A report on Ammonia and Chemical polarity

Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
A water molecule, a commonly used example of polarity. Two charges are present with a negative charge in the middle (red shade), and a positive charge at the ends (blue shade).
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
A diagram showing the bond dipole moments of boron trifluoride. δ- shows an increase in negative charge and δ+ shows an increase in positive charge. Note that the dipole moments drawn in this diagram represent the shift of the valence electrons as the origin of the charge, which is opposite the direction of the actual electric dipole moment.
Jabir ibn Hayyan
The water molecule is made up of oxygen and hydrogen, with respective electronegativities of 3.44 and 2.20. The electronegativity difference polarizes each H–O bond, shifting its electrons towards the oxygen (illustrated by red arrows). These effects add as vectors to make the overall molecule polar.
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
The ammonia molecule, NH3, is polar as a result of its molecular geometry. The red represents partially negatively charged regions.
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Resonance Lewis structures of the ozone molecule
Liquid ammonia bottle
In a molecule of boron trifluoride, the trigonal planar arrangement of three polar bonds results in no overall dipole.
Household ammonia
Carbon dioxide has two polar C-O bonds in a linear geometry.
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
In methane, the bonds are arranged symmetrically (in a tetrahedral arrangement) so there is no overall dipole.
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
This amphiphilic molecule has several polar groups (hydrophilic, water-loving) on the right side and a long nonpolar chain (lipophilic, fat-loving) at the left side. This gives it surfactant properties
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
A micelle{{snd}}the lipophilic ends of the surfactant molecules dissolve in the oil, while the hydrophilic charged ends remain outside in the water phase, shielding the rest of the hydrophobic micelle. In this way, the small oil droplet becomes water-soluble.
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
Phospholipids are effective natural surfactants that have important biological functions
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Cross section view of the structures that can be formed by phospholipids. They can form a micelle and are vital in forming cell membranes
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.

This shape gives the molecule a dipole moment and makes it polar.

- Ammonia

Ammonia, NH3, is a molecule whose three N−H bonds have only a slight polarity (toward the more electronegative nitrogen atom).

- Chemical polarity
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Heat of vaporization of water from melting to critical temperature

Properties of water

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Heat of vaporization of water from melting to critical temperature
Density of ice and water as a function of temperature
Temperature distribution in a lake in summer and winter
WOA surface density
Red line shows saturation
Vapor pressure diagrams of water
The solid/liquid/vapour triple point of liquid water, ice Ih and water vapor in the lower left portion of a water phase diagram.
A diagram showing the partial charges on the atoms in a water molecule
Dew drops adhering to a spider web
Rain water flux from a canopy. Among the forces that govern drop formation: Surface tension, Cohesion (chemistry), Van der Waals force, Plateau–Rayleigh instability.
This paper clip is under the water level, which has risen gently and smoothly. Surface tension prevents the clip from submerging and the water from overflowing the glass edges.
Temperature dependence of the surface tension of pure water
Presence of colloidal calcium carbonate from high concentrations of dissolved lime turns the water of Havasu Falls turquoise.
Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
Some hydrogen-bonding contacts in FeSO4.7H2O. This metal aquo complex crystallizes with one molecule of "lattice" water, which interacts with the sulfate and with the [Fe(H2O)6]2+ centers.

Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue.

Water has a very high specific heat capacity of 4184 J/(kg·K) at 20 °C (4182 J/(kg·K) at 25 °C) —the second-highest among all the heteroatomic species (after ammonia), as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65 kJ/mol or 2257 kJ/kg at the normal boiling point), both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules.

Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated

Alkali metal

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The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).

The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).

Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner was among the first to notice similarities between what are now known as the alkali metals.
Lepidolite, the rubidium mineral from which rubidium was first isolated
Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic system proposed in 1871 showing hydrogen and the alkali metals as part of his group I, along with copper, silver, and gold
Estimated abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar system. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (lithium, beryllium, and boron) are rare because they are poorly synthesised in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers, and (2) a general decrease in abundance, as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Spodumene, an important lithium mineral
Effective nuclear charge on an atomic electron
Periodic trend for ionisation energy: each period begins at a minimum for the alkali metals, and ends at a maximum for the noble gases. Predicted values are used for elements beyond 104.
The variation of Pauling electronegativity (y-axis) as one descends the main groups of the periodic table from the second to the sixth period
A reaction of 3 pounds (≈ 1.4 kg) of sodium with water
Liquid NaK alloy at room temperature
Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride. On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but that would be geometrically impossible: thus lithium nitride takes on this unique crystal structure.
Structure of the octahedral n-butyllithium hexamer, (C4H9Li)6. The aggregates are held together by delocalised covalent bonds between lithium and the terminal carbon of the butyl chain. There is no direct lithium–lithium bonding in any organolithium compound.
Solid phenyllithium forms monoclinic crystals can be described as consisting of dimeric Li2(C6H5)2 subunits. The lithium atoms and the ipso carbons of the phenyl rings form a planar four-membered ring. The plane of the phenyl groups are perpendicular to the plane of this Li2C2 ring. Additional strong intermolecular bonding occurs between these phenyllithium dimers and the π electrons of the phenyl groups in the adjacent dimers, resulting in an infinite polymeric ladder structure.
Reduction reactions using sodium in liquid ammonia
Empirical (Na–Cs, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Fr–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) atomic radius of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in angstroms
Empirical (Na–Fr) and predicted (Uue) electron affinity of the alkali metals from the third to the eighth period, measured in electron volts
Empirical (Na–Fr, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Uue–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) ionisation energy of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in electron volts
Similarly to the alkali metals, ammonia reacts with hydrochloric acid to form the salt ammonium chloride.
Very pure thallium pieces in a glass ampoule, stored under argon gas
This sample of uraninite contains about 100,000 atoms (3.3 g) of francium-223 at any given time.
FOCS 1, a caesium atomic clock in Switzerland
Lithium carbonate
A wheel type radiotherapy device which has a long collimator to focus the radiation into a narrow beam. The caesium-137 chloride radioactive source is the blue square, and gamma rays are represented by the beam emerging from the aperture. This was the radiation source involved in the Goiânia accident, containing about 93 grams of caesium-137 chloride.

Not only do the alkali metals react with water, but also with proton donors like alcohols and phenols, gaseous ammonia, and alkynes, the last demonstrating the phenomenal degree of their reactivity.

The chemistry of lithium shows several differences from that of the rest of the group as the small Li+ cation polarises anions and gives its compounds a more covalent character.

The magnetic field of a sphere with a north magnetic pole at the top and a south magnetic pole at the bottom. By comparison, Earth has a south magnetic pole near its north geographic pole and a north magnetic pole near its south pole.

Dipole

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Dipoles, whether electric or magnetic, can be characterized by their dipole moment, a vector quantity.

Dipoles, whether electric or magnetic, can be characterized by their dipole moment, a vector quantity.

The magnetic field of a sphere with a north magnetic pole at the top and a south magnetic pole at the bottom. By comparison, Earth has a south magnetic pole near its north geographic pole and a north magnetic pole near its south pole.
Contour plot of the electrostatic potential of a horizontally oriented electrical dipole of infinitesimal size. Strong colors indicate highest and lowest potential (where the opposing charges of the dipole are located).
Electric field lines of two opposing charges separated by a finite distance.
Magnetic field lines of a ring current of finite diameter.
Field lines of a point dipole of any type, electric, magnetic, acoustic, etc.
The linear molecule CO2 has a zero dipole as the two bond dipoles cancel.
The bent molecule H2O has a net dipole. The two bond dipoles do not cancel.
Resonance Lewis structures of the ozone molecule
Modulus of the Poynting vector for an oscillating electric dipole (exact solution). The two charges are shown as two small black dots.

The overall dipole moment of a molecule may be approximated as a vector sum of bond dipole moments.

NH3 has a dipole moment of 1.42 D