A report on AmmoniaWater and Chlorine

Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
Carl Wilhelm Scheele, discoverer of chlorine
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
The three common states of matter
Chlorine, liquefied under a pressure of 7.4 bar at room temperature, displayed in a quartz ampule embedded in acrylic glass.
Jabir ibn Hayyan
Phase diagram of water (simplified)
Solid chlorine at −150 °C
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
Tetrahedral structure of water
Structure of solid deuterium chloride, with D···Cl hydrogen bonds
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
Hydrated nickel(II) chloride, NiCl2(H2O)6.
Liquid ammonia bottle
Water cycle
Yellow chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas above a solution containing chlorine dioxide.
Household ammonia
Overview of photosynthesis (green) and respiration (red)
Structure of dichlorine heptoxide, Cl2O7, the most stable of the chlorine oxides
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
Water fountain
Suggested mechanism for the chlorination of a carboxylic acid by phosphorus pentachloride to form an acyl chloride
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
An environmental science program – a student from Iowa State University sampling water
Liquid chlorine analysis
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
Total water withdrawals for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes per capita, measured in cubic metres (m³) per year in 2010
Membrane cell process for chloralkali production
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
A young girl drinking bottled water
Ignaz Semmelweis
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Water availability: the fraction of the population using improved water sources by country
Liquid Pool Chlorine
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Roadside fresh water outlet from glacier, Nubra
Chlorine "attack" on an acetal resin plumbing joint resulting from a fractured acetal joint in a water supply system which started at an injection molding defect in the joint and slowly grew until the part failed; the fracture surface shows iron and calcium salts that were deposited in the leaking joint from the water supply before failure and are the indirect result of the chlorine attack
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Hazard symbol for non-potable water
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.
Water is used for fighting wildfires.
San Andrés island, Colombia
Water can be used to cook foods such as noodles
Sterile water for injection
Band 5 ALMA receiver is an instrument specifically designed to detect water in the universe.
South polar ice cap of Mars during Martian south summer 2000
An estimate of the proportion of people in developing countries with access to potable water 1970–2000
People come to Inda Abba Hadera spring (Inda Sillasie, Ethiopia) to wash in holy water
Icosahedron as a part of Spinoza monument in Amsterdam.
Water requirement per tonne of food product
Irrigation of field crops
Specific heat capacity of water

Solvent properties: Ammonia readily dissolves in water. In an aqueous solution, it can be expelled by boiling. The aqueous solution of ammonia is basic. The maximum concentration of ammonia in water (a saturated solution) has a density of 0.880 g/cm3 and is often known as '.880 ammonia'.

- Ammonia

Combustion: Ammonia does not burn readily or sustain combustion, except under narrow fuel-to-air mixtures of 15–25% air. When mixed with oxygen, it burns with a pale yellowish-green flame. Ignition occurs when chlorine is passed into ammonia, forming nitrogen and hydrogen chloride; if chlorine is present in excess, then the highly explosive nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) is also formed.

- Ammonia

Chlorination modifies the physical properties of hydrocarbons in several ways: chlorocarbons are typically denser than water due to the higher atomic weight of chlorine versus hydrogen, and aliphatic organochlorides are alkylating agents because chloride is a leaving group.

- Chlorine

Water for bathing may be maintained in satisfactory microbiological condition using chemical disinfectants such as chlorine or ozone or by the use of ultraviolet light.

- Water

In inorganic reactions, water is a common solvent, dissolving many ionic compounds, as well as other polar compounds such as ammonia and compounds closely related to water.

- Water

Hypochlorite bleach (a popular laundry additive) combined with ammonia (another popular laundry additive) produces chloramines, another toxic group of chemicals.

- Chlorine
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+

2 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The Space Shuttle Main Engine burnt hydrogen with oxygen, producing a nearly invisible flame at full thrust.

Hydrogen

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Chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1.

Chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1.

The Space Shuttle Main Engine burnt hydrogen with oxygen, producing a nearly invisible flame at full thrust.
Depiction of a hydrogen atom with size of central proton shown, and the atomic diameter shown as about twice the Bohr model radius (image not to scale)
Hydrogen gas is colorless and transparent, here contained in a glass ampoule.
Phase diagram of hydrogen. The temperature and pressure scales are logarithmic, so one unit corresponds to a 10x change. The left edge corresponds to 105 Pa, which is about atmospheric pressure.
A sample of sodium hydride
Hydrogen discharge (spectrum) tube
Deuterium discharge (spectrum) tube
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier
Hydrogen emission spectrum lines in the visible range. These are the four visible lines of the Balmer series
NGC 604, a giant region of ionized hydrogen in the Triangulum Galaxy
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Most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water and organic compounds.

Most hydrogen is used near the site of its production, the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking) and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market.

It spontaneously reacts with chlorine and fluorine to form hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, respectively.

BMIM+PF6−, an ionic liquid

Salt (chemistry)

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Chemical compound consisting of an ionic assembly of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, which results in a compound with no net electric charge.

Chemical compound consisting of an ionic assembly of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, which results in a compound with no net electric charge.

BMIM+PF6−, an ionic liquid
Edge-on view of portion of crystal structure of hexamethyleneTTF/TCNQ charge transfer salt.
Solid lead(II) sulfate (PbSO4)

Salts that produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are called alkali salts and salts that produce hydrogen ions when dissolved in water are called acid salts.

Salts of strong acids and strong bases ("strong salts") are non-volatile and often odorless, whereas salts of either weak acids or weak bases ("weak salts") may smell like the conjugate acid (e.g., acetates like acetic acid (vinegar) and cyanides like hydrogen cyanide (almonds)) or the conjugate base (e.g., ammonium salts like ammonia) of the component ions.

A metal and a non-metal, e.g., Ca + Cl2 → CaCl2