A report on Ammonia and Atmosphere of Earth

Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
NASA photo showing Earth's atmosphere at sunset, with Earth silhouetted
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Jabir ibn Hayyan
Composition of Earth's atmosphere by molecular count, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.0434% of the atmosphere (0.0442% at August 2021 concentrations ). Numbers are mainly from 2000, with and methane from 2019, and do not represent any single source.
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
Mean atmospheric water vapor
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
The mole fraction of the main constituents of the Earth's atmosphere as a function of height according to the MSIS-E-90 atmospheric model.
Liquid ammonia bottle
Earth's atmosphere Lower 4 layers of the atmosphere in 3 dimensions as seen diagonally from above the exobase. Layers drawn to scale, objects within the layers are not to scale. Aurorae shown here at the bottom of the thermosphere can actually form at any altitude in this atmospheric layer.
Household ammonia
orbiting in the thermosphere. Because of the angle of the photo, it appears to straddle the stratosphere and mesosphere that actually lie more than 250 km below. The orange layer is the troposphere, which gives way to the whitish stratosphere and then the blue mesosphere.
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
Temperature trends in two thick layers of the atmosphere as measured between January 1979 and December 2005 by microwave sounding units and advanced microwave sounding units on NOAA weather satellites. The instruments record microwaves emitted from oxygen molecules in the atmosphere. Source:
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Temperature and mass density against altitude from the NRLMSISE-00 standard atmosphere model (the eight dotted lines in each "decade" are at the eight cubes 8, 27, 64, ..., 729)
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
Rough plot of Earth's atmospheric transmittance (or opacity) to various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light.
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
Distortive effect of atmospheric refraction upon the shape of the sun at the horizon.
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
An idealised view of three pairs of large circulation cells.
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Oxygen content of the atmosphere over the last billion years
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.

It is lighter than air, its density being 0.589 times that of air.

- Ammonia

There were probably simple hydrides such as those now found in the gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn), notably water vapor, methane and ammonia.

- Atmosphere of Earth
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+

4 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Daniel Rutherford, discoverer of nitrogen

Nitrogen

0 links

Chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7.

Chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7.

Daniel Rutherford, discoverer of nitrogen
The shapes of the five orbitals occupied in nitrogen. The two colours show the phase or sign of the wave function in each region. From left to right: 1s, 2s (cutaway to show internal structure), 2px, 2py, 2pz.
Table of nuclides (Segrè chart) from carbon to fluorine (including nitrogen). Orange indicates proton emission (nuclides outside the proton drip line); pink for positron emission (inverse beta decay); black for stable nuclides; blue for electron emission (beta decay); and violet for neutron emission (nuclides outside the neutron drip line). Proton number increases going up the vertical axis and neutron number going to the right on the horizontal axis.
Molecular orbital diagram of dinitrogen molecule, N2. There are five bonding orbitals and two antibonding orbitals (marked with an asterisk; orbitals involving the inner 1s electrons not shown), giving a total bond order of three.
Solid nitrogen on the plains of Sputnik Planitia on Pluto next to water ice mountains
Structure of [Ru(NH3)5(N2)]2+ (pentaamine(dinitrogen)ruthenium(II)), the first dinitrogen complex to be discovered
Mesomeric structures of borazine, (–BH–NH–)3
Standard reduction potentials for nitrogen-containing species. Top diagram shows potentials at pH 0; bottom diagram shows potentials at pH 14.
Nitrogen trichloride
Nitrogen dioxide at −196 °C, 0 °C, 23 °C, 35 °C, and 50 °C. converts to colourless dinitrogen tetroxide at low temperatures, and reverts to  at higher temperatures.
Fuming nitric acid contaminated with yellow nitrogen dioxide
Schematic representation of the flow of nitrogen compounds through a land environment
A container vehicle carrying liquid nitrogen.

N2 forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere, making it the most abundant uncombined element.

Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen.

A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom

Water

0 links

Inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a solvent ).

Inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a solvent ).

A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
The three common states of matter
Phase diagram of water (simplified)
Tetrahedral structure of water
Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
Water cycle
Overview of photosynthesis (green) and respiration (red)
Water fountain
An environmental science program – a student from Iowa State University sampling water
Total water withdrawals for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes per capita, measured in cubic metres (m³) per year in 2010
A young girl drinking bottled water
Water availability: the fraction of the population using improved water sources by country
Roadside fresh water outlet from glacier, Nubra
Hazard symbol for non-potable water
Water is used for fighting wildfires.
San Andrés island, Colombia
Water can be used to cook foods such as noodles
Sterile water for injection
Band 5 ALMA receiver is an instrument specifically designed to detect water in the universe.
South polar ice cap of Mars during Martian south summer 2000
An estimate of the proportion of people in developing countries with access to potable water 1970–2000
People come to Inda Abba Hadera spring (Inda Sillasie, Ethiopia) to wash in holy water
Icosahedron as a part of Spinoza monument in Amsterdam.
Water requirement per tonne of food product
Irrigation of field crops
Specific heat capacity of water

The water cycle (known scientifically as the hydrologic cycle) refers to the continuous exchange of water within the hydrosphere, between the atmosphere, soil water, surface water, groundwater, and plants.

In inorganic reactions, water is a common solvent, dissolving many ionic compounds, as well as other polar compounds such as ammonia and compounds closely related to water.

This diagram shows types, and size distribution in micrometres (μm), of atmospheric particulate matter.

Particulates

0 links

This diagram shows types, and size distribution in micrometres (μm), of atmospheric particulate matter.
PM2.5 and PM10 compared with a human hair in a graphic from the Environmental Protection Agency
2005 radiative forcings and uncertainties as estimated by the IPCC.
Global aerosol optical thickness. The aerosol scale (yellow to dark reddish-brown) indicates the relative amount of particles that absorb sunlight.
Particulates in the air causing shades of grey and pink in Mumbai during sunset
Solar radiation reduction due to volcanic eruptions
Air pollution measurement station in Emden, Germany
Deaths from air pollution compared to other common causes
Air quality information on PM10 displayed in Katowice, Poland
Air quality trends in the United States
Air quality trends in the western United States
Air quality trends in the southwestern United States
Concentration of PM10 in Europe

Particulates – also known as atmospheric aerosol particles, atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM) or suspended particulate matter (SPM) – are microscopic particles of solid or liquid matter suspended in the air.

In the presence of ammonia, secondary aerosols often take the form of ammonium salts; i.e. ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate (both can be dry or in aqueous solution); in the absence of ammonia, secondary compounds take an acidic form as sulfuric acid (liquid aerosol droplets) and nitric acid (atmospheric gas), all of which probably contribute to the health effects of particulates.

ISS crew member storing samples

International Space Station

0 links

Largest modular space station currently in low Earth orbit.

Largest modular space station currently in low Earth orbit.

ISS crew member storing samples
A comparison between the combustion of a candle on Earth (left) and in a free fall environment, such as that found on the ISS (right)
A 3D plan of the Russia-based MARS-500 complex, used for conducting ground-based experiments that complement ISS-based preparations for a human mission to Mars
Original Jules Verne manuscripts displayed by crew inside the Jules Verne ATV
ISS module Node 2 manufacturing and processing in the Space Station Processing Facility
Animation of the assembly of the International Space Station
The ISS was slowly assembled over more than a decade of spaceflights and crews.
An iconic view of the completed station as seen from Shuttle Atlantis during STS-132, 23 May 2010
Zarya as seen by during STS-88
Unity as seen by during STS-88
Zvezda as seen by during STS-97
The Destiny module being installed on the ISS
Quest Joint Airlock Module
Harmony shown connected to Columbus, Kibo, and Destiny. PMA-2 faces. The nadir and zenith locations are open.
Tranquility in 2011
The Columbus module on the ISS
Kibō Exposed Facility on the right
The Cupola windows with shutters open
Rassvet module with MLM-outfitting equipment (consisting of experiment airlock, radiators, and ERA workpost) at KSC.
MLM outfittings on Rassvet
A wide-angle view of the new module (behind Rassvet) attached to the ROS as seen from the cupola
Modified passive forward port for experiment airlock near the nadir end of Nauka
Leonardo Permanent Multipurpose Module
Progression of the expansion of BEAM
IDA-1 upright
NanoRacks Bishop airlock module installed on the ISS
1637984492234 Progress MS 17 undocking and Nauka nadir temporary docking adapter Removal
Nauka and Prichal docked to ISS
ISS Truss Components breakdown showing Trusses and all ORUs in situ
Construction of the Integrated Truss Structure over New Zealand.
The cancelled Habitation module under construction at Michoud in 1997
The interactions between the components of the ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS)
ISS External Active Thermal Control System (EATCS) diagram
Dragon and Cygnus cargo vessels were docked at the ISS together for the first time in April 2016.
Japan's Kounotori 4 berthing
Commercial Crew Program vehicles Starliner and Dragon
358x358px
The Progress M-14M resupply vehicle approaching the ISS in 2012. More than 50 unpiloted Progress spacecraft have delivered supplies during the lifetime of the station.
, ATV-2, Soyuz TMA-21, and Progress M-10M docked to the ISS, as seen from the departing Soyuz TMA-20
Spare parts are called ORUs; some are externally stored on pallets called ELCs and ESPs.
While anchored on the end of the OBSS during STS-120, astronaut Scott Parazynski performs makeshift repairs to a US solar array that damaged itself when unfolding.
Mike Hopkins during a spacewalk
Engineer Gregory Chamitoff peering out of a window
STS-122 mission specialists working on robotic equipment in the US lab
The crews of Expedition 20 and STS-127 enjoy a meal inside Unity.
Main dining desk in Node 1
Cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin at work inside the Zvezda service module crew quarters
Astronaut Frank De Winne, attached to the TVIS treadmill with bungee cords aboard the ISS
Orbits of the ISS, shown in April 2013
The ISS and HTV photographed from Earth by Ralf Vandebergh
Composite of six photos of the ISS transiting the gibbous Moon
A Commemorative Plaque honouring Space Station Intergovernmental Agreement signed on 28 January 1998
Many ISS resupply spacecraft have already undergone atmospheric re-entry, such as Jules Verne ATV
Technical blueprint of components.
The ISS exterior and steelwork taken on 8 November 2021, from the departing SpaceX Crew-2 capsule.
Diagram structure of International Space Station after installation of solar arrays (as of September 2021).
A 7-gram object (shown in centre) shot at {{convert|7|km/s|ft/s|abbr=on}}, the orbital velocity of the ISS, made this {{convert|15|cm|in|abbr=on}} crater in a solid block of aluminium.
Radar-trackable objects, including debris, with distinct ring of geostationary satellites
Example of risk management: A NASA model showing areas at high risk from impact for the International Space Station.
Skytrack long duration exposure of the ISS
The ISS on its first pass of the night passing nearly overhead shortly after sunset in June 2014
The ISS passing north on its third pass of the night near local midnight in June 2014
The ISS passing west on its fifth pass of the night before sunrise in June 2014

The atmosphere on board the ISS is similar to that of Earth.

The EATCS consists of an internal, non-toxic, water coolant loop used to cool and dehumidify the atmosphere, which transfers collected heat into an external liquid ammonia loop.