The Space Shuttle Main Engine burnt hydrogen with oxygen, producing a nearly invisible flame at full thrust.
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Depiction of a hydrogen atom with size of central proton shown, and the atomic diameter shown as about twice the Bohr model radius (image not to scale)
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Hydrogen gas is colorless and transparent, here contained in a glass ampoule.
Jabir ibn Hayyan
Phase diagram of hydrogen. The temperature and pressure scales are logarithmic, so one unit corresponds to a 10x change. The left edge corresponds to 105 Pa, which is about atmospheric pressure.
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
A sample of sodium hydride
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Liquid ammonia bottle
Hydrogen discharge (spectrum) tube
Household ammonia
Deuterium discharge (spectrum) tube
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Hydrogen emission spectrum lines in the visible range. These are the four visible lines of the Balmer series
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
NGC 604, a giant region of ionized hydrogen in the Triangulum Galaxy
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
300x300px
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
300x300px
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
360x360px
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

- Ammonia

Most hydrogen is used near the site of its production, the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking) and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market.

- Hydrogen
The Space Shuttle Main Engine burnt hydrogen with oxygen, producing a nearly invisible flame at full thrust.

12 related topics

Alpha

Fritz Haber, 1918

Haber process

Artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.

Artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.

Fritz Haber, 1918
A historical (1921) high-pressure steel reactor for production of ammonia via the Haber process is displayed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany
First reactor at the Oppau plant in 1913
Profiles of the active components of heterogeneous catalysts; the top right figure shows the profile of a shell catalyst.
Modern ammonia reactor with heat exchanger modules: The cold gas mixture is preheated to reaction temperature in heat exchangers by the reaction heat and cools in turn the produced ammonia.
Energy diagram
Industrial fertilizer plant

The process converts atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3) by a reaction with hydrogen (H2) using a metal catalyst under high temperatures and pressures:

Daniel Rutherford, discoverer of nitrogen

Nitrogen

Chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7.

Chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7.

Daniel Rutherford, discoverer of nitrogen
The shapes of the five orbitals occupied in nitrogen. The two colours show the phase or sign of the wave function in each region. From left to right: 1s, 2s (cutaway to show internal structure), 2px, 2py, 2pz.
Table of nuclides (Segrè chart) from carbon to fluorine (including nitrogen). Orange indicates proton emission (nuclides outside the proton drip line); pink for positron emission (inverse beta decay); black for stable nuclides; blue for electron emission (beta decay); and violet for neutron emission (nuclides outside the neutron drip line). Proton number increases going up the vertical axis and neutron number going to the right on the horizontal axis.
Molecular orbital diagram of dinitrogen molecule, N2. There are five bonding orbitals and two antibonding orbitals (marked with an asterisk; orbitals involving the inner 1s electrons not shown), giving a total bond order of three.
Solid nitrogen on the plains of Sputnik Planitia on Pluto next to water ice mountains
Structure of [Ru(NH3)5(N2)]2+ (pentaamine(dinitrogen)ruthenium(II)), the first dinitrogen complex to be discovered
Mesomeric structures of borazine, (–BH–NH–)3
Standard reduction potentials for nitrogen-containing species. Top diagram shows potentials at pH 0; bottom diagram shows potentials at pH 14.
Nitrogen trichloride
Nitrogen dioxide at −196 °C, 0 °C, 23 °C, 35 °C, and 50 °C. converts to colourless dinitrogen tetroxide at low temperatures, and reverts to  at higher temperatures.
Fuming nitric acid contaminated with yellow nitrogen dioxide
Schematic representation of the flow of nitrogen compounds through a land environment
A container vehicle carrying liquid nitrogen.

Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen.

15N-enriched compounds have the advantage that under standard conditions, they do not undergo chemical exchange of their nitrogen atoms with atmospheric nitrogen, unlike compounds with labelled hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen isotopes that must be kept away from the atmosphere.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele, discoverer of chlorine

Chlorine

Chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

Chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele, discoverer of chlorine
Chlorine, liquefied under a pressure of 7.4 bar at room temperature, displayed in a quartz ampule embedded in acrylic glass.
Solid chlorine at −150 °C
Structure of solid deuterium chloride, with D···Cl hydrogen bonds
Hydrated nickel(II) chloride, NiCl2(H2O)6.
Yellow chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas above a solution containing chlorine dioxide.
Structure of dichlorine heptoxide, Cl2O7, the most stable of the chlorine oxides
Suggested mechanism for the chlorination of a carboxylic acid by phosphorus pentachloride to form an acyl chloride
Liquid chlorine analysis
Membrane cell process for chloralkali production
Ignaz Semmelweis
Liquid Pool Chlorine
Chlorine "attack" on an acetal resin plumbing joint resulting from a fractured acetal joint in a water supply system which started at an injection molding defect in the joint and slowly grew until the part failed; the fracture surface shows iron and calcium salts that were deposited in the leaking joint from the water supply before failure and are the indirect result of the chlorine attack

One of the most reactive chemical compounds known, the list of elements it sets on fire is diverse, containing hydrogen, potassium, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, bromine, iodine, and powdered molybdenum, tungsten, rhodium, iridium, and iron.

Hypochlorite bleach (a popular laundry additive) combined with ammonia (another popular laundry additive) produces chloramines, another toxic group of chemicals.

A range of industrial catalysts in pellet form

Catalysis

Process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst.

Process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst.

A range of industrial catalysts in pellet form
An air filter that utilizes a low-temperature oxidation catalyst to convert carbon monoxide to less toxic carbon dioxide at room temperature. It can also remove formaldehyde from the air.
Generic potential energy diagram showing the effect of a catalyst in a hypothetical exothermic chemical reaction X + Y to give Z. The presence of the catalyst opens a different reaction pathway (shown in red) with a lower activation energy. The final result and the overall thermodynamics are the same.
The microporous molecular structure of the zeolite ZSM-5 is exploited in catalysts used in refineries
Zeolites are extruded as pellets for easy handling in catalytic reactors.
Left: Partially caramelized cube sugar, Right: burning cube sugar with ash as catalyst
levofloxaxin synthesis

An example of heterogeneous catalysis is the reaction of oxygen and hydrogen on the surface of titanium dioxide (TiO2, or titania) to produce water.

For example, in the Haber process, finely divided iron serves as a catalyst for the synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen.

Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water

Hydrogen bond

Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
AFM image of naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide molecules on silver-terminated silicon, interacting via hydrogen bonding, taken at 77  K. ("Hydrogen bonds" in the top image are exaggerated by artifacts of the imaging technique. )
An example of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in a self-assembled dimer complex. The hydrogen bonds are represented by dotted lines.
Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in acetylacetone helps stabilize the enol tautomer.
Examples of hydrogen bond donating (donors) and hydrogen bond accepting groups (acceptors)
Cyclic dimer of acetic acid; dashed green lines represent hydrogen bonds
Crystal structure of hexagonal ice. Gray dashed lines indicate hydrogen bonds
Structure of nickel bis(dimethylglyoximate), which features two linear hydrogen-bonds.
The structure of part of a DNA double helix
Hydrogen bonding between guanine and cytosine, one of two types of base pairs in DNA
Para-aramid structure
A strand of cellulose (conformation Iα), showing the hydrogen bonds (dashed) within and between cellulose molecules

A hydrogen bond (or H-bond) is a primarily electrostatic force of attraction between a hydrogen (H) atom which is covalently bound to a more electronegative "donor" atom or group, and another electronegative atom bearing a lone pair of electrons—the hydrogen bond acceptor (Ac).

For example, hydrogen fluoride—which has three lone pairs on the F atom but only one H atom—can form only two bonds; (ammonia has the opposite problem: three hydrogen atoms but only one lone pair).

A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom

Water

Inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a solvent ).

Inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a solvent ).

A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
The three common states of matter
Phase diagram of water (simplified)
Tetrahedral structure of water
Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
Water cycle
Overview of photosynthesis (green) and respiration (red)
Water fountain
An environmental science program – a student from Iowa State University sampling water
Total water withdrawals for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes per capita, measured in cubic metres (m³) per year in 2010
A young girl drinking bottled water
Water availability: the fraction of the population using improved water sources by country
Roadside fresh water outlet from glacier, Nubra
Hazard symbol for non-potable water
Water is used for fighting wildfires.
San Andrés island, Colombia
Water can be used to cook foods such as noodles
Sterile water for injection
Band 5 ALMA receiver is an instrument specifically designed to detect water in the universe.
South polar ice cap of Mars during Martian south summer 2000
An estimate of the proportion of people in developing countries with access to potable water 1970–2000
People come to Inda Abba Hadera spring (Inda Sillasie, Ethiopia) to wash in holy water
Icosahedron as a part of Spinoza monument in Amsterdam.
Water requirement per tonne of food product
Irrigation of field crops
Specific heat capacity of water

Its chemical formula, H2O, indicates that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds.

In inorganic reactions, water is a common solvent, dissolving many ionic compounds, as well as other polar compounds such as ammonia and compounds closely related to water.

Natural gas burner on a natural-gas-burning stove

Natural gas

Naturally occurring mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons consisting primarily of methane in addition to various smaller amounts of other higher alkanes.

Naturally occurring mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons consisting primarily of methane in addition to various smaller amounts of other higher alkanes.

Natural gas burner on a natural-gas-burning stove
300x300px
Natural gas drilling rig in Texas, USA
Countries by natural gas proven reserves (2014), based on data from The World Factbook
The location of shale gas compared to other types of gas deposits
Natural gas processing plant in Aderklaa, Lower Austria
Schematic flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant
Natural gas extraction by countries in cubic meters per year around 2013
Polyethylene plastic main being placed in a trench
Construction close to high pressure gas transmission pipelines is discouraged, often with standing warning signs.
Peoples Gas Manlove Field natural gas storage area in Newcomb Township, Champaign County, Illinois. In the foreground (left) is one of the numerous wells for the underground storage area, with an LNG plant, and above ground storage tanks are in the background (right).
Manhole for domestic gas supply, London, UK
A Washington, D.C. Metrobus, which runs on natural gas
The warming influence (called radiative forcing) of long-lived greenhouse gases has nearly doubled in 40 years, with carbon dioxide and methane being the dominant drivers of global warming.
A pipeline odorant injection station
Gas network emergency vehicle responding to a major fire in Kyiv, Ukraine
Natural gas prices at the Henry Hub in US dollars per million BTUs
Comparison of natural gas prices in Japan, United Kingdom, and United States, 2007–2011
US Natural Gas Marketed Production 1900 to 2012 (US EIA data)
Trends in the top five natural gas-producing countries (US EIA data)

It contains a variety of calorific gases including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and other volatile hydrocarbons, together with small quantities of non-calorific gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen, and is used in a similar way to natural gas.

Natural gas is a major feedstock for the production of ammonia, via the Haber process, for use in fertilizer production.

Block flow diagram of the ammonia synthesis process

Ammonia production

Block flow diagram of the ammonia synthesis process
Illustrating inputs and outputs of steam reforming of natural gas, a process to produce hydrogen
Illustrating inputs and outputs of methane pyrolysis, a process to produce hydrogen.
Illustrating inputs and outputs of simple electrolysis of water, for production of hydrogen.
The Process to make ammonia from coal

Ammonia is one of the most highly produced inorganic chemicals.

Before the start of World War I, most ammonia was obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous vegetable and animal products; by the reduction of nitrous acid and nitrites with hydrogen; and also by the decomposition of ammonium salts by alkaline hydroxides or by quicklime, the salt most generally used being the chloride (sal-ammoniac).

Molecular cloud Barnard 68, about 500 ly distant and 0.5 ly in diameter

Molecular cloud

Molecular cloud Barnard 68, about 500 ly distant and 0.5 ly in diameter
Circinus molecular cloud has a mass around 250,000 times that of the Sun.
Within a few million years the light from bright stars will have boiled away this molecular cloud of gas and dust. The cloud has broken off from the Carina Nebula. Newly formed stars are visible nearby, their images reddened by blue light being preferentially scattered by the pervasive dust. This image spans about two light-years and was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in 1999.
Part of the Taurus molecular cloud
Distribution of molecular gas in 30 merging galaxies.
Young stars in and around molecular cloud Cepheus B. Radiation from one bright, massive star is destroying the cloud (from top to bottom in this image) while simultaneously triggering the formation of new stars.
The Serpens South star cluster is embedded in a filamentary molecular cloud, seen as a dark ribbon passing vertically through the cluster. This cloud has served as a testbed for studies of molecular cloud stability.
The Milky Way as seen by Gaia, with prominent molecular cloud complex labeled in white, as well as prominent star clouds labeled in black.

A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit absorption nebulae, the formation of molecules (most commonly molecular hydrogen, H2), and the formation of H II regions.

Observationally, typical molecular cores are traced with CO and dense molecular cores are traced with ammonia.

Full disk view in natural colour, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in April 2014

Jupiter

Fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

Fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

Full disk view in natural colour, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in April 2014
♃
Jupiter's diameter is one order of magnitude smaller (×0.10045) than that of the Sun, and one order of magnitude larger (×10.9733) than that of Earth. The Great Red Spot is roughly the same size as Earth.
Diagram of Jupiter, its interior, surface features, rings, and inner moons.
Time-lapse sequence from the approach of Voyager 1, showing the motion of atmospheric bands and circulation of the Great Red Spot. Recorded over 32 days with one photograph taken every 10 hours (once per Jovian day). See [[:File:Jupiter from Voyager 1 PIA02855 max quality.ogv|full size video]].
Close up of the Great Red Spot imaged by the Juno spacecraft in April 2018
The Great Red Spot is decreasing in size (May 15, 2014)
Jupiter (red) completes one orbit of the Sun (centre) for every 11.86 orbits by Earth (blue)
A rotation time-lapse of Jupiter over 3 hours
Model in the Almagest of the longitudinal motion of Jupiter (☉) relative to Earth (🜨)
Galileo Galilei, discoverer of the four largest moons of Jupiter, now known as Galilean moons
Infrared image of Jupiter taken by ESO's Very Large Telescope
Jupiter as seen by the space probe Cassini
A photograph of Jupiter taken by the Juno spacecraft, at the end of a close flyby
(September 2018)
Jupiter, as seen by the Juno spacecraft
(February 12, 2019)
The rings of Jupiter
Diagram showing the Trojan asteroids in Jupiter's orbit, as well as the main asteroid belt
Hubble image taken on July 23, 2009, showing a blemish about 5000 miles long left by the 2009 Jupiter impact event.
Jupiter, woodcut from a 1550 edition of Guido Bonatti's Liber Astronomiae
80px
Infrared view of Jupiter, imaged by the Gemini North telescope in Hawaiʻi on January 11, 2017
Jupiter imaged in visible light by the Hubble Space Telescope on January 11, 2017
Ultraviolet view of Jupiter, imaged by Hubble on January 11, 2017<ref>{{cite web|title=By Jove! Jupiter Shows Its Stripes and Colors|publisher=National Science Foundation|website=NOIRLab|date=May 11, 2021|url=https://noirlab.edu/public/news/noirlab2116/|access-date=June 17, 2021}}</ref>
This image of Jupiter and Europa, taken by Hubble on 25 August 2020, was captured when the planet was 653 million kilometres from Earth.<ref>{{cite web|title=Hubble Finds Evidence of Persistent Water Vapour Atmosphere on Europa|website=ESA Hubble|publisher=European Space Agency|date=October 14, 2021|url=https://esahubble.org/news/heic2111/|access-date=October 26, 2021}}</ref>

Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen, but helium constitutes one-quarter of its mass and one-tenth of its volume.

The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapour, ammonia, and silicon-based compounds.