A report on Ammonia and Chlorine

Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Carl Wilhelm Scheele, discoverer of chlorine
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Chlorine, liquefied under a pressure of 7.4 bar at room temperature, displayed in a quartz ampule embedded in acrylic glass.
Jabir ibn Hayyan
Solid chlorine at −150 °C
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
Structure of solid deuterium chloride, with D···Cl hydrogen bonds
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Hydrated nickel(II) chloride, NiCl2(H2O)6.
Liquid ammonia bottle
Yellow chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas above a solution containing chlorine dioxide.
Household ammonia
Structure of dichlorine heptoxide, Cl2O7, the most stable of the chlorine oxides
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
Suggested mechanism for the chlorination of a carboxylic acid by phosphorus pentachloride to form an acyl chloride
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Liquid chlorine analysis
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
Membrane cell process for chloralkali production
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
Ignaz Semmelweis
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Liquid Pool Chlorine
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Chlorine "attack" on an acetal resin plumbing joint resulting from a fractured acetal joint in a water supply system which started at an injection molding defect in the joint and slowly grew until the part failed; the fracture surface shows iron and calcium salts that were deposited in the leaking joint from the water supply before failure and are the indirect result of the chlorine attack
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.

Combustion: Ammonia does not burn readily or sustain combustion, except under narrow fuel-to-air mixtures of 15–25% air. When mixed with oxygen, it burns with a pale yellowish-green flame. Ignition occurs when chlorine is passed into ammonia, forming nitrogen and hydrogen chloride; if chlorine is present in excess, then the highly explosive nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) is also formed.

- Ammonia

Hypochlorite bleach (a popular laundry additive) combined with ammonia (another popular laundry additive) produces chloramines, another toxic group of chemicals.

- Chlorine
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+

15 related topics with Alpha

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Violet iodine vapour in a flask.

Iodine

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Chemical element with the symbol I and atomic number 53.

Chemical element with the symbol I and atomic number 53.

Violet iodine vapour in a flask.
I2•PPh3 charge-transfer complexes in CH2Cl2. From left to right: (1) I2 dissolved in dichloromethane – no CT complex. (2) A few seconds after excess PPh3 was added – CT complex is forming. (3) One minute later after excess PPh3 was added, the CT complex [Ph3PI]+I− has been formed. (4) Immediately after excess I2 was added, which contains [Ph3PI]+[I3]−.
Structure of solid iodine
Iodine monochloride
Structure of iodine pentoxide
Structure of the oxidising agent 2-iodoxybenzoic acid
Testing a seed for starch with a solution of iodine
Diatrizoic acid, an iodine-containing radiocontrast agent
The thyroid system of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4
Comparison of the iodine content in urine in France (in microgramme/day), for some regions and departments (average levels of urine iodine, measured in micrograms per liter at the end of the twentieth century (1980 to 2000))

Ampère had given some of his sample to English chemist Humphry Davy (1778–1829), who experimented on the substance and noted its similarity to chlorine.

It is often used as a sensitive spot test for ammonia.

The warming influence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased substantially in recent years. The rising presence of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning is the largest overall driver. The relatively smaller but significant warming impact from releases of the most abundantly produced CFCs (CFC11 and CFC12) will continue to persist for many further decades into the future.

Chlorofluorocarbon

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The warming influence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased substantially in recent years. The rising presence of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning is the largest overall driver. The relatively smaller but significant warming impact from releases of the most abundantly produced CFCs (CFC11 and CFC12) will continue to persist for many further decades into the future.
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NASA projection of stratospheric ozone, in Dobson units, if chlorofluorocarbons had not been banned. [[:File:Future ozone layer concentrations.gif|Animated version]].
Ozone-depleting gas trends

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are fully or partly halogenated hydrocarbons that contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivatives of methane, ethane, and propane.

In the late 1920s, Thomas Midgley Jr. improved the process of synthesis and led the effort to use CFC as a refrigerant to replace ammonia (NH3), chloromethane (CH3Cl), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), which are toxic but were in common use.

Fritz Haber, c. 1919

Fritz Haber

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Fritz Haber, c. 1919
Clara Immerwahr
The grave of Fritz and Clara Haber (née Immerwahr) in the Hörnli graveyard of Basel, Switzerland

Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas.

Haber is also considered the "father of chemical warfare" for his years of pioneering work developing and weaponizing chlorine and other poisonous gases during World War I, especially his actions during the Second Battle of Ypres.

The international pictogram for corrosive chemicals.

Corrosive substance

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One that will damage or destroy other substances with which it comes into contact by means of a chemical reaction.

One that will damage or destroy other substances with which it comes into contact by means of a chemical reaction.

The international pictogram for corrosive chemicals.
The international transport pictogram for corrosives.

Some concentrated weak bases, such as ammonia when anhydrous or in a concentrated solution

Electrophilic halogens: elemental fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine, and electrophilic salts such as sodium hypochlorite or N-chloro compounds such as chloramine-T; halide ions are not corrosive, except for fluoride

A pound coin (density ~7.6 g/cm3) floats on mercury due to the combination of the buoyant force and surface tension.

Mercury (element)

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Chemical element with the symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

Chemical element with the symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

A pound coin (density ~7.6 g/cm3) floats on mercury due to the combination of the buoyant force and surface tension.
Mercury-discharge spectral calibration lamp
The symbol for the planet Mercury (☿) has been used since ancient times to represent the element
Native mercury with cinnabar, Socrates mine, Sonoma County, California. Cinnabar sometimes alters to native mercury in the oxidized zone of mercury deposits.
The bulb of a mercury-in-glass thermometer
Amalgam filling
A single-pole, single-throw (SPST) mercury switch
Mercury manometer to measure pressure
Amount of atmospheric mercury deposited at Wyoming's Upper Fremont Glacier over the last 270 years
EPA workers clean up residential mercury spill in 2004
The deep violet glow of a mercury vapor discharge in a germicidal lamp, whose spectrum is rich in invisible ultraviolet radiation.
Skin tanner containing a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and two infrared lamps, which act both as light source and electrical ballast
Assorted types of fluorescent lamps.
The miniaturized Deep Space Atomic Clock is a linear ion-trap-based mercury ion clock, designed for precise and real-time radio navigation in deep space.

Mercury(II) salts form a variety of complex derivatives with ammonia.

Chlorine is produced from sodium chloride (common salt, NaCl) using electrolysis to separate the metallic sodium from the chlorine gas.