Ammonia

NH 3 anhydrous ammonialiquid ammoniaammoniacal2NH 3 ammonia engineammoniacDivers's solutionNH3131,000,000
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH 3.wikipedia
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Nitrogen

NN 2 dinitrogen
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH 3.
Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen.

List of extremely hazardous substances

extremely hazardous substanceextremely hazardousExtremely Hazardous Substances
It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States, and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities.

Hydrogen

HH 2 hydrogen gas
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH 3.
Most hydrogen is used near the site of its production, the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking) and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market.

Solar System

outer Solar Systeminner Solar Systemouter planets
Although common in nature—both terrestrially and in the outer planets of the Solar System—and in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous in its concentrated form. Ammonia is also found throughout the Solar System on Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, among other places: on smaller, icy bodies such as Pluto, ammonia can act as a geologically important antifreeze, as a mixture of water and ammonia can have a melting point as low as 173 K if the ammonia concentration is high enough and thus allow such bodies to retain internal oceans and active geology at a far lower temperature than would be possible with water alone.
The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are gas giants, being composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are ice giants, being composed mostly of substances with relatively high melting points compared with hydrogen and helium, called volatiles, such as water, ammonia and methane.

Uranus

Uranian34 TauriMagnetosphere of Uranus
Ammonia is also found throughout the Solar System on Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, among other places: on smaller, icy bodies such as Pluto, ammonia can act as a geologically important antifreeze, as a mixture of water and ammonia can have a melting point as low as 173 K if the ammonia concentration is high enough and thus allow such bodies to retain internal oceans and active geology at a far lower temperature than would be possible with water alone.
Uranus' atmosphere is similar to Jupiter's and Saturn's in its primary composition of hydrogen and helium, but it contains more "ices" such as water, ammonia, and methane, along with traces of other hydrocarbons.

Saturn

Atmosphere of SaturnOrbit of SaturnPhainon
Ammonia is also found throughout the Solar System on Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, among other places: on smaller, icy bodies such as Pluto, ammonia can act as a geologically important antifreeze, as a mixture of water and ammonia can have a melting point as low as 173 K if the ammonia concentration is high enough and thus allow such bodies to retain internal oceans and active geology at a far lower temperature than would be possible with water alone.
Saturn has a pale yellow hue due to ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere.

Guano

bat guanowanudroppings
Ammonia and ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in rainwater, whereas ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac), and ammonium sulfate are found in volcanic districts; crystals of ammonium bicarbonate have been found in Ronak guano.
By mass, it is 8–21% nitrogen; the nitrogen content is about 80% uric acid, 10% protein, 7% ammonia, and 0.5% nitrate.

Neptune

NeptunianAtmosphere of NeptuneNeptune-mass
Ammonia is also found throughout the Solar System on Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, among other places: on smaller, icy bodies such as Pluto, ammonia can act as a geologically important antifreeze, as a mixture of water and ammonia can have a melting point as low as 173 K if the ammonia concentration is high enough and thus allow such bodies to retain internal oceans and active geology at a far lower temperature than would be possible with water alone.
Like Jupiter and Saturn, Neptune's atmosphere is composed primarily of hydrogen and helium, along with traces of hydrocarbons and possibly nitrogen, though it contains a higher proportion of "ices" such as water, ammonia and methane.

Jupiter

JovianGioveplanet Jupiter
Ammonia is also found throughout the Solar System on Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, among other places: on smaller, icy bodies such as Pluto, ammonia can act as a geologically important antifreeze, as a mixture of water and ammonia can have a melting point as low as 173 K if the ammonia concentration is high enough and thus allow such bodies to retain internal oceans and active geology at a far lower temperature than would be possible with water alone.
The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapor, ammonia, and silicon-based compounds.

Fertilizer

fertiliserfertilizersnitrogen fertilizer
It is a common nitrogenous waste, particularly among aquatic organisms, and it contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers.
Only some bacteria and their host plants (notably legumes) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N 2 ) by converting it to ammonia.

Properties of water

waterH 2 Owater molecule
Water has a very high specific heat capacity of 4.1814 J/(g·K) at 25 °C – the second highest among all the heteroatomic species (after ammonia), as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65 kJ/mol or 2257 kJ/kg at the normal boiling point), both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules.

Salammoniac

sal ammoniacsal armoniacsal-ammoniac
Ammonia and ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in rainwater, whereas ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac), and ammonium sulfate are found in volcanic districts; crystals of ammonium bicarbonate have been found in Ronak guano.
In any case, that salt ultimately gave ammonia and ammonium compounds their name.

Ammonium

ammonium saltammonium ionNH 4 +
The salts produced by the action of ammonia on acids are known as the and all contain the ammonium ion (NH 4 + ).
It is formed by the protonation of ammonia (NH 3 ).

Lone pair

lone electron pairlone pairsfree electron pair
The nitrogen atom in the molecule has a lone electron pair, which makes ammonia a base, a proton acceptor.
A single lone pair can be found with atoms in the nitrogen group such as nitrogen in ammonia, two lone pairs can be found with atoms in the chalcogen group such as oxygen in water and the halogens can carry three lone pairs such as in hydrogen chloride.

Amine

aminoaminesamino group
Amines can be formed by the reaction of ammonia with alkyl halides, although the resulting -NH 2 group is also nucleophilic and secondary and tertiary amines are often formed as byproducts.
Amines are formally derivatives of ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a substituent such as an alkyl or aryl group (these may respectively be called alkylamines and arylamines; amines in which both types of substituent are attached to one nitrogen atom may be called alkylarylamines).

Nitrogen trichloride

trichloramineageneNCl 3
This yellow, oily, pungent-smelling and explosive liquid is most commonly encountered as a byproduct of chemical reactions between ammonia-derivatives and chlorine (for example, in swimming pools).

Methylamine

monomethylaminemethanaminemethylamines
Methylamine is prepared commercially by the reaction of ammonia with chloromethane, and the reaction of ammonia with 2-bromopropanoic acid has been used to prepare racemic alanine in 70% yield.
This colorless gas is a derivative of ammonia, but with one hydrogen atom being replaced by a methyl group.

Phosphine

phosphinesPH 3 phosphane
The dipole moment is 0.58 D, which increases with substitution of methyl groups in the series: CH 3 PH 2, 1.10 D; (CH 3 ) 2 PH, 1.23 D; (CH 3 ) 3 P, 1.19 D. In contrast, the dipole moments of amines decrease with substitution, starting with ammonia, which has a dipole moment of 1.47 D. The low dipole moment and almost orthogonal bond angles lead to the conclusion that in PH 3 the P-H bonds are almost entirely pσ(P) – sσ(H) and phosphorus 3s orbital contributes little to the bonding between phosphorus and hydrogen in this molecule.

Pnictogen hydride

A stable binary hydride, and the simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell.
Unlike other hydrides such as hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen fluoride, which form acidic aqueous solutions, ammonia dissolves in water to make ammonium hydroxide which is basic (by forming a hydroxide ion as opposed to hydronium).

Relative permittivity

dielectric constantrelative static permittivityrelative dielectric constant
Comparison of the physical properties of NH 3 with those of water shows NH 3 has the lower melting point, boiling point, density, viscosity, dielectric constant and electrical conductivity; this is due at least in part to the weaker hydrogen bonding in NH 3 and because such bonding cannot form cross-linked networks, since each NH 3 molecule has only one lone pair of electrons compared with two for each H 2 O molecule.

Binary compounds of hydrogen

binary compounds with hydrogenhydridestable binary hydride
A stable binary hydride, and the simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell.

Amide

amidesamidationamidated
Amides can be prepared by the reaction of ammonia with carboxylic acid derivatives.
Amide can also refer to azanide (the anion H 2 N −, conjugate base of ammonia) or to an organic amine (an anion R 2 N − ).

Acid

acidicacidityacids
It combines with acids to form salts; thus with hydrochloric acid it forms ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac); with nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, etc. Perfectly dry ammonia will not combine with perfectly dry hydrogen chloride; moisture is necessary to bring about the reaction.
An example is boron trifluoride (BF 3 ), whose boron atom has a vacant orbital which can form a covalent bond by sharing a lone pair of electrons on an atom in a base, for example the nitrogen atom in ammonia (NH 3 ).

Metabolic waste

nitrogenous wasteuricotelicureotelic
It is a common nitrogenous waste, particularly among aquatic organisms, and it contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers.
They are ammonia, urea, uric acid, and creatinine.

Lithium amide

LiNH 2 amides
For example, lithium dissolves in liquid ammonia to give a solution of lithium amide:
Lithium amide can be made by treating lithium metal to liquid ammonia: