A report on LiverAmmonia and Hepatic encephalopathy

The human liver is located in the upper right abdomen
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Micrograph of Alzheimer type II astrocytes, as may be seen in hepatic encephalopathy
The liver, viewed from above, showing the left and right lobes separated by the falciform ligament
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Ball and stick model of ammonia; one nitrogen atom with three hydrogen atoms. Accumulation of ammonia in the bloodstream is associated with hepatic encephalopathy.
The liver, viewed from below, surface showing four lobes and the impressions
Jabir ibn Hayyan
Micrograph of Alzheimer type II astrocytes, as may be seen in hepatic encephalopathy
Impressions of the liver
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
Micrograph showing liver cirrhosis, a condition that often precedes hepatic encephalopathy. Trichrome stain.
Cells, ducts, and blood vessels
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Hilum of the liver, circled in yellow
Liquid ammonia bottle
Shape of human liver in animation, with eight Couinaud segments labelled
Household ammonia
CT scan showing an adult liver in the axial plane.
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
Adult ultrasound showing the right lobe of the liver and right kidney.
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Biliary tract
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
Left lobe liver tumor
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
After resection of left lobe liver tumor
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Maksalaatikko, a Finnish liver casserole
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
19th century drinking scene in Kordofan, home to the Humr tribe, who made a drink from giraffe liver. Plate from Le Désert et le Soudan by Stanislas d'Escayrac de Lauture.
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Sheep's liver
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.
Microscopic anatomy of the liver
Types of capillaries–sinusoid on right
alt=3D Medical Animation Still Shot Depicting parts of liver|3D Medical Animation Still Shot Depicting parts of liver
thumb|left|Liver veins
thumb|right|Diagram of liver, lobule, and portal tract and their inter-relations
Axial CT image showing anomalous hepatic veins coursing on the subcapsular anterior surface of the liver.<ref name="Sheporaitis">{{cite journal|pmid=9843288|year=1998|last1=Sheporaitis|first1=L|last2=Freeny|first2=PC|title=Hepatic and portal surface veins: A new anatomic variant revealed during abdominal CT|volume=171|issue=6|pages=1559–1564|doi=10.2214/ajr.171.6.9843288|journal=AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology}}</ref>
Maximum intensity projection (MIP) CT image as viewed anteriorly showing the anomalous hepatic veins coursing on the anterior surface of the liver
Lateral MIP view in the same patient
A CT scan in which the liver and portal vein are shown.
MDCT image. Arterial anatomy contraindicated for liver donation
MDCT image. Portal venous anatomy contraindicated for liver donation
MDCT image. 3D image created by MDCT can clearly visualize the liver, measure the liver volume, and plan the dissection plane to facilitate the liver transplantation procedure.
Phase contrast CT image. Contrast is perfusing the right liver but not the left due to a left portal vein thrombus.

The underlying mechanism is believed to involve the buildup of ammonia in the blood, a substance that is normally removed by the liver.

- Hepatic encephalopathy

The liver converts ammonia into urea as part of the ornithine cycle or the urea cycle, and the urea is excreted in the urine.

- Liver

Hepatic encephalopathy is caused by an accumulation of toxins in the bloodstream that are normally removed by the liver.

- Liver

The liver converts ammonia to urea through a series of reactions known as the urea cycle.

- Ammonia

Hyperammonemia contributes to the confusion and coma of hepatic encephalopathy, as well as the neurologic disease common in people with urea cycle defects and organic acidurias.

- Ammonia
The human liver is located in the upper right abdomen

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