of England.

"Havelok presents Goldborough to the English people", a 1905 illustration by Henry Justice Ford
Havelok's name as it appears in an early fourteenth-century manuscript.
1905 illustration showing the fisherman Grim and his wife, noticing Havelok glowing while he sleeps

The character Havelok may be based upon the historical Amlaíb Cuarán, a 10th-century Norse-Gaelic ruler, and the legend's plot loosely based upon Amlaíb's life, though there is no critical consensus.

Edmund in the late thirteenth-century Genealogical Chronicle of the English Kings

Edmund I

King of the English from 27 October 939 until his death on 26 May 946.

King of the English from 27 October 939 until his death on 26 May 946.

Edmund in the late thirteenth-century Genealogical Chronicle of the English Kings
Map of kingdoms and sub-kingdoms in the tenth century
The name 'Anlaf' as it is shown in ASC C, folio 141v of British Library Cotton MS Tiberius B
Bodleian Library MS. Hatton 30 folio 73v, c. 940–947, last page of a set of commentaries on the Apocalypse inscribed 'Dunstan the abbot gave orders for the writing of this book.'

Guthfrithson was succeeded as king of York by his cousin, Anlaf Sihtricson, who was baptised in 943 with Edmund as his godfather, suggesting that he accepted West Saxon overlordship.