A report on UranusJupiter and Ammonia

Photograph of Uranus in true colour (by Voyager 2 in 1986)
Full disk view in natural colour, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in April 2014
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Photograph of Uranus in true colour (by Voyager 2 in 1986)
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Jupiter's diameter is one order of magnitude smaller (×0.10045) than that of the Sun, and one order of magnitude larger (×10.9733) than that of Earth. The Great Red Spot is roughly the same size as Earth.
Jabir ibn Hayyan
Diagram of Jupiter, its interior, surface features, rings, and inner moons.
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
Simulated Earth view of Uranus from 1986 to 2030, from southern summer solstice in 1986 to equinox in 2007 and northern summer solstice in 2028.
Time-lapse sequence from the approach of Voyager 1, showing the motion of atmospheric bands and circulation of the Great Red Spot. Recorded over 32 days with one photograph taken every 10 hours (once per Jovian day). See [[:File:Jupiter from Voyager 1 PIA02855 max quality.ogv|full size video]].
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Size comparison of Earth and Uranus
Close up of the Great Red Spot imaged by the Juno spacecraft in April 2018
Liquid ammonia bottle
Diagram of the interior of Uranus
The Great Red Spot is decreasing in size (May 15, 2014)
Household ammonia
Uranus's atmosphere taken during the Outer Planet Atmosphere Legacy (OPAL) program.
Jupiter (red) completes one orbit of the Sun (centre) for every 11.86 orbits by Earth (blue)
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
Aurorae on Uranus taken by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) installed on Hubble.
A rotation time-lapse of Jupiter over 3 hours
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
The magnetic field of Uranus
(animated; 25 March 2020)
Model in the Almagest of the longitudinal motion of Jupiter (☉) relative to Earth (🜨)
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
The first dark spot observed on Uranus. Image obtained by the HST ACS in 2006.
Galileo Galilei, discoverer of the four largest moons of Jupiter, now known as Galilean moons
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
Uranus in 2005. Rings, southern collar and a bright cloud in the northern hemisphere are visible (HST ACS image).
Infrared image of Jupiter taken by ESO's Very Large Telescope
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Major moons of Uranus in order of increasing distance (left to right), at their proper relative sizes and albedos (collage of Voyager 2 photographs)
Jupiter as seen by the space probe Cassini
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Uranus's aurorae against its equatorial rings, imaged by the Hubble telescope. Unlike the aurorae of Earth and Jupiter, those of Uranus are not in line with its poles, due to its lopsided magnetic field.
A photograph of Jupiter taken by the Juno spacecraft, at the end of a close flyby
(September 2018)
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Crescent Uranus as imaged by Voyager 2 while en route to Neptune
Jupiter, as seen by the Juno spacecraft
(February 12, 2019)
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.
The rings of Jupiter
Diagram showing the Trojan asteroids in Jupiter's orbit, as well as the main asteroid belt
Hubble image taken on July 23, 2009, showing a blemish about 5000 miles long left by the 2009 Jupiter impact event.
Jupiter, woodcut from a 1550 edition of Guido Bonatti's Liber Astronomiae
Infrared view of Jupiter, imaged by the Gemini North telescope in Hawaiʻi on January 11, 2017
Jupiter imaged in visible light by the Hubble Space Telescope on January 11, 2017
Ultraviolet view of Jupiter, imaged by Hubble on January 11, 2017<ref>{{cite web|title=By Jove! Jupiter Shows Its Stripes and Colors|publisher=National Science Foundation|website=NOIRLab|date=May 11, 2021|url=https://noirlab.edu/public/news/noirlab2116/|access-date=June 17, 2021}}</ref>
This image of Jupiter and Europa, taken by Hubble on 25 August 2020, was captured when the planet was 653 million kilometres from Earth.<ref>{{cite web|title=Hubble Finds Evidence of Persistent Water Vapour Atmosphere on Europa|website=ESA Hubble|publisher=European Space Agency|date=October 14, 2021|url=https://esahubble.org/news/heic2111/|access-date=October 26, 2021}}</ref>
Jupiter with its moon Europa on the left. Earth's diameter is 11 times smaller than Jupiter, and 4 times larger than Europa.
Formation of Oval BA from three white ovals
Orbit of Jupiter and other outer Solar System planets
Jupiter and four Galilean moons seen through an amateur telescope
Galileo's original observation note of Jupiter moons
Jupiter viewed in infrared by JWST
(July 14, 2022)
Image of Jupiter and its radiation belts in radio
Galileo in preparation for mating with the rocket, 2000
Juno preparing for testing in a rotation stand, 2011
Brown spots mark Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9's impact sites on Jupiter

Uranus is similar in composition to Neptune, and both have bulk chemical compositions which differ from that of the larger gas giants Jupiter and Saturn.

- Uranus

Uranus's atmosphere is similar to Jupiter's and Saturn's in its primary composition of hydrogen and helium, but it contains more "ices" such as water, ammonia, and methane, along with traces of other hydrocarbons.

- Uranus

Ammonia is also found throughout the Solar System on Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, among other places: on smaller, icy bodies such as Pluto, ammonia can act as a geologically important antifreeze, as a mixture of water and ammonia can have a melting point as low as 173 K if the ammonia concentration is high enough and thus allow such bodies to retain internal oceans and active geology at a far lower temperature than would be possible with water alone.

- Ammonia

The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapour, ammonia, and silicon-based compounds.

- Jupiter

Based on spectroscopy, Saturn is thought to be similar in composition to Jupiter, but the other giant planets Uranus and Neptune have relatively less hydrogen and helium and relatively more of the next most common elements, including oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur.

- Jupiter
Photograph of Uranus in true colour (by Voyager 2 in 1986)

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Photograph taken by NASA's Voyager 2 in 1989


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Eighth planet from the Sun and the farthest known solar planet.

Eighth planet from the Sun and the farthest known solar planet.

Photograph taken by NASA's Voyager 2 in 1989
Galileo Galilei
Urbain Le Verrier
A size comparison of Neptune and Earth
Combined colour and near-infrared image of Neptune, showing bands of methane in its atmosphere, and four of its moons, Proteus, Larissa, Galatea, and Despina
Bands of high-altitude clouds cast shadows on Neptune's lower cloud deck.
The Great Dark Spot (top), Scooter (middle white cloud), and the Small Dark Spot (bottom), with contrast exaggerated.
Four images taken a few hours apart with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3
Neptune (red arc) completes one orbit around the Sun (centre) for every 164.79 orbits of Earth. The light blue object represents Uranus.
A diagram showing the major orbital resonances in the Kuiper belt caused by Neptune: the highlighted regions are the 2:3 resonance (plutinos), the nonresonant "classical belt" (cubewanos), and the 1:2 resonance (twotinos).
A simulation showing the outer planets and Kuiper belt: a) before Jupiter and Saturn reached a 2:1 resonance; b) after inward scattering of Kuiper belt objects following the orbital shift of Neptune; c) after ejection of scattered Kuiper belt bodies by Jupiter
Natural-colour view of Neptune with Proteus (top), Larissa (lower right), and Despina (left), from the Hubble Space Telescope
Neptune's moon Proteus
A composite Hubble image showing Hippocamp with other previously discovered inner moons in Neptune's ring system
Neptune's rings
In 2018, the European Southern Observatory developed unique laser-based methods to get clear and high-resolution images of Neptune from the surface of Earth.
A Voyager 2 mosaic of Triton
The appearance of a Northern Great Dark Spot in 2018 is evidence of a huge storm brewing.<ref>{{cite web |title=A storm is coming |url=https://www.spacetelescope.org/images/potw1907a/ |website=spacetelescope.org |access-date=19 February 2019 |language=en |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190220062857/https://www.spacetelescope.org/images/potw1907a/ |archive-date=20 February 2019 |url-status=live }}</ref>
The Northern Great Dark Spot and a smaller companion storm imaged by Hubble in 2020<ref>{{cite web|url=https://hubblesite.org/contents/news-releases/2020/news-2020-59.html|title=Dark Storm on Neptune Reverses Direction, Possibly Shedding Fragment|author1=Michael H. Wong|author2=Amy Simon|publisher=Hubblesite|date=15 December 2020|access-date=25 December 2020|archive-date=25 December 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201225153808/https://hubblesite.org/contents/news-releases/2020/news-2020-59.html|url-status=live}}</ref>
The Great Dark Spot, as imaged by Voyager 2
Neptune's shrinking vortex<ref>{{cite web|title=Neptune's shrinking vortex|url=http://www.spacetelescope.org/images/potw1808a/|website=spacetelescope.org|access-date=19 February 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180219125043/http://www.spacetelescope.org/images/potw1808a/|archive-date=19 February 2018|url-status=live}}</ref>
Physical and chemical composition of Neptune's interior

It is 17 times the mass of Earth, and slightly more massive than its near-twin Uranus.

Like Jupiter and Saturn, Neptune's atmosphere is composed primarily of hydrogen and helium, along with traces of hydrocarbons and possibly nitrogen, though it contains a higher proportion of ices such as water, ammonia and methane.

Neptune's mass of 1.0243 kg is intermediate between Earth and the larger gas giants: it is 17 times that of Earth but just 1/19th that of Jupiter.

Pictured in natural color approaching equinox, photographed by Cassini in July 2008; the dot in the bottom left corner is Titan


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Pictured in natural color approaching equinox, photographed by Cassini in July 2008; the dot in the bottom left corner is Titan
The symbol for Saturn in late Classical (4th & 5th c.) and medieval Byzantine (11th c.) manuscripts, derives from (kappa-rho).
Composite image comparing the sizes of Saturn and Earth
Diagram of Saturn, to scale
Methane bands circle Saturn. The moon Dione hangs below the rings to the right.
A global storm girdles the planet in 2011. The storm passes around the planet, such that the storm's head (bright area) passes its tail.
Saturn and rings as viewed by the Cassini spacecraft (28 October 2016)
A montage of Saturn and its principal moons (Dione, Tethys, Mimas, Enceladus, Rhea and Titan; Iapetus not shown). This image was created from photographs taken in November 1980 by the Voyager 1 spacecraft.
Possible beginning of a new moon (white dot) of Saturn (image taken by Cassini on 15 April 2013)
Galileo Galilei observed the rings of Saturn in 1610, but was unable to determine what they were
Robert Hooke noted the shadows (a and b) cast by both the globe and the rings on each other in this drawing of Saturn in 1666.
Pioneer 11 image of Saturn
At Enceladus's south pole geysers spray water from many locations along the tiger stripes.
Amateur telescopic view of Saturn
Simulated appearance of Saturn as seen from Earth (at opposition) during an orbit of Saturn, 2001–2029
Saturn eclipses the Sun, as seen from Cassini. The rings are visible, including the F Ring.
orientation of its rings
HST Saturn portrait from 20 June 2019
Farewell to Saturn and moons (Enceladus, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Pandora and Prometheus), by Cassini (21 November 2017).

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

Saturn has a pale yellow hue due to ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere.

Its equatorial and polar radii differ by almost 10%: 60,268 km versus 54,364 km. Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune, the other giant planets in the Solar System, are also oblate but to a lesser extent.

The Solar System's four giant planets against the Sun, to scale

Giant planet

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The giant planets constitute a diverse type of planet much larger than Earth.

The giant planets constitute a diverse type of planet much larger than Earth.

The Solar System's four giant planets against the Sun, to scale
Relative masses of the giant planets of the outer Solar System
These cut-aways illustrate interior models of the giant planets. Jupiter is shown with a rocky core overlaid by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen.
Saturn's north polar vortex
An artist's conception of 79 Ceti b, the first extrasolar giant planet found with a minimum mass less than Saturn.
Comparison of sizes of planets of a given mass with different compositions

There are four known giant planets in the Solar System: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

The principal components are hydrogen and helium in the case of Jupiter and Saturn, and water, ammonia and methane in the case of Uranus and Neptune.