Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.
Natural gas burner on a natural-gas-burning stove
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Multiple pathways exist to limit climate change to 1.5 °C or 2 °C in the context of the temperature goals set forth in the Paris Agreement.
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Global greenhouse gas emissions by sector, 2016. For climate change mitigation goals, pathways and mechanisms to effectively transform all sectors have to be developed and implemented at a rapid rate.
Natural gas drilling rig in Texas, USA
Jabir ibn Hayyan
Global CO2 emissions by region from fossil fuels combustion, 2019 (not accounting for extradomestic production / imports-footprints)
Countries by natural gas proven reserves (2014), based on data from The World Factbook
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
The 150 MW Andasol solar power station is a commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity for 7.5 hours after the sun has stopped shining.
The location of shale gas compared to other types of gas deposits
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
The Shepherds Flat Wind Farm is an 845 megawatt (MW) nameplate capacity, wind farm in the US state of Oregon, each turbine is a nameplate 2 or 2.5 MW electricity generator.
Natural gas processing plant in Aderklaa, Lower Austria
Liquid ammonia bottle
The 22,500 MW nameplate capacity Three Gorges Dam in the People's Republic of China, the largest hydroelectric power station in the world.
Schematic flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant
Household ammonia
A comparison of prices over time for energy from nuclear fission and from other sources. Over the presented time, thousands of wind turbines and similar were built on assembly lines in mass production resulting in an economy of scale.
Natural gas extraction by countries in cubic meters per year around 2013
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
Sketch of a possible super grid. The red squares represent the total surfaces needed for solar collectors of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants to provide the present electricity demands.
Polyethylene plastic main being placed in a trench
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
In the European Investment Bank Climate Survey EU citizens said that in Europe, energy should be the most prioritised area of action against climate change.
Construction close to high pressure gas transmission pipelines is discouraged, often with standing warning signs.
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
About 58% of emissions have been absorbed by carbon sinks, including plant growth, soil uptake, and ocean uptake (2020 Global Carbon Budget).
Peoples Gas Manlove Field natural gas storage area in Newcomb Township, Champaign County, Illinois. In the foreground (left) is one of the numerous wells for the underground storage area, with an LNG plant, and above ground storage tanks are in the background (right).
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
World protected area map with total percentage of each country under protection, where countries in lighter colors have more protected land
Manhole for domestic gas supply, London, UK
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Transferring land rights to indigenous inhabitants is argued to efficiently conserve forests.
A Washington, D.C. Metrobus, which runs on natural gas
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Helping existing roots and tree stumps regrow even in long deforested areas is argued to be more efficient than planting trees. Lack of legal ownership to trees by locals is the biggest obstacle preventing regrowth.
The warming influence (called radiative forcing) of long-lived greenhouse gases has nearly doubled in 40 years, with carbon dioxide and methane being the dominant drivers of global warming.
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
(A) Untrawled seamount and (B) a trawled seamount. Bottom trawling has destroyed many coastal habitats, a significant sink of carbon.
A pipeline odorant injection station
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.
Schematic showing both terrestrial and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide emissions from a large point source, for example burning natural gas
Gas network emergency vehicle responding to a major fire in Kyiv, Ukraine
Alstom Citadis (left) and Eurotram (right) trams in Strasbourg on grassed track
Natural gas prices at the Henry Hub in US dollars per million BTUs
Battery electric bus in Montreal
Comparison of natural gas prices in Japan, United Kingdom, and United States, 2007–2011
Outside unit of an air source heat pump
US Natural Gas Marketed Production 1900 to 2012 (US EIA data)
Managed grazing methods are argued to be able to restore grasslands, thereby significantly decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels.
Trends in the top five natural gas-producing countries (US EIA data)
A matrix of the progress in the adoption of management practices and approaches
Bicycles have almost no carbon footprint compared to cars, and canal transport may represent a positive option for certain types of freight in the 21st century.
Carbon emission trade - allowance prices from 2008
The European Investment Bank's Investment Survey 2020 found that firms with active climate policies invest more in energy efficiency.
The European Investment Bank's Investment Survey also found that Western and Northern European firms are more likely to invest in climate mitigation.
More firms plan to invest in climate change mitigation, specifically focusing on low-carbon sectors.
Physical risks of climate change top the list of business concerns for US and EU firms.
Since 1950, world population has tripled.
The emissions of the richest 1% of the global population account for more than twice the combined share of the poorest 50%.
A photo of the September 2019 climate strikes
A typology of discourses aimed at delaying climate change mitigation
Emission responsibility allotments by country/region and industry
Historical and future temperature projections showing importance of mitigating short-lived climate pollutants like methane
Potential emissions from large fossil fuel projects 'carbon bombs' per country
Distribution of committed emissions from developed fossil fuel reserves.
Five broad food policy categories
Emission trading and carbon taxes around the world (2019) 
Carbon emission trading implemented or scheduled
Carbon tax implemented or scheduled
Carbon emission trading or carbon tax under consideration

The most important challenge is to stop burning coal, oil, and gas and use only clean energy.

- Climate change mitigation

Hydrogen may be useful for seasonal energy storage. The low efficiency of 30% of the reconversion to electricity must improve dramatically before hydrogen storage can offer the same overall energy efficiency as batteries. Thermal energy in the conversion process can be used for district heating. For the electricity grid a German study estimated high costs of 0.176 €/KWh for reconversion concluding that substituting the electricity grid expansion entirely with hydrogen reconversion systems does not make sense from an economic standpoint. The concept of solar hydrogen is discussed for remote desert projects where grid connections to demand centers are not available. Because it has more energy per unit volume sometimes it may be better to use hydrogen in ammonia.

- Climate change mitigation

Natural gas is a major feedstock for the production of ammonia, via the Haber process, for use in fertilizer production.

- Natural gas

Targeted efforts to reduce warming quickly by reducing anthropogenic methane emissions is a climate change mitigation strategy supported by the Global Methane Initiative.

- Natural gas

If the process of creating it can be scaled up via purely renewable resources, producing green ammonia, it could make a major difference in avoiding climate change.

- Ammonia

Combined with the energy needed to produce hydrogen and purified atmospheric nitrogen, ammonia production is energy-intensive, accounting for 1 to 2% of global energy consumption, 3% of global carbon emissions, and 3 to 5% of natural gas consumption.

- Ammonia
Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.

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