A report on FertilizerAmmonia and Nitric acid

A farmer spreading manure to improve soil fertility
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Fuming nitric acid contaminated with yellow nitrogen dioxide
World population supported with and without synthetic nitrogen fertilizers.
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Two major resonance representations of HNO3
Founded in 1812, Mirat, producer of manures and fertilizers, is claimed to be the oldest industrial business in Salamanca (Spain).
Jabir ibn Hayyan
Nitric acid in a laboratory
Six tomato plants grown with and without nitrate fertilizer on nutrient-poor sand/clay soil. One of the plants in the nutrient-poor soil has died.
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
Inorganic fertilizer use by region
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Total nitrogenous fertilizer consumption per region, measured in tonnes of total nutrient per year.
Liquid ammonia bottle
An apatite mine in Siilinjärvi, Finland.
Household ammonia
Compost bin for small-scale production of organic fertilizer
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
A large commercial compost operation
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Applying superphosphate fertilizer by hand, New Zealand, 1938
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
Fertilizer burn
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
N-Butylthiophosphoryltriamide, an enhanced efficiency fertilizer.
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Fertilizer use (2018). From FAO's World Food and Agriculture – Statistical Yearbook 2020
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
The diagram displays the statistics of fertilizer consumption in western and central European counties from data published by The World Bank for 2012.
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Runoff of soil and fertilizer during a rain storm
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.
Large pile of phosphogypsum waste near Fort Meade, Florida.
Red circles show the location and size of many dead zones.
Global methane concentrations (surface and atmospheric) for 2005; note distinct plumes

Biologically, it is a common nitrogenous waste, particularly among aquatic organisms, and it contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to 45 percent of the world's food and fertilizers.

- Ammonia

This process was used to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into nitric acid (HNO3), one of several chemical processes generally referred to as nitrogen fixation.

- Fertilizer

Only some bacteria and their host plants (notably legumes) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) by converting it to ammonia.

- Fertilizer

It combines with acids to form salts; thus with hydrochloric acid it forms ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac); with nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, etc. Perfectly dry ammonia gas will not combine with perfectly dry hydrogen chloride gas; moisture is necessary to bring about the reaction.

- Ammonia

Upon adding a base such as ammonia, the color turns orange.

- Nitric acid

The main industrial use of nitric acid is for the production of fertilizers.

- Nitric acid
A farmer spreading manure to improve soil fertility

3 related topics with Alpha


Ammonium nitrate

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Chemical compound with the chemical formula NH4NO3.

Chemical compound with the chemical formula NH4NO3.

It is predominantly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer.

Ca(NO3)2 + 2 NH3 + CO2 + H2O → 2 NH4NO3 + CaCO3

Ammonium nitrate begins decomposition after melting, releasing NOx, HNO3, NH and H2O.

Fritz Haber, 1918

Haber process

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Artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.

Artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.

Fritz Haber, 1918
A historical (1921) high-pressure steel reactor for production of ammonia via the Haber process is displayed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany
First reactor at the Oppau plant in 1913
Profiles of the active components of heterogeneous catalysts; the top right figure shows the profile of a shell catalyst.
Modern ammonia reactor with heat exchanger modules: The cold gas mixture is preheated to reaction temperature in heat exchangers by the reaction heat and cools in turn the produced ammonia.
Energy diagram
Industrial fertilizer plant

The process converts atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3) by a reaction with hydrogen (H2) using a metal catalyst under high temperatures and pressures:

Synthetic ammonia from the Haber process was used for the production of nitric acid, a precursor to the nitrates used in explosives.

The ammonia is used mainly as a nitrogen fertilizer as ammonia itself, in the form of ammonium nitrate, and as urea.

Drops of concentrated sulfuric acid rapidly decompose a piece of cotton towel by dehydration.

Sulfuric acid

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Mineral acid composed of the elements sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen, with the molecular formula H2SO4.

Mineral acid composed of the elements sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen, with the molecular formula H2SO4.

Drops of concentrated sulfuric acid rapidly decompose a piece of cotton towel by dehydration.
Solid state structure of the [D3SO4]+ ion present in [D3SO4]+[SbF6]−, synthesized by using DF in place of HF. (see text)
Rio Tinto with its highly acidic water
Sulfuric acid production in 2000
Acidic drain cleaners usually contain sulfuric acid at a high concentration which turns a piece of pH paper red and chars it instantly, demonstrating both the strong acidic nature and dehydrating property.
An acidic drain cleaner can be used to dissolve grease, hair and even tissue paper inside water pipes.
John Dalton's 1808 sulfuric acid molecule shows a central sulfur atom bonded to three oxygen atoms, or sulfur trioxide, the anhydride of sulfuric acid.
Drops of 98% sulfuric acid char a piece of tissue paper instantly. Carbon is left after the dehydration reaction staining the paper black.
Superficial chemical burn caused by two 98% sulfuric acid splashes (forearm skin)

It is most commonly used in fertilizer manufacture, but is also important in mineral processing, oil refining, wastewater processing, and chemical synthesis.

Similarly, reacting sulfuric acid with potassium nitrate can be used to produce nitric acid and a precipitate of potassium bisulfate.

Reacting the ammonia produced in the thermal decomposition of coal with waste sulfuric acid allows the ammonia to be crystallized out as a salt (often brown because of iron contamination) and sold into the agro-chemicals industry.