A report on Ammonia and Guano

Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
The nest of the Peruvian booby is made of almost pure guano.
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
The Guanay cormorant has historically been the most important producer of guano.
Jabir ibn Hayyan
Man-made Guano Island near Walvis Bay in Namibia
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
The mineral whitlockite, which is found in bat guano
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Chincha Islands where guano was found in abundance. Mining was done on site and ships transported it to Europe.
Liquid ammonia bottle
Advertisement for guano, 1884
Household ammonia
Aerial view of Guano Point. Old tramway headhouse is at the end of dirt road (right). Second tramway tower is more clearly visible, on skyline to right. Bat Cave mine is 2500 ft below, across the canyon.
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
Workers load guano onto a cart in 1865
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
A large colony of Guanay cormorants on South Chincha Island of Peru in 1907
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
A herring gull (Larus argentatus) excreting waste near Île-de-Bréhat.
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
Chinese laborers stand on a partially extracted guano deposit in the Chincha Islands in 1865
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Histoplasmosis endemism map for the U.S.
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
The Ozark cavefish, a species that depends on bat guano as a source of food.
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.

By mass, it is 8–21% nitrogen; the nitrogen content is about 80% uric acid, 10% protein, 7% ammonia, and 0.5% nitrate.

- Guano

Ammonia and ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in rainwater, whereas ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac), and ammonium sulfate are found in volcanic districts; crystals of ammonium bicarbonate have been found in Patagonia guano.

- Ammonia
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+

1 related topic with Alpha


Fritz Haber, 1918

Haber process

0 links

Artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.

Artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.

Fritz Haber, 1918
A historical (1921) high-pressure steel reactor for production of ammonia via the Haber process is displayed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany
First reactor at the Oppau plant in 1913
Profiles of the active components of heterogeneous catalysts; the top right figure shows the profile of a shell catalyst.
Modern ammonia reactor with heat exchanger modules: The cold gas mixture is preheated to reaction temperature in heat exchangers by the reaction heat and cools in turn the produced ammonia.
Energy diagram
Industrial fertilizer plant

The process converts atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3) by a reaction with hydrogen (H2) using a metal catalyst under high temperatures and pressures:

The main source was mining niter deposits and guano from tropical islands.